Thursday, 22 December 2016

Indo-European and other linguistic families: space for proposals

Dear followers of the blog, respected scholars, here you can add your linguistic proposals concerning the topic of the connection of Indo-European with other linguistic families.

Giacomo Benedetti


  1. We can continue here with proposals about the IE - Sumerian connection. I wish Merry Christmas to everyone.

    The proposal is about Sum. urta, wr. urta "ear of barley" Akk. antu "ear of barley"
    compared to Latin hordeum = (ear of) barley.

    The IE root I think is connected to gher(s)- about "bristle", "horror" etc which Nirjhar connected to the other word for suhur for "hair" (like Lat. hirsutus etc). The American Heritage Dictionary gives the root as the extended zero grade ghrzd- "prickly plant" (old English gorst etc). In Pokorny is ĝherzd(h), Gen. ĝhr̥zd(h)-es; ĝherzdā English meaning "barley, grain", spike German meaning "die Stachlige, das Grannenkorn, Gerste".
    It seems though that the gh- (= h) is missing (perhaps a similar case with the gʷ- in the word for "oak" allanu) compared to gʷel-əno-.)

    1. Yes, I think a pattern will be established of such losses :) .

    2. The loss of h- is very easy of course, also in Romance languages it has been lost (we say orzo for hordeum), although we should see if it is frequent in Sumerian.
      In the list there are three Sum. words starting with h-, none comes from *ǵh- but rather from laryngeal.

      Thank you for the wishes, I know you have Christmas later in Greece, anyway best wishes from Italy!

    3. Thanks a lot for your wishes, actually most of the Orthodox in Greece do celebrate Christmas today; calender is a complicated issue in Orthodox Church.

    4. There is also the prominent god Ninurta (most probably meaning "lord of barley"); also called in Lagash Ningirsu.

      Girsu (Sumerian Ĝirsu) was a Sumerian city situated some 25 km (16 mi) northwest of Lagash.

      So, I guess, the next proposal is for a connection with its name Girsu /Ĝirsu with the IE root for barley.

    5. I meant the root *ghers- [Pokorny's ĝherzd(h)]. This is an interesting passage about the "feasts of barley eating" in ancient Mesopotamia (Nanshe and Ningirsu festivals).

    6. Another name of Ninurta / Ningirsu is Ninib.

      If we consieder that -ib could mean again "barley" (nin means "lord"), then we can imagine this root of Pokorny:

      *i̯eu̯o- English meaning corn; barley, German meaning `Getreide', vor allem `Gerste'
      Grammatical comments General comments
      Derivatives Material
      Ai. yáva- m. `Getreide; Gerste, Hirse' = av. yava- m. `Getreide', npers. jav `Gerste' (= lit. javaĩ); ai. yavya- m. `Fruchtvorrat' (: lit. jáuja `Scheune'); yavasá- n. `Gras, Futter', av. yavaŋha- n. `Weide'; av. yəvīn- m. `Getreidefeld'; hom. att. ζειαί f. Pl. `Spelt', hom. ζείδωρος `Getreide hervorbringend' (für *ζεϝεδωρος), φυσί-ζοος (αια) `Getreide hervorbringend' (: i̯eu̯o-s = εὔ-φρων : φρήν);
      lit. jãvas m. `Getreideart', javaĩ Pl. `Getreide', jáuja `Scheune'.
      References WP. I 202 f., Trautmann 107.

      So, it could be Nin-yew > Nin-yiv > Nin-ib.

  2. Hi everybody ,

    I start this discussion with something pretty interesting from Bomhard . Its apparently missing in PAA .
    210. Proto-Nostratic root *tºow-:
    (vb.) *tºow- ‘to snow’;
    (n.) *tºow-a ‘snow-storm; snow, (hoar)frost’
    A. Proto-Kartvelian *tow- ‘snow’: Georgian tov- ‘to snow’, tov-l-i ‘snow’;
    Mingrelian tu-al-a ‘to snow’, ti-r-i ‘snow’; Laz o-mt-u ‘to snow’, mtu-r-i,
    mtvi-r-i ‘snow’; Svan li-šduw-e ‘to snow’, šduw-a ‘snow-fall’. Klimov
    1964:175—176 *(s÷)to-, *(s÷)towl- and 1998:73 *to(w)- ‘to snow’, *tow-l-
    ‘snow’; Schmidt 1962:115; Fähnrich 2007:197—198 *tow-; Fähnrich—
    Sardshweladse 1995:163—164 *tow-.
    B. Proto-Indo-European *tºow-gº-/*tºu-gº- ‘(hoar)frost, snow’: Sanskrit
    túhinam ‘cold, (hoar)frost, snow; dew, mist’; Avestan taožyō ‘hoarfrost’.
    Mann 1984—1987:1417 *tough- (*toughino-, *tughino-) (?) ‘a hard
    substance, crystal, glass’, 1451—1452 *tughinos, *tughnos ‘stiff, tight,
    compact’; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.I:518; Ulhenbeck 1898—1899.I.114.
    C. Proto-Eskimo *tuvaʀ ‘(lumpy) shore ice’: Central Alaskan Yupik (Nunivak)
    tuvaX ‘(stranded) ice-cake one or more years old’, tuvǝ- ‘to cake up,
    to become lumpy’, tuvlak ‘lump of caked matter (for example, snow)’;
    Naukan Siberian Yupik tuvak ‘shore ice, mooring place’; Central Siberian
    Yupik tuvaq ‘large stretch of shore ice’; Sirenik tuvǝX ‘shore ice’; Seward
    Peninsula Inuit tuaq ‘shore ice’; North Alaskan Inuit tuvaq* ‘shore ice’;
    Western Canadian Inuit tuvaq ‘thick, old land-locked ice’; Eastern
    Canadian Inuit tuvaq ‘ice of frozen sea or lake’; Greenlandic Inuit tuaq
    ‘lump of old ice frozen ice into new ice’, (East Greenlandic) tuaq ‘(sea)
    ice, landfast ice’. Fortescue—Jacobson—Kaplan 1994:356—357.
    Sumerian tu÷û ‘wind, breeze’, tu÷û-a ‘a strong gale’, tu÷û/im-hul ‘a powerful
    thunder-storm’, tu÷û-hul ‘a bad storm’, tu÷û-mer ‘north wind; storm wind’.
    Buck 1949:1.76 snow (vb.); 15.86 cold.
    Its also absent outside Indo-Iranian . I thought this will be a nice way to start this winter season ;) . What you guys think ? ...

    1. He gives Sumerian Sumerian tu15 ‘wind, breeze’,tu15-a ‘a strong gale’,tu15/im-hul,‘a powerful thunder-storm’, tu15-hul , ‘a bad storm’,tu15-mer ‘north wind; storm wind’.

      In the list there is this one :
      Sum. tum(u) 'wind', PIE *dham/dhum- 'to blow', Skt. dham- 'to blow', Parachi dhamā́n, Nuristani Ashkunu domṍ 'wind', Lith. dumiù 'to blow'.

    2. I wonder if this one can be related . Its of unsure etymology:

    3. Regarding Sumerian tum/tu, Starling gives an IE root *dhū- (PIH *dhuH-) Meaning: "to blow, to storm"

      Eurasiatic: *dVwɣV Meaning: to blow, shake

    4. About tough, I was thinking the same, but the result in Germanic is not regular. *t should become th in English, and *gh>g.
      Maybe there is something in Aisl. þoka `Nebel' (from Pokorny, root *teu-g-.

  3. Sum. arada, wr. arad2-damušen "a bird" (Akk. erullu; katīmatu)

    There is no information about the kind of the bird; but I think we can compare it to this one: Latin ardea, Greek erōdios (both meaning "heron") and Serbocroatian roda (meaning "stork"). According to some other view, it may be a loanword.

    From dnghu:
    Root / lemma: arōd-, arǝd-

    English meaning: a kind of waterbird
    German meaning: `ein Wasservogel'

    Material: Gr. ῥωδιός, ἐρωδιός `heron' (ἐρῳδιός folk etymology in ending after -ίδιος), lat. ardea `a heron' ds. (*arǝd-), anord. arta, aschwed. örta `teal', Demin. anord. ertla, norw. erle `wagtail', serb. róda `stork' (*rǝdā́).

    Maybe truncated alb. (*ῥωδιός) rosa, rosë `duck', rika `duckling, duck', rum. (*rada) raţă `duck'.

    Note: Alb. and rum. prove that from Root / lemma: anǝt- : (duck) derived Root / lemma: arōd-, arǝd- : (a kind of waterbird) [common rhotacism n > r]
    References: WP. I 146 f., WH. I 64.
    Page(s): 68

    1. There is Sanskrit tarad ''raft,kind of duck'' . But not sure if can be connected .

  4. This is interesting . We already had the related discussion . In Sumerian there is UTU , in epsd it is given as utu-e3 "sunrise" , utu-šu2-uš; utu-šuš2 "sunset; the West". There is also a ki'utu [LOCUS] ki-dutu "a cultic location; a ritual". Not sure about the ritual . but if we read Bomhard there he gives this :
    233. Proto-Nostratic root *t’ay- (~ *t’ǝy-) or *t’iy- (~ *t’ey-):
    (vb.) *t’ay- or *t’iy- ‘to shine, to gleam, to be bright, to glitter, to glow; to
    burn brightly’;
    (n.) *t’ay-a or *t’iy-a ‘light, brightness, heat’
    A. Dravidian: Tamil tī, tīy ‘to be burnt, charred, blighted’; Malayalam tī ‘fire’;
    Kota ti·y- (ti·c-) ‘to be singed, roasted’; Toda ti·y- (ti·s-) ‘to be singed’, ti·y-
    (ti·c-) ‘to singe, to roast’; Kannaḍa tī ‘to burn, to scorch, to singe, to
    parch’; Telugu tīṇḍrincu, tī͂ḍirincu ‘to shine’, tīṇḍra ‘light, brightness,
    heat’; Brahui tīn ‘scorching, scorching heat’, tīrūnk ‘spark’. Burrow—
    Emeneau 1984:285, no. 3266.
    B. Proto-Indo-European *t’ey-/*t’oy-/*t’i- ‘to shine, to be bright’: Sanskrit
    dī́deti ‘to shine, to be bright; to shine forth, to excel, to please, to be
    admired’, devá-ḥ ‘(n.) a deity, god; (adj.) heavenly, divine’, dyótate ‘to
    shine, to be bright or brilliant’, dyáuḥ ‘heaven, sky, day’, divá-ḥ ‘heaven,
    sky, day’, divyá-ḥ ‘divine, heavenly, celestial; supernatural, wonderful,
    magical; charming, beautiful, agreeable’, dīpyáte ‘to blaze, to flare, to
    shine, to be luminous or illustrious; to glow, to burn’, dīptá-ḥ ‘blazing,
    flaming, hot, shining, bright, brilliant, splendid’, dína-ḥ ‘day’; Greek δῖος
    ‘heavenly; noble, excellent; divine, marvelous’, Ζεύς ‘Zeus, the sky-god’;
    Armenian tiw ‘day’; Latin diēs ‘day’, deus ‘god’; Old Irish die ‘day’; Old
    Icelandic teitr ‘glad, cheerful, merry’, tívorr (pl. tívar) ‘god’; Old English
    Tīw name of a deity identified with Mars; Lithuanian dienà ‘day’, diẽvas
    ‘god’, dailùs ‘refined, elegant, graceful’; Old Church Slavic dьnь ‘day’;
    Hittite (dat.-loc. sg.) šiwatti ‘day’, (gen. sg.) ši-(i-)ú-na-aš ‘god’; Luwian
    (acc. pl.) ti-wa-ri-ya ‘sun’, (nom. sg.) Ti-wa-az name of the sun-god (=
    Sumerian ᵈUTU, Akkadian ŠAMŠU, Hittite Ištanu-); Hieroglyphic Luwian
    SOL-wa/i-za-sa (*Tiwats or *Tiwazas) name of the sun-god; Palaic (nom.
    sg.) Ti-ya-az(-)
    C. Etruscan tin ‘day’, tiu, tiv-, tiur ‘moon, month’; Rhaetic tiu-ti ‘to the
    Sumerian dé ‘to smelt’, dé, dè, dè-dal ‘ashes’, dè, diû ‘glowing embers’, dèdal-
    la ‘torch’, diû ‘to flare up, to light up; to be radiant, shining; to sparkle, to
    Buck 1949:1.51 sky, heavens; 1.52 sun; 1.53 moon; 1.84 ashes; 1.85 burn
    (vb.); 14.41 day; 14.71 month; 15.56 shine; 16.71 good (adj.); 16.81 beautiful
    (also pretty). Caldwell 1913:620. Bomhard—Kerns 1994:303—304, no. 119.
    Different (unlikely) etymology in Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 2241, *tiʔû ‘to
    shine, to be bright, to be seen’.
    Buck 1949:1.51 sky, heavens; 1.52 sun; 1.53 moon; 1.84 ashes; 1.85 burn
    (vb.); 14.41 day; 14.71 month; 15.56 shine; 16.71 good (adj.); 16.81 beautiful
    (also pretty). Caldwell 1913:620. Bomhard—Kerns 1994:303—304, no. 119.
    Different (unlikely) etymology in Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 2241, *tiʔû ‘to
    shine, to be bright, to be seen’.

    Perhaps we have an Indo-European related Sun divinity in Sumerian?.

    1. Sum. diu can be related, but UTU I don't think, it must be connected with Sum. ud 'day, heat, sun'.

    2. dutu? , it sems there si a transcript as dutu or what is it called, I forgot .

    3. d before utu is for dingir "god" (god the sun), it's not a part of the word. There are also similar names in other mythologies:

    4. A similar word is itud [MOON] (36175x: Lagash II, Ur III) wr. itud; itudx(|UD.AN.ŠEŠ.KI|); i3-ti; iti7; i-ti; itudx(|UD@s|); itudx(|UD×BAD|) "month; moon" Akk. arhu.

  5. Giacomo ,

    Bomhard :
    380. Proto-Nostratic root *gin- (~ *gen-) or *ɢin- (~ *ɢen-):
    (vb.) *gin- or *ɢin- ‘to be young, small, weak’;
    (n.) *gin-a or *ɢin-a ‘youth, young one’; (adj.) ‘young, small, weak’
    A. Afrasian: Egyptian gnn ‘to be weak, soft’, gnnwt ‘weakness’ (?); Coptic
    čnon [qnon] ‘to become soft, smooth, weak’. Hannig 1995:901; Faulkner
    1962:290; Gardiner 1957:598; Erman—Grapow 1921:198 and 1926—
    1963.5:174—175; Černý 1976:332; Vycichl 1983:342.
    B. Dravidian: Toda kin ‘small’; Kannaḍa kiŋkini beraḷu ‘little finger’; Koḍagu
    kïṇṇë ‘boy’; Tuḷu kinni ‘small, young; the young of an animal, smallness’,
    kinyavu ‘the young of an animal, a little thing’, kinyappè ‘mother’s
    younger sister’, kinyamme ‘father’s younger brother’, kinkana, kiṇkaṇa ‘a
    little’, kinu̥ru̥, kinaru̥, kinalu̥ ‘a little bit’; Koraga kinnige ‘younger one’,
    kinyo ‘small’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:147, no. 1603.
    Sumerian gen ‘small’, genna ‘child’, genna ‘young, small’, gina ‘heir, child,
    son’, gina ‘small, weak’, ginna ‘child’. (Sumerian loanword in Akkadian ginū
    ‘infant, child’.)

    This reminds me of Sanskrit kaniSTha ''the youngest , younger born ,smallest,lowest etc.

    1. I think the root of Pokorny is ken3:

    2. Yes, the root in Pokorny is this:

      Ai. kanī́na- `jung', Komp. Sup. kánīyas-, kániṣṭha-, kaniṣṭhá-; kanyā̀, Gen. Pl. kanī́nām (alter n-St.) `Mädchen', av. kaine, kainī-, kainīn- ds.;
      gr. καινός `neu, unerhört';
      lat. recens `frisch, jung, neu', eigentlich `gerade vom Ursprung, der Geburt her';
      mir. cinim `entspringe', ciniud `Geschlecht, Stam'; air. cenēl `Geschlecht', acymr. cenetl, ncymr. `Geschlecht, Nation'; vielleicht auch acymr. mcymr. cein, ncymr. cain, mbret. quen, air. - aus dem Brit. - caín `schön' (: gr. καινός `schön' = `jung'?); echt ir. ist căin (*keni-) ds.; mir. cano, cana `Wolfsjunges', cymr. cenau `junger Hund oder Wolf' (*kenəu̯ō: ken-); gall. Cintus, Cintugnātos (`Primigenitus'), air. cētne, cēt- `erster', cymr. usw. cyn(t) `erst, vor, eher', cyntaf `der erste';
      burgund. hendinos `König'; strittig got. hindumists `äußerster, hinterster', ahd. hintana, hintar `hinter', ags. hindema `der letzte' (`novissimus');
      aksl. vъ-, na-čьną, -čęti `anfangen', začęti `ds.; empfangen (vom Weibe)', konъ `Anfang', konьcь `Ende', aksl. čędo `Kind' (wenn nicht Lw. aus nhd. Kind; s. Berneker 154); mit beweglichems- osorb. ščeńo `das letztgeborene Kind', russ. ščenók `junger Hund', aksl. štenę `catulus'.

      What is strange is that the Celtic words meaning 'Geschlecht'='race' seem rather to be connected with the root *ǵan/ǵen- 'to generate'. And so I am tempted to propose for the Sumerian words, considering also that we have the Sum. word 'gan' 'to bear young'. However, one Akkadian translation for genna (şehru) is 'small, young', like the meaning of Dravidian kin and Skt. kan-. Monier-Williams also compares kaṇa 'grain of corn, minute particle'.

  6. Guys, isn't it interesting, that this is only shared between this three language families? :) :
    547. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *k’¦ow-a ‘bullock, ox, cow’:
    A. Dravidian: Telugu kōḍiya, kōḍe ‘young bull’; Kolami kōḍi ‘cow’, kōṛe
    ‘young bullock’; Pengo kōḍi ‘cow’; Manḍa kūḍi ‘cow’; Kui kōḍi ‘cow, ox’;
    Kuwi kōdi, kōḍi ‘cow’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:197, no. 2199.
    B. Proto-Indo-European *k’¦ō̆w- ‘bullock, ox, cow’: Sanskrit gáuḥ ‘bull,
    cow’; Avestan gāuš ‘cow’; Greek (Attic) βοῦς ‘bullock, ox, bull, cow’;
    Armenian kov ‘cow’; Latin bōs ‘ox, bullock, cow’; Umbrian (acc. sg.) bum
    ‘ox’; Old Irish bó ‘cow’; Old Icelandic kýr ‘cow’; Faroese kúgv ‘cow’;
    Norwegian ku, kyr ‘cow’; Swedish ko ‘cow’; Danish ko ‘cow’; Old English
    cū ‘cow’; Old Frisian kū ‘cow’; Old Saxon kō ‘cow’; Dutch koe ‘cow’; Old
    High German chuo ‘cow’ (New High German Kuh); Latvian gùovs ‘cow’;
    Tocharian A ko ‘cow’, B keu ‘cow’, B kewiye ‘(adj.) pertaining to a cow or
    cows; (n.) butter’. Pokorny 1959:482—483 *gßou- ‘bullock, ox, cow’;
    Walde 1927—1932.I:696—697 *gßou-; Mann 1984—1987:368 *gu̯ōu̯-ēdā
    (-ēdis, -ədā, -dā) ‘ox, cattle, beef, cattle-fodder’, 368—369 *gu̯ōu̯əlos
    (*gu̯əu̯əl-) ‘head of cattle; bull, ox, buffalo’, 369 *gu̯ō̆u̯i̯os ‘bovine’, 369
    *gu̯ō̆u̯ī̆nos, -ā ‘of oxen; ox; beef; cow dung’, 369 *gu̯ō̆u̯s ‘head of cattle,
    ox, cow’, 370 *gu̯ō̆u̯tos, -ā, -om, -i̯os, -i̯ǝ (*gu̯ǝt-, *gū̆t-), 370 *gu̯ō̆u̯tros,
    -om (*gu̯utro-); Watkins 1985:26 *g¦ou- and 2000:35 *g¦ou- ‘ox, bull,
    cow’; Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1985.I:191, II:565, II:566, II:574, II:575,
    II:579, II:868, II:869, II:876 *k’ºou̯- and 1995.I:164, I:482, I:484, I:491,
    I:495, I:765, I:766, I:773 *k’ºou- ‘cow, bull’; Mallory—Adams
    1997:134—135 *g¦ṓus ‘cow’; Boisacq 1950:129—130 *oeßōu̯-, *oeßou̯-;
    Frisk 1970—1973.I:260—261 *gßō̆u̯-s; Chantraine 1968—1980.I:190—
    191 *g¦ōu-s; Hofmann 1966:38 *gßōus; Ernout—Meillet 1979:74 *g¦ōus;
    Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.I:112; De Vaan 2008:74—75; Poultney
    1959:299 *g¦ōu-; Kroonen 2013:299 Proto-Germanic *kō- ~ *kū- ‘cow’;
    Orël 2003:219—220 Proto-Germanic *kōwz ~ *kūz; De Vries 1977:340—
    341; Falk—Torp 1903—1906.I:396; Onions 1966:223 *g¦ōus; Klein
    1971:172; Kluge—Mitzka 1967:410 *gßōu-; Kluge—Seebold 1989:417
    Proto-Germanic *k(w)ōu-; Adams 1999:189 *g¦ou-; Van Windekens
    1976—1982.I:226—227 *gßou-.
    Sumerian guú ‘ox, bull, cow’, gud ‘bull, bullock, cow’.
    Buck 1949:3.20 cattle; 3.21 bull; 3.22 ox; 3.23 cow. Bomhard—Kerns 1994:
    498, no. 346.

    I think it can be related with first domestication ?.

    1. Maybe, or it is something more ancient. Bovines existed also before domestication, they were hunted. What is interesting is that Sumerian (that is not a language family, but an isolate) is especially close to Dravidian for the presence of the dental (d, ḍ), completely absent in IE.

  7. PIE-Sum-PAA no 60 . It comes with Uralic parallels :
    640. Proto-Nostratic root *ʔas¨- (~ *ʔəs¨-):
    (vb.) *ʔas¨- ‘to put, to place, to set; to sit, to be seated’;
    (n.) *ʔas¨-a ‘place, seat’; (adj.) ‘put, placed, set, established’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *ʔas¨- ‘to put, to place, to set; to sit, to be seated’: Proto-
    Semitic *ʔas¨-as¨- ‘to set up, to establish’ > Old Akkadian uššum
    ‘foundation’; Hebrew *"āšaš [vv^a*] ‘to strengthen, to fortify, to found, to
    establish’; Post-Biblical Hebrew mə"uššāš [vV*a%m=] ‘strong’; Biblical
    Aramaic (pl. det.) "uššayyā ‘foundations’; Arabic "assa ‘to found, to
    establish, to set up, to lay the foundation’, "uss ‘foundation, basis’;
    Sabaean "ss ‘base (of a statue or stele)’; Tigre "assärä ‘to set in order’. D.
    Cohen 1970— :35—36; Klein 1987:59—60. Egyptian Õs-t, s-t ‘seat,
    throne, place’, t-Õs ‘to sit, to seat oneself’, t-Õs& ‘to set, to insert, to inlay’,
    Õsb-t ‘throne, seat’, (obsolete in Middle Egyptian) Õsd ‘to sit’. Hannig
    1995:102, 105, and 918; Faulkner 1962:30 and 206; Rössler 1981:715;
    Erman—Grapow 1921:19, 150 and 1926—1963.1:132, 4:1—6 ś·t, 5:242.
    East Cushitic: Burji iss- ‘to do, to act, to make’; Sidamo ass- ‘to do, to
    make’; Kambata ass-, es- ‘to so, to make’; Hadiyya iss- ‘to do, to make’;
    Gedeo / Darasa (h)ass- ‘to do’; Saho is- ~ iš- ‘to do, to make’; Boni as- ‘to
    prepare, to make’. Sasse 1982:107; Hudson 1989:51 and 405 Proto-
    Highland East Cushitic *ass- ‘to do’.
    B. Proto-Indo-European *ʔē̆s-/*ʔō̆s- ‘to put, to place, to set; to sit, to be
    seated’: Hittite (3rd sg. pres.) e-eš-zi, a-aš-zi ‘to set, to sit, to beset, to do’;
    Hieroglyphic Luwian i-sà-nu-wa/i- ‘to seat, to cause to sit’, i-sà-tara/i-tá-
    ‘throne’; Greek ἧσται ‘to sit, to be seated’; Sanskrit ā́ste ‘to sit, to sit
    down’; Avestan āste ‘to sit’. Rix 1998a:206 *h÷eh÷s- ‘to sit’; Pokorny
    1959:342—343 *ē̆s- ‘to sit’; Walde 1927—1932.II:486 *ēs-; Mann 1984—
    1987:249 *ēs- (variant of root: *es-); Watkins 2000:24 *ēs- ‘to sit’ (oldest
    form *™ēs-); Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.II:928 *es- and 1995.I:821 *es-
    ‘to sit, to be seated’; Mallory—Adams 1997:522 *h÷ēs- ‘to sit’; Laroche
    1960:13, no. 19/II, 153, no. 298, and 153—154, no. 299; Hawkins—
    Morpurgo-Davies—Neumann 1974:187—188; Werner 1991:35 and 88;
    Winter 1965b:202 *Ees-; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.I:84; Chantraine 1968—
    1980.I:411—412; Boisacq 1950:322 *ēs-; Frisk 1970—1973.I:633—634;
    Hofmann 1966:107; Tischler 1977— .1:110—111; Puhvel 1984— .1/2:
    291—300; Kloekhorst 2008b:252—255 (reduplicated) *h÷e-h÷s-.
    C. Proto-Uralic *as¨e- ‘to place, to put, to set’: Finnish asu- ‘to reside, to live,

    1. to dwell’, asetta- ‘to place, to put, to set’, ase- ‘to place oneself’, asema
      ‘position, place, station’; Estonian asu- ‘to be, to be found, to lie, to dwell’,
      asu ‘place (for rest)’, asukoht ‘dwelling-place, residence, abode, habitation,
      haunt; location, whereabouts; site, seat’, asula ‘settlement, populated area,
      village’, asukas ‘inhabitant, denizen’, asuta- ‘to set up, to found, to
      institute, to establish, to constitute’, asunda- ‘to settle, to colonize’,
      asumaa ‘colony’, ase ‘place, spot, site’, aseta- ‘to place, to put, to set, to
      lay; to arrange’; Mordvin ezem ‘place, position; bench fastened to the wall in a Mordvin room’; Yurak Samoyed / Nenets ŋõõso-, ŋäeso- ‘to stop and
      put up one’s tent’, ŋyysy ‘tent, settlement’. Collinder 1955:4 and 1977:26;
      Joki 1973:252—253; Rédei 1986—1988:18—19 *aśe-; Décsy 1990:97
      *asja ‘(to) place’.
      Sumerian aš-te ‘seat, stool, throne’, aš-ti ‘seat, throne’, eš-de, eš-ki ‘throne’.
      Buck 1949:9.11 do, make; 12.11 place (sb.); 12.12 put (place, set, lay); 12.13
      sit. Illič-Svityč 1971—1984.I:268—270, no. 132, *ʔesA ‘to settle a place, to be
      at a place’; Hakola 2000:25, no. 47; Bomhard—Kerns 1994:567—568, no. 434;
      Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 84, *ʔ[ä]ś[o] ‘to stay, to be’ (Illič-Svityč ← ‘to
      settle’) and no. 85, *ʔisó (or *ʔiʔsó ?) ‘to sit’, ‘seat (the part of the body that
      bears the weight in sitting)’ (→ ‘foundation, basis’).

      Original root was *has- .

  8. Bomhard already gives a not so sure explanation, on this Sumerian word :
    701. Proto-Nostratic root *ħal- (~ *ħəl-):
    (vb.) *ħal- ‘to lower’;
    (n.) *ħal-a ‘that which is beneath or under; lower part, underpart’; (adj.)
    A. Afrasian: Highland East Cushitic: Burji hal- ‘to fall (down), to set (of
    sun)’; Sidamo halalla, halaalla ‘lowland’, halaalla ‘lowland, desert’,
    halalla ‘plain’, halliyyá ‘deep’, hala"l- ‘to be wide’, hala"l-iš- ‘to widen’,
    hala"lado ‘wide’. Hudson 1989:196 and 369; Sasse 1982:90.
    B. Proto-Uralic *ala ‘lower, under; below, underneath; that which is beneath
    or under, lower space, underpart’: Finnish ala ‘area, territory, space’, alla
    (< *alna) ‘being under’, ala-, ali- ‘sub-, lower’, alta ‘from beneath (an
    object)’, alas, ales ‘down’; Lapp / Saami -vuolle ‘that which lies beneath’,
    vuollĕ- ‘lower, under-, sub-’, vuollen ‘underneath’, vuolʹdĕ ‘under; from
    beneath’; Mordvin alo ‘under, underneath’, aldo ‘up from underneath,
    under’; Cheremis / Mari ül-, ülə ‘that which is beneath, sub-’, ülnə
    ‘underneath, (being) under’; Votyak / Udmurt ul ‘underpart, lower space,
    that which is beneath’, ulyn ‘under, underneath’, ullań ‘(going)underneath’; Zyrian / Komi -ul ‘space under something’, ulyn ‘(being)
    under’, ul- ‘sub-, lower’, ulyś ‘from a low place’, ullań ‘down,
    downwards’, ulõ ‘(going) under’; Vogul / Mansi jol- ‘sub-; lower part’,
    jolən ‘(being) under’, joləl ‘from the underside’; Ostyak / Xanty yl,
    (Southern) it ‘lower, sub-; lower part’; Hungarian al, alj ‘that which is
    beneath, underpart’, al- ‘sub-’, alatt ‘(being) under’, alól, alúl, alul ‘from
    beneath, beneath’; Yurak Samoyed / Nenets ŋyl ‘floor, ground, base’,
    ŋylna ‘below, underneath’, ŋyld ‘from below’; Tavgi Samoyed / Nganasan
    ŋilea- ‘that which is below’, ŋileanu ‘(being) under’, ŋileada ‘from
    below’, ŋilinu ‘below, underneath’, ŋilida ‘from below’; Yenisei Samoyed
    / Enets (Hantai) iðo, (Baiha) iro ‘ground’, iðone ‘(being) under’, iðoro
    ‘from below’; Selkup Samoyed yl ‘ground, base’, ylgan, ylogan ‘from
    below’, yllä ‘downwards’; Kamassian ilgän ‘below’, ilde ‘downwards’.
    Collinder 1955:2—3, 1960:405 *ala, 1965:136, and 1977:24—25; Rédei
    1986—1988:6 *ala; Décsy 1990:97 *ala ‘below, beneath’; Sammallahti
    1988:536 *ælå ‘under’. Yukaghir (Southern / Kolyma) a:l-, a:n-, a:-
    ‘below, under’, al¦udo:- ‘lowest, youngest’, al¦u- ‘below, down’, albo:ži:-
    ‘steep’, albə- ‘foot of a mountain’; (Northern / Tundra) al- ‘below, under’,
    -albe, -alba ‘bottom’, alunban- ‘low’, al¦uučii- ‘to go down, to abate’.
    Nikolaeva 2006:99—100.
    C. Proto-Altaic *ale ‘below, lower’: Proto-Turkic *ăl- ‘lower side, below;
    being below, lower’ > Old Turkic (Old Uighur) altïn ‘being below, lower’;
    Karakhanide Turkic altïn ‘being below, lower’, alt ‘lower side, below’;
    Turkish alt ‘lower or underpart (of a thing); underside, bottom’; Gagauz
    alt ‘lower side, below’; Azerbaijani alt ‘lower side, below’; Karaim alt
    ‘lower side, below’; Tatar (dial.) alt ‘lower side, below’; Kirghiz ald(ï)
    ‘lower side, below’; Sary-Uighur altï ‘lower side, below’; Khakas altï
    ‘lower side, below’; Oyrot (Mountain Altai) ald, altï ‘lower side, below’,
    altï¦ï ‘being below, lower’; Tuva aʹldï ‘lower side, below’; Chuvash old(ъ)
    ‘gusset’; Yakut alïn ‘lower side, below’. Starostin—Dybo—Mudrak
    2003:285—286 *ale ‘below, lower’.
    (?) Sumerian halib ‘underworld’.
    Buck 1949:10.23 fall (vb.); 12.32 low. Greenberg 2002:175—176, no. 406,
    *ala ‘under’; Hakola 2000:19, no. 21.

    Here I am specially proposing an alternate scenario , where The Sumerian word derives from this IE root :

    as can be seen for 'Hell' :

    Pardon if already discussed .

    1. That's a clever proposal and we must consider about this; the Akkadian term irkala is from Sum. irigal (we have discussed it already), but there is also an Akkadian ḫilibû = netherworld (from Sumerian halib / hilib).In Akkadian there is also a word ḫalāpu meaning "to be clothed in, mantled with, wear; to be clad in, mantled with ; to be tangled, to clothe with; to overlay with metal, to be clothe oneself with" (that is close to Greek καλύπτειν / kalyptein = "to cover"

      Sumerian halib must be also a foreign word; one curious thing is that the logogramms used for this word are IGI = eye and KUR = mountain (or land). About kur "mountain" for netherworld, here is an interesting study of Toshikazu Kuwabara "A Study of Terminology of the Netherworld in Sumero-Akkadian Literature".

      At the second part of his study the writer says: "An interesting question is whether the concept of the cosmic mountain, the so called Weltberg, found elsewhere as in the North-West semitic religions and the Greek Olympus,existed or not in the Sumerian literature" and then continues "The cosmos may be seen from both the vertical and horizontal point of view. On the one hand, Sumero-Akkadian literatureis inclined to describe the cosmos from the perspective of the vertical structures of the universe, such as "heaven, earth and the Netherworld" just as many other world mythologies do. On the other hand, some of the descriptions, such as the implications of the rising sun and reference of [Gilgamesh and the Land of the Living 60-62.],point to another way to look at the cosmos, that is,the horizontal dimension which we can not discount if we want to comprehend the cosmology or cosmogony of the ancient near eastern world. The concept of the Netherworld in the Acient Near East can accept both the vertical and horizontal expansion of the cosmos without any discrepancy. In other words, the Netherworld is conceived as extending below the earth, as well as extending a horizontal distance far from this world." Also "The usage of HUR.SAG here is not the expression of the Weltberg whose top reaches to heaven and root reaches to the bottom of the Netherworld, but rather is a poetic description of the other world as a mountain located in a far land where the people are gathered."
      So a "covering" meaning (from the eyes of mortal people?) may refer not only to depth but also to some other distance far away. I have the impression that halib and ḫilibû (as perhaps a cosmic mountain) is somehow connected to the name of mountain Olympus / Olympos (unexplained name in Greek); maybe also the Alps.

  9. PIE-Sum-PAA no. 61:
    813. Proto-Nostratic exclamation *way ‘woe!’:
    A. Proto-Afrasian *way exclamation: ‘woe!’: Proto-Semitic *way exclamation:
    ‘woe!’ > Akkadian ai ‘woe!’; Syriac wāy ‘woe!’; Arabic way ‘woe!,
    shame!’; Soqoṭri woy ‘woe!’; Geez / Ethiopic way [ወይ] ‘woe!, ah!, alas!’;
    Tigrinya wäy, way ‘woe!’; Tigre wāy ‘woe!’; Harari wāy ‘woe!, misery’;
    Amharic wäyy, wäyyo, wäyyäw, awäyy, əwayy ‘woe!’; Gurage wa, (Eža)
    way exclamation expressing pain: ‘woe!’. Leslau 1963:162, 1979:639, and
    1987:623; D. Cohen 1970— :531; Zammit 2002:443. Egyptian wy ‘woe!’;
    Coptic woy [ouo(e)i] ‘woe!’. Hannig 1995:179; Vycichl 1983:230; Černý
    1976:209. Cushitic: Beja / Beḍawye way ‘alas!’; Quara wē ‘alas!’.
    Reinisch 1895:240. Chadic: Hausa wâi ‘woe!’.
    B. Proto-Indo-European *way exclamation: ‘woe!’: Avestan vayōi, avōi,
    āvōya ‘woe!’; Latin vae ‘alas!, woe!’; Welsh gwae ‘woe!’; Armenian vay
    ‘woe!’; Gothic wai ‘woe!’; Old Icelandic vá, vei ‘woe!’; Old English wā,
    wb ‘woe!’; Old Frisian wē ‘woe!’; Old Saxon wē ‘woe!’; Dutch wee
    ‘woe!’; Old High German wē ‘alas!, woe!’ (New High German weh);
    Lithuanian vaĩ ‘woe!’; Hittite uwai- ‘woe’. Pokorny 1959:1110—1111
    *u̯ai ‘woe!’; Walde 1927—1932.I:212—213 *u̯ai; Mann 1984—
    1987:1485 *u̯ai ‘alas; woe’; Watkins 1985:73 *wai and 2000:94 *wai
    ‘alas’ (interjection); Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.II:724 *u̯ai; Ernout—
    Meillet 1979:711; De Vaan 2008:650; Orël 2003:440 Proto-Germanic
    *wai; Kroonen 2013:556 Proto-Germanic *wai (interjection) ‘woe’; Feist
    1939:541; Lehmann 1986:387—388 *wai (interjection) ‘woe’; De Vries
    1977:637; Onions 1966:1011; Klein 1971:830 *wai-; Kluge— Vercoullie
    1898:321; Seebold 1989:781 Germanic *wai; Kluge—Mitzka 1967:843
    *u̯ai; Kloekhorst 2008b:937—939; Fraenkel 1962—1965.II:1179.
    C. Uralic: Finnish voi in, for example: voi sinua raukkaa! ‘poor you!’, voi
    kunpa tietäisin ‘I wish I knew’.
    Sumerian ù-a, ù ‘woe!’.

    In epsd : aya [CRY] (110x: Old Babylonian) wr. a; u3 "a cry of woe; to cry, groan" .

  10. Giacomo ,

    Whats Mayrhofers exact etymology, regarding the Indian words?.
    868. Proto-Nostratic root *mar- (~ *mər-):
    (vb.) *mar- ‘to go (round), to walk, to run; to go after, to run or chase after’ (>
    ‘to seek, to pursue’);
    (n.) *mar-a ‘walk, walking, passage; road, track, way’
    Derivative of:
    (vb.) *mar- ‘to turn: to overturn, to turn round, to turn over, etc.; to twist, to
    whirl, to roll; to bend’;
    (n.) *mar-a ‘the act of turning, turning over, turning round, etc.; rope, coil,
    string, cord’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *mar- ‘to go, to walk, to run’: Proto-Semitic *mar-ar- ‘to
    pass; to go, walk, saunter, or stroll by or past; to come, go, walk, or pass
    along something; to cross, to traverse; to depart, to go away, to leave; to
    continue’ > Arabic marra ‘to pass; to go, walk, saunter, or stroll by or past;
    to come, go, walk, or pass along something; to cross, to traverse; to depart,
    to go away, to leave; to continue’, marr ‘passing or going by; passage,
    transit; transition; crossing; progression, process, lapse, course (of time)’,
    mamarr ‘passing, going by; elapsing; lapse, expiration (of time); transition,
    crossing; access, approach’; Ḥarsūsi mer ‘to continue, to go’, márreh
    ‘time; once, at once’; Mehri mər ‘to pass’; Śḥeri / Jibbāli mirr ‘to pass’;
    Akkadian marāru ‘to leave, to go away’. Zammit 2002:381. Berber:
    Tuareg əmmər ‘to pass by, to pass by a place, to drop by’, sumər ‘to make
    pass by’; Tamazight amər ‘to hurry, to go faster, to hasten’, imər ‘action of
    hurrying, hastening, going faster’. Proto-Highland East Cushitic *mar- ‘to
    go’ > Burji mar- ‘to go (intr.)’, mara ‘going, journey’; Sidamo mar- ‘to go
    (intr.)’; Kambata mar- ‘to go (intr.)’, mar-aancata ‘journey’, mar-am- ‘to
    walk (intr.)’; Hadiyya mar- ‘to go (intr.)’; Gedeo / Darasa mar- ‘to go
    (intr.)’, mar-am- ‘to turn (around) (intr.)’. Sasse 1982:140—141; Hudson
    1989:71. Proto-Southern Cushitic *mar- ‘to go round’ > K’wadza
    malengayo ‘neck ring’; Dahalo mar- ‘to go round’, maraðið- ‘to take
    around, to put around’. Ehret 1980:154. Orël—Stolbova 1995:375—376,
    no. 1731, *mar- ‘to walk’.
    B. Indo-European (only in Indo-Iranian): Sanskrit mārga-ḥ ‘track, path, road’,
    mā́rgati, mārgayati ‘to seek, to look for; to seek after, to strive to attain; to
    request, to ask, to beg, to solicit anything from anyone’, mṛgyáti, mṛgáyati
    ‘to chase, to hunt, to pursue; to seek, to search for or through, to
    investigate, to examine’; Pāḷi magga- ‘path, road’, maggati ‘to hunt for, to seek’; Marathi māg ‘road, track’. Walde 1927—1932.II:284; Mann 1984—
    1987:804 (*mr̥g- ‘to go’); Mayrhofer 1956—1980.II:626. For the semantic
    development, note Buck’s (1949:764) comments: “Words for ‘seek’ reflect
    notions such as ‘to go about, to go after, to track, to look for’.”

    1. C. (?) Yukaghir (Northern / Tundra) marxi- ‘to move’. Nikolaeva 2006:259.
      D. Proto-Altaic *m[i̯o]ri- ‘(vb.) to walk, to go; (n.) road, track’: Proto-
      Mongolian *mör ‘road, track’ > Written Mongolian mör ‘way, path, trace,
      trail’, mör-de- ‘to trail, to trace, to follow; to investigate, to adhere to (as a
      schedule or program)’; Khalkha mör ‘road, track’; Buriat mür ‘road, track’;
      Kalmyk mör ‘road, track’; Ordos mör ‘road, track’; Moghol mür ‘road,
      track’; Dagur mure ‘road, track’; Shira-Yughur mör ‘road, track’; Monguor
      mōr ‘road, track’. Proto-Turkic *bar- ‘to walk, to go (away); to come, to
      reach’ > Old Turkic (Orkhon, Old Uighur) bar- ‘to walk, to go away’;
      Karakhanide Turkic bar- ‘to walk, to go away’; Turkish var- ‘to go
      towards, to approach; to arrive; to reach, to attain; to result, to end in’;
      Gagauz var- ‘to walk, to go (away); to come, to reach’; Azerbaijani var-
      ‘to come, to reach’; Turkmenian bar- ‘to walk, to go (away)’; Uzbek bɔr-
      ‘to walk, to go (away); to come, to reach’; Uighur ba(r)- ‘to walk, to go
      (away)’; Karaim bar- ‘to walk, to go (away)’; Tatar bar- ‘to walk, to go
      (away)’; Bashkir bar- ‘to walk, to go (away)’; Kirghiz bar- ‘to walk, to go
      (away)’; Kazakh bar- ‘to walk, to go (away)’; Noghay bar- ‘to walk, to go
      (away)’; Oyrot (Mountain Altai) bar- ‘to walk, to go (away); to come, to
      reach’; Tuva bar- ‘to walk, to go (away)’; Chuvash pïr- ‘to walk, to go
      (away)’; Yakut bar- ‘to walk, to go (away)’; Dolgan bar- ‘to walk, to go
      (away)’. Starostin—Dybo—Mudrak 2003:930 *mi̯ori ‘(vb.) to walk, to go;
      (n.) road, track’.
      Sumerian mar ‘to go to that place; to run, hasten, or rush to or towards’, mar
      ‘path, way’.


    2. Now I also remember a term *markos 'Horse', suggested IE in Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture By Douglas Q. Adams p.274 :
      and Pokorny :

      Whats the problem in connecting them too?.


      From Monier-Williams :
      ''2 mArga m. (in most meanings fr. %{mRga} , of which it is also the Vr2iddhi form in comp.) seeking , search , tracing out , hunting L. ; (exceptionally also n. ; ifc. f. %{A}) the track of a wild animal , any track , road , path , way to (loc. or comp.) or through (comp.) , course....''

    4. The connection of *markos with the Afrasian root seems good.
      See also here for the IE root:

      Instead, mārga is derived by Mayrhofer from mṛga 'wild animal', in the sense of path of wild animals.

  11. Here is an Austronesian comparative dictionary, for possible comparisons with IE.

    "The Austronesian Comparative Dictionary" web edition
    by Robert Blust and Stephen Trussel (work-in-progress)

    1. For example for Sum. "zalag", Greek σελαγέω "selageo", σέλας selas, there is AN *cilak to shine, of heavenly bodies (also in Hungarian, the similar word meaning "star").

      but also other words about "shining" etc ended in *-laC shine, flickering or flashing light, *-lak shine, *-laŋ₁ glitter, flash, *-lap flash, sparkle

    2. Yes, this similarity was noted also in this list:

      zalag "to be/make bright" Sumerian

      sulu- to shine, Proto-Oceanic,
      sila- to shine, Proto-Philippine,
      sarang- refulgent, Tagalog,
      sulu- light, Kapampangan,
      zelag- to shine, Proto-Philippine (Zorc and Charles),
      sellag- bright or full (of the moon), Ilokano,

      The Sumerian forms zalag; su-lu-ug; sulug seem especially close to this list.

    3. it seems this website is offline.
      But the -ag ending seems also quite normal in Greek, for example there is πέλαγος pelagos for "sea" (like in Archipelago). Maybe it's a common ancestral word, like Sum. ag- "to do"

    4. Interesting . See also this set of Indic words:
      cilla 4827 *cilla2 ʻ unctuous, shining ʼ.
      Pk. cillaa -- , °liya -- ʻ shining ʼ; S. cilo m. ʻ pancake ʼ, cilkaṇu ʻ to be bright ʼ, P. cilakṇā; N. cillo ʻ greasy, smooth, polished ʼ, sb. ʻ grease, ghee ʼ, cillo -- callo ʻ a dainty ʼ; H. cilaknā ʻ to be bright ʼ, cilcilānā ʻ to be very hot (of the sun) ʼ.
      Addenda: *cilla -- 2. 2. †*cila -- : WPah.kṭg. ċiḷək ʻ morning sunshine, first rays of the sun ʼ, J. ciḷk f. ʻ morning sunshine on the highest peaks ʼ Him.I 62.

    5. Here is an interesting list of IE (and AA)- Austronesian similar roots:

  12. Here also is PAN *lima "five"

    That was compared to Sum. limmu [FOUR] (1759x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. limmu2; limmu5; limmu; limmu3; limmu4 "four"

    1. There is also the PAN *qalima hand

      NOTE: The resemblance of this form to *lima ‘five’ is unmistakeable, but there is no known basis for an analysis of *qalima into two morphemes, and it is consequently best to treat it as an independent lexical entry.

    2. Unmistakeable it must be, so one can suppose that PAN *lima = 5 could come of a contraction from *qalima = hand. Sumerian also has an unexplained limmu = 4. One could assume that a "group of 4" exists at an open hand. So, we have a possible comparison with this IE word (using a hypothetical kw > p situation).

      Latin palma: "palm of the hand, hand". From Proto-Indo-European *pl̥h₂meh₂. Cognates include Ancient Greek παλάμη ‎(palámē), Old Irish lám, and Old English folm.

    3. A meaning of Greek παλάμη palámē (= palm, hand) is also "handiwork, work of art".

      Therefore my next proposal is for a connection to Sum. alan (or alam) = "form, statue image" (Akkad. ṣalmu).

    4. About Sum. limmu = 4, Edzard writes in his Grammar (p. 63) "4: Ebla li-mu may stand for single or lengthened [m]. Post-Eblaic lexical glosses note lim-mu, rarely LAM-mu. For ní∞g-úr-limmu “(thing four limbs =) quadrupeds” an emesal writing has ne-mu-li-mu (TCL 15, 3:4; Falkenstein, ZA 53 [1959] 101 fn. 34).

      About Latin palma and Gr. παλάμη ‎(palámē), Pokorny gives their root as *pelə-, *plā- English meaning "wide and flat" German meaning `breit und flach, ausbreiten; durch Druck oder Schlag flach formen, breitschlagen, breitklatschen'
      mit m- oder n-Formans, Bed. bes. `flache Hand': *peləmā (pl̥̄mā): gr. παλάμη palame f. `flache Hand', lat. palma `flache Hand; auch Gänsefuß, Geweihschaufel des Damhirsches, Schaufel des Ruders, Palme', palmus `die Hand als Längenmaß, Spanne', palmes, -itis `Rebenschoß', air. lām, acorn. lof, cymr.llaw `Hand' (ob dazu air. fo-laumur `wage'?); ahd. folma `Hand', ags. folm `flache Hand'; anderer Ablaut in ai. pāṇí- m. `Hand' (mind. aus *parṇi-), av. pərənā `hohle Hand'.

      So, the meaning of the root is "wide, flat, stretched" etc. It is used for a stretched / open hand but also (with other extensions like plā-no- etc) for a meaning "flatlands, plain".

      If we keep this meaning of the pel- root, retain the extension -lam, but assuming an initial q (like in PAN qalima = hand), perhaps we can make a connection to this word:

      kalam [LAND] (704x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. kalam; ka-na-aĝ2; ka-naĝ "the Land (of Sumer)" Akk. mātu

      assuming a meaning "flatlands, plain" (Sumer has not mountains). Then the reading ka-naĝ may indicates a pronounciation like in Skt. pāṇí-.

    5. On the other hand the reading ka-na-aĝ2 reminds of "Canaan".

      "The etymology is uncertain. An early explanation derives the term from the Semitic root knʿ "to be low, humble, subjugated". .. Some scholars have suggested that this implies an original meaning of "lowlands", in contrast with Aram, which would then mean "highlands".

      That is also the contrast between kalam / ka-naĝ (= Sumer,"flatlands"? "lowlands"?) and "kur" (mountains, foreign lands), isn't it?

      Returning to Sanskrit, there is a word tala meaning "palm, palm of hand", but also has a meaning of "low" (like a bottom, low part, the part underneath, base, body surface, sole of foot etc).

      I would think Pokorny's "durch Druck oder Schlag flach formen", so with an archaic kwe > te (like in Greek), this could be connected, too.

      Besides, there is also the hypothesis of the pen-kwe < kwen-kwe for "five" (meaning "four plus one", if I remember well); or a possible archaic *pen (*kwen?) meaning "hand"; then, maybe we could connect all these words for "five" and "palm of hand" (equation l/n and a hypothetical kwe>pe (qalima/lima, pāṇi-palame-palma/ panca-pente, quinque), but also kwe>te giving tala (instead the pala- of palame).

      Btw, what is the etymology of "alambuSa"? m. "palm of the hand with the fingers extended"?( like pra-tala?)

    6. I remember also that Whittaker ("Euphratic: A phonological sketch", p. 587) interprated the name "Kengid/r" [other spellings are "Kengi", "Kiengi" or "Kiengir"] = Sumer, as ‘league of five‘antediluvian’ cities, compered it with the IE root *penkw-ti- as ‘set of five’. So he has connected it to a meaning of "five". But if we can think about a connection of "five" and "hand, palm of hand" and to a meaning of "stretching", as above, we can interpratate it as "stretched land, plain". Also, according to the Sumerologist Arno Poebel, Ki-en-gi(r) is a dialectical form of kalam, "land". (J. Hayes, Manual of Sumerian, p. 69).

    7. Whittaker thinks that kalam is connected to a IE root meaning "reed" like Greek κάλαμος kalamos or καλάμη kalame (a word looking like παλάμη palame - maybe there is also a connection due to a de-labialization like kw>k - not sure about that).
      About the comparison with Skt. tala, there is also Sum. tal [BROAD] (25x: ED IIIa, ED IIIb, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. tal2 "(to be) broad, expand" Akk. rapāšu.
      About tala as "sole of foot", the Greek word is πέλμα pelma "sole of foot" of dubious etymology (the connection to *pel "skin" seems odd).
      The pāṇí- for "palm of hand" reminded me also of Sum. pana = "bow" ("stretched"?).
      Sorry for too much "stretching". :D

      I wish to all a happy New Year 2017.

    8. Happy New Year! You asked about alambuṣa. Mayrhofer wrote (translated) 'a Munda word?' referring to Kuiper. alam in Skt. means "enough , sufficient , adequate , equal to , competent , able".

      pana 'bow' is also an Austronesian word, see here:
      Root panaq:

    9. I see.. it looks similar to Gr. ἅλις (halis < walis) = "plenty, sufficient, enough". Maybe like Sum. alim = heavy, important? :D.
      Austronesian seems to share many words with Sumerian, maybe also with IE. Possible borrowings or archaic roots? For example a root bala (or pala) "fight".
      It looks like Gr. πάλη / pale "wrestling, fight" (Sum. bala "revolt"? :D ).

    10. So the proposal is to connect the roots *pelə- "wide and flat, palm etc" and *telə- "lat, flat ground, board" assuming an archaic initial labiovelar, meaning "to stretch (the hand)". Also the roots *ten (to stretch - the hand etc) with *pen-kwe (five -"hand?") could be connected (l/n) assuming the same labiovelar.
      About "palm of hand" Bomhard gives for the nostratic also some altaic roots.
      Proto-Nostratic (n.) *pºal- ‘flat of the hand, palm’: Derivative of: (vb.) *pºal- ‘to spread, to extend’; (n.) *pºal-a ‘that which is wide, flat, level, broad, open: expanse, open space or surface’; (adj.) ‘wide, flat, level, broad, open’
      A. Proto-Indo-European *pºl̥¸-meA [*pºl̥¸-maA] ‘palm of the hand’: Greek παλάμη ‘the palm of the hand, the hand’; Latin palma ‘the palm of the hand’; Old Irish lám ‘hand, arm’; Old English folm, folme ‘palm of the hand, hand’; Old Saxon folm ‘palm’; Old High German folma ‘palm’. Pokorny 1959:806 (*pelǝmā [*pEmā]); Walde 1927—1932.II:62 (*pelǝmā [*pEmā]); Mann 1984—1987:965 *pEmā ‘palm of the hand’; Watkins 1985:49 (*pl̥˜-mā); Mallory—Adams 1997:255 *pólham̥ ‘palm of the hand’; Chantraine 1968—1980.II:852; Hofmann 1966:250 *peləmā; Boisacq 1950:741 *pEmā; Frisk 1970—1973.II:466; Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.II:240—241 *peləmā; Ernout—Meillet 1979:476—477; De Vaan 2008:441; Kroonen 2013:159 Proto-Germanic *fulmō- ‘palm of the hand’; Orël 2003:118 Proto-Germanic *fulmō.
      B. Proto-Altaic *pºāl¨ŋa (~ -e) (< *pºāli-ŋa ?) ‘palm (of the hand)’: ProtoTungus *palŋa ‘palm (of the hand)’ > Manchu fala—ɢ« ‘palm (of the hand)’; Evenki hanŋa ‘palm (of the hand)’; Lamut / Even hanŋъ ̣ ‘palm (of the hand)’; Ulch pańa ‘palm (of the hand)’; Orok χaŋŋa, χaŋa ‘palm (of the hand)’; Nanay / Gold payŋa ‘palm (of the hand)’; Negidal χańŋa ‘palm (of the hand)’; Oroch χaŋa, χaŋŋa ‘palm (of the hand)’. Proto-Mongolian *haliga(n) ‘palm (of the hand)’ > Middle Mongolian χalaqan ‘palm (of the hand)’; Written Mongolian ala¦a(n) ‘palm (of the hand)’; Khalkha alga ‘palm (of the hand)’; Buriat aĺga(n) ‘palm (of the hand)’; Ordos alaga ‘palm (of the hand)’; Dagur χaləg ‘palm (of the hand)’; Kalmyk aĺχən ‘palm (of the hand)’; Moghol olaqεi ‘palm (of the hand)’. Poppe 1960:95; Street 1974:22 *pala ‘palm of the hand’; Starostin—Dybo—Mudrak 2003:1121—1122 *pªāĺŋa (~ -e) ‘palm (of hand)’.
      Bomhard—Kerns 1994:244, no. 49; Illič-Svityč 1971—1984.III:93—95, no. 369, *pªaliHma ‘palm’; Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 1728, *ṗa[ĺ]Hiŋa ‘palm of hand’.

    11. Starling gives a wider one:

      Eurasiatic: *ṗVlŋV
      Meaning: palm (of hand)
      Borean: Borean
      Indo-European: *palǝm-, *palǝn-
      Altaic: *p`ā́lŋa ( ~ -e)
      Uralic: *piŋV
      Comments: [Ur. perhaps better with IE *penkʷ-?]
      References: ОСНЯ 3, 93-95; ND 1730 *ṗaĺHiŋa 'palm of hand' (w/o Ur.; + Chad.). ?Cf. PAN *palaj 'palm of hand, sole of foot'.

      Eurasiatic: *ṗVlHV
      Meaning: flat, level
      Borean: Borean
      Indo-European: *pAl[a]-, *plā- (+ *pel- 903)
      Altaic: *p`ā̀la
      Uralic: *pälV (?)
      Kartvelian: *ṗrṭq̇el-
      Dravidian: *paḷ- 'plain, valley'
      References: МССНЯ 372; ND 1689 *ṗal[o] 'open ground, plain', 1708 *[p][o]l̄χ/q/Ga 'broad and flat' (IE + Berb.), 1719 *[p]aLqaṭV ~ *[p]aLṭVqV 'broad and flat'.

  13. There is also PAN *qebel "smoke", which eminds of Sum. gibil "fire", Sum. ibi "smoke" - which was compared at the previous post to IE *kwep- ‎(“to smoke" etc).

  14. Since we are speaking of Sumerian, I add here an interesting debate about the relation with Hurrian (after some comparison with Austro-Ausiatic and Sino-Caucasian):

    1. Maybe the commerce between SSVC and Sumer allowed a passageway for Austronesians to arrive in Magadascar, eventually. The distance from Borneo to Magascar is too big, unlike the distance between islands in the pacific. So, they went "hopping" the coast, but in a much longer time frame, like the Portuguese did much later.

    2. Hello Daniel,
      The Austronesians in Indic Ocean seem to me like the Greeks in the Mediterrenean; of course the Mediterranean is rather small in comparison, but the root for Greeks colonising souther Italy was Corfu / Otranto straits/ Apulia / Calabria / Sicily - also through Mesina (a kind of "Ormuz" straights) to Parthenope/ Napoli and Latium / Etruria. Not some ships sailing straight to Sicily (a kind of "Madagascar" in this case, let's say).

    3. I think they're intersting articles. Nirjhar could tell us about this.

      George van Driem

  15. I want to add another hypothesis here: the the fertile crescent was continuous and formed a cultural continous until India until 4000BC - 2000BC. Or, at least the Holocene maximum, consdering that the monsoons went further to the East. I cannot find an article with evidence now, but the coastal hills of Iran and Afghanistan from Iraq to India are packed with dried rivers like this

    Also, the use of tar and bitumen to make objects in Mehrgarh is possibly another evidence of intense trade. Though there is oil and coal in Rajasthan in good quantities, I don't think it is as common as in the Persian Gulf.

    1. Wikipedia has a nice map of the Mesopotamian "Oecumene".

    2. I think these are promising insights. The Fertile Crescent geographically and botanically does not include India, but from there South Asia was reached already in the Neolithic, and South Asia had also zebu bovines, important for domestication, and varieties of barley. So, there was a sort of cultural continuum, made evident for instance by the clay figurines as shown by C.Jarrige, who wrote of exchange networks in the region bounded by Zagros, Baluchistan and Indus, Kara Kum desert and Makran coast.

  16. For similar words / connection with Hungarian:

  17. Indo-European and Dravidian common roots and words

    Dear friends . I have decided to search for some IE-Dravidian words . I am starting with small target of 10 , if I find this venture convenient and logical , then I will progress for more .

    1. Proto-Indo-European *kan *k’en-/*k’on-/*k’n̥- ‘to beget, to produce, to create,
    to bring forth connect this set of Dravidian words as I pasted before :

    Tamil kanru ‘calf, colt, young of various animals, sapling,
    young tree’; Malayalam kannu ‘young of cattle (esp. buffalo calf), young
    plantain trees around the mother plant’; Kannaḍa kanda ‘young child’,
    kandu ‘calf, young plantain trees around the mother plant’; Telugu kandu
    ‘infant’, kanduvu ‘child’, kanu ‘to bear or bring forth, to beget’, kanubadi
    ‘produce’, kāncu ‘to bear, to produce, to bring forth’, kānupu ‘bringing
    forth a child’; Konḍa kās- ‘to bring forth young (of human beings), to bear
    children’; Kuṛux xadd ‘child, young animal or plant’; Malto qade ‘son’;
    Brahui xaning ‘to give birth to’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:131—132, no.

    A good suggestion can be that , its a loan from Kentum speaking IE in India . We have evidence of Kentum in India with Bangani .And if we are to conceive, that a Neolithic IE wave did enter India ,before Close to Vedic related group entered around 3800 BC(?) , then we may find more of such cases !.

    Other parallels of the root is in Sumerian and PAA.

    1. We discussed this privately, but now looking again at the Dravidian forms, I think there is rather a similar root but not directly taken from IE. The root appears clearly to be integral part of the linguistic system, with the adding of extensions or suffixes, rather than a loanword.

    2. Yes, but they also have taken the cultural aspects from attested Indo-Aryan quite integrally :) , perhaps its more difficult in case of Language .Lets see we have to keep accumulating . It will be interesting also to find parallels between Bangani and Dravidian .

  18. IE-Dravidian no 2.

    PIE- Gau ' ‘bullock, ox, cow’' Connect Dravidian: Telugu kōḍiya, kōḍe ‘young bull’; Kolami kōḍi ‘cow’, kōṛe
    ‘young bullock’; Pengo kōḍi ‘cow’; Manḍa kūḍi ‘cow’; Kui kōḍi ‘cow, ox’;
    Kuwi kōdi, kōḍi ‘cow’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:197, no. 2199.Also Sumerian guú ‘ox, bull, cow’, gud ‘bull, bullock, cow’.

    1. Also this case, compared with Sum. gud, suggests a root akin but not derived from IE, and apparently more closely related with Sumerian.

    2. Giacomo , when we compare the iconography of Sumerian+Indian and compare it with of Near Eastern Cultures , do we see any difference that you are aware of regarding bullock, ox or cow?. Is Indian and Sumerian more bovine-centric ?.

    3. It seems that bovines were important in all the historical Near East, but according to this book the sacredness of cow and bull started in Sumer, but before that it speaks also of Çatal Höyūk in Turkey, where the bull deity is evident:

      It speaks also of the Avesta, of course. The importance of the cow and the idea of the 'soul of the cow' is very significant in the Avesta and Zoroastrian tradition.
      See this for a synthesis:

    4. When the cow becomes important, instead of the bull? The bull is an evocative word to call gods in general, in the rig veda.

    5. Yes, you mean in Vedic culture? Also in the Rig Veda the milk cow (dhenu, aghnyā 'not to be killed') is an important metaphor for the sacred Word or the Earth.

  19. IE-Dravidian no 3. From Bomhard :
    275. Proto-Nostratic root *s¨aw- (~ *s¨ǝw-) or *s¨ew-:
    (vb.) *s¨aw- or *s¨ew- ‘to give birth, to bring forth, to be born’;
    (n.) *s¨aw-a or *s¨ew-a ‘son, child’
    A. Dravidian: Tamil cēy ‘son, child; juvenility, youth’; Malayalam cēvala
    ‘child at the breast’; Tuḷu jēvu ‘child, lad, youth’, jōvu ‘child, lad, youth,
    baby, female child’, jōkulu ‘children’; Parji cēpal ‘boy, lad’; Gadba
    (Ollari) sēpal ‘boy, lad’, (Salur) sāpal ‘boy’; (?) Kuṛux jō̃xas ‘lad, youth,
    servant’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:244, no. 2813.
    B. Proto-Kartvelian *škew-/*škw- ‘to give birth, to beget’: Georgian šv-a ‘to
    give birth, to beget’, šv-ili ‘child, son’, [mšo-] ‘child’ in p’ir-mšo- ‘firstborn,
    elder’; Mingrelian sk(v)- ‘to lay eggs (of birds)’, skī, skua ‘son’; Laz
    skv- ‘to lay eggs (of birds)’, sk-iri, sk’-iri (sk’- < sk-) ‘son’; Svan [sg-] ‘to
    be born’, ǝmsge ‘son’. Schmidt 1962:143; Klimov 1964:214—215 *šw-,
    217 *šw-il- and 1998:128 *m-šw-e- ‘child’, 248 *šew-/*sw- ‘to give birth,
    to beget’, 251 *šw-il- ‘born’; Fähnrich—Sardshweladse 1995:423 *šew-/
    *sw-; Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.II:597, fn. 2, *šew-, *šw-, II:878 *šwand
    1995.I:511, fn. 75, *šew-, *šw-, I:775 *šw- ‘to give birth, to be born’;
    Fähnrich 2007:525—526 *šew-/*sw-.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *sew(H)-/*sow(H)-/*su(H)- ‘to give birth’: Sanskrit
    sū́te, sūyate ‘to beget, to procreate, to bring forth, to bear, to produce, to
    yield’, suta-ḥ ‘son, child’, sūtí-ḥ ‘birth, production’, sūnú-ḥ ‘son, child,
    offspring’; Avestan hunu-š ‘son’; Greek υἱύς, υἱός ‘son’; Old Irish suth
    ‘offspring’; Gothic sunus ‘son’; Old Icelandic sunr, sonr ‘son’; Swedish
    son ‘son’; Danish søn ‘son’ (with ø from the pl.); Old English sunu ‘son’;
    Old Frisian sunu ‘son’; Old Saxon sunu ‘son’; Dutch zoon ‘son’; Old High
    German sunu ‘son’ (New High German Sohn); Lithuanian sūnùs ‘son’;
    Old Church Slavic synъ ‘son’; Russian syn [сын] ‘son’; Czech syn ‘son’;
    Tocharian A se, B soy ‘son’. Rix 1998a:487 (?) *seu̯H- ‘to bear, to give
    birth’; Pokorny 1959:913—914 *seu-, (*seu̯ǝ-), *sū̆- ‘to bear, to give
    birth’; Walde 1927—1932.II:469—470 *seu-, *sū̆-; Mann 1984—
    1987:1331 *su-, 1335 *sūnus ‘son’, 1339 *sut- ‘offspring’; Watkins
    1985:58 *seuǝ- and 2000:76 *seuǝ-‘to give birth’; Gamkrelidze—Ivanov
    1984.II:597, fn. 2, *seu̯-/*su-, II:878 and 1995.I:511, fn. 75, *seu-/*su- ‘to
    give birth’, I:775; Mallory—Adams 1997:533 *suhxnús ‘son’ (also
    *suhxi̯ús), *seuhx- ‘to bear, to beget’; Hofmann 1966:382—383 *su(u̯)-i̯ús,
    *sū̆-nús, *su-tus; Chantraine 1968—1980.II:1153—1154 *sū-; Frisk
    1970—1973.II:959—961 *su-i̯u-, *sū̆nus, *su-tu-s; Boisacq 1950:999—
    1000 *su-i̯u-, *sū̆-nu-s; Adams 1999:703—704 *suhxyu-, *suhxnu- ‘son’,
    *seuhx- ‘to give birth’; Van Windekens 1976—1982.I:424—425 *sū̆i̯u-s,
    *sū̆n-eus; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.III:481, III:492, and III:494; Orël
    2003:388 Proto-Germanic *sunuz; Kroonen 2013:492—493 Proto-
    Germanic *sunu- ‘son’; Feist 1939:460—461; Lehmann 1986:330—331
    *sū̆nu-, *sewH-, *sū̆- ‘to give birth to’; De Vries 1977:530 *su-; Falk—
    Torp 1903—1906.II:344 *sū̆nú-; Onions 1966:845 Common Germanic
    *sunuz; Klein 1971:698 *seu-, *su- ‘to bear, to bring forth; birth’; Kluge—
    Mitzka 1967:713—714 *sūnús, *seu-, *sū-; Kluge—Seebold 1989:677— 678 *sunu-, *seuə-; Boutkan—Siebinga 2005:383; Fraenkel 1962—1965.
    II:941—942; Smoczyński 2007.1:614—615 *seu̯H-;
    Buck 1949:2.41 son; 4.71 beget (of father). Bomhard—Kerns 1994:344—345,
    no. 169; Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 2179, *š[e]wħó ‘to give birth, to be born’.

    1. Here the Dravidian root is not very clear, but the Kartvelian comparison with IE looks very good.

  20. IE-Dravidian no 4 . From Bomhard :
    278. Proto-Nostratic root *s¨en¨-:
    (vb.) *s¨en¨- ‘to change, to deteriorate, to grow old’;
    (n.) *s¨en¨-a ‘old age; old person’; (adj.) ‘aged, old’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *s¨[e]n- ‘to change, to deteriorate, to grow old’: Proto-
    Semitic *s¨an-an- ‘to grow old, to reach old age’ > Akkadian šanānu ‘to
    have reached, attained’, šinnatu ‘attainment, achievement, equality’;
    Arabic sanna ‘to grow old, to age, to be advanced in years’, "asann ‘older,
    farther advanced in years’, musinn ‘old, aged’; Śḥeri / Jibbāli esnín ‘to
    become old’, sǝn ‘age’; Mehri šǝsnōn ‘to think someone is old’, sǝnáyn
    ‘person a year older than oneself’.
    B. Dravidian: Gondi sēnāl ‘old man, senior’, sēnō ‘old woman’, (m.) senāl,
    (f., nt.) seno ‘aged’, senāl ‘old man’, seno ‘old woman’; Kui senḍa ‘firstborn,
    eldest’, senḍenju ‘founder of a race, early settler’. Burrow—
    Emeneau 1984:243, no. 2808.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *sen-/*sn̥- ‘old’: Sanskrit sána-ḥ ‘old, ancient’;
    Avestan hanō ‘old’; Old Persian hanatā- ‘old age, lapse of time’; Latin
    senex ‘old, aged’; Old Irish sen ‘old’; Welsh hên ‘old’, hyned ‘so old’, hŷn,
    hynach ‘older’; Cornish hēn ‘old’; Breton hen ‘old’; Gothic sineigs ‘old’;
    Lithuanian sẽnas ‘old’, sẽnis ‘old man’; Armenian hin ‘old’. Pokorny
    1959:907—908 *sen(o)- ‘old’; Walde 1927—1932.II:494 *sen(o)-; Mann
    1984—1987:1127 *senā̆t- ‘age’, 1127 *senēi̯ō (*sen[e]s$ō) ‘to grow old’,
    1128 *senos ‘old’; *senis, -i̯os ‘elderly; old man’; Watkins 1985:57 *senand
    2000:75 *sen- ‘old’; Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.II:783, fn. 1, *senand
    1995.I:685, fn. 4, *sen- ‘old’; Ernout—Meillet 1979:613 *sen-;
    Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.II:513—514 *sénos; De Vaan 2008:553—
    554; Mallory—Adams 1997:409 *sénos ‘old’; Lewis—Pedersen 1937:3
    and 183; Morris Jones 1913:134, 247—248, and 261—262; Thurneysen
    1946:118; Orël 2003:324 Proto-Germanic *seniᵹaz; Kroonen 2013:433
    Proto-Germanic *senīga- ‘senior’; Feist 1939:422—423 *séno-; Lehmann
    1986:304—305 *seno-; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.III:426; Fraenkel 1962—
    1965.II:775; Smoczyński 2007.1:543.Buck 1949:14.15 old. Brunner 1969:105, no. 577; Möller 1911:226—227; Bomhard—Kerns 1994:342—343, no. 167; Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 2075, *s̄[e]n̄ó ‘long time, year, old’.

  21. IE Dravidian no 5. From Bomhard :
    346. Proto-Nostratic root *gaʔ- (~ *gəʔ-):
    (vb.) *gaʔ- ‘to go, to leave, to depart; to leave behind, to abandon, to forsake’;
    (n.) *gaʔ-a ‘abandonment, lack, want, need, deprivation, loss, deficit’; (adj.)
    ‘abandoned, forsaken, left behind; wanting, lacking, deprived of’
    A. Afrasian: Egyptian g&w ‘to be narrow, constricted; to languish; to lack, to
    be lacking; to deprive’, g&w ‘lack’, g&wt ‘lack, want’, ng&w ‘without’, ng&
    ‘to lack, to want, to be short of’. Hannig 1995:439 and 893—894; Gardiner
    1957:597; Faulkner 1962:287 and 288; Erman—Grapow 1921:197 and
    1926—1963.2:349, 5:151—152.
    B. Dravidian: Kuṛux kānā ‘to go, to lead to (as a road), to progress favorably,
    to go on, to continue, to perish, to pass (of time), to come to an end, to
    have diarrhea (stomach), to bring oneself to, to be able to’; Malto kale ‘to
    go, to come to’; Brahui hining (pres. indef. kāv, kās, kāe, kān, kāre, kār;
    pres.-fut. kāva, kāsa, kāik, kāna, kāre, kāra) ‘to go, to depart, to disappear,
    to be past, to pass beyond, to be no longer fit for, to flow, to have diarrhea
    (stomach)’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:133, no. 1419.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *gºeʔ-/*gºoʔ- (> *gºē-/*gºō-), *gºeʔ-y/i-/*gºoʔ-y/i-
    (> *gºēy-/*gºōy-; *gºei-/*gºoi-) ‘to go, to leave, to depart; to abandon, to
    forsake’: Sanskrit (reduplicated) já-hā-ti ‘to leave, to abandon, to desert, to
    quit, to forsake, to relinquish’, (causative) hāpayati ‘to cause to leave or
    abandon; to omit, to neglect; to fall short of, to be wanting’, hāni-ḥ

    1. ‘abandonment, relinquishment, decrease, diminution; deprivation; damage,
      loss, failure, ruin; insufficiency, deficit’; Avestan (reduplicated) za-zā-mi
      ‘to release’; Greek (Homeric) (reduplicated) κιχᾱ́νω, (Attic) κιγχάνω ‘to
      reach, hit, or light upon; to meet with, to find; (Homeric) to overtake, to
      reach, to arrive at’, χῆρα (Ionic χήρη) ‘bereft of husband, widow’, χῆρος
      ‘widowed, bereaved’, χώρα ‘the space in which a thing is’, χωρέω ‘to
      make room for another, to give way, to draw back, to retire, to withdraw;
      to go forward, to move on or along’, χῶρος ‘piece of ground, ground,
      place’, (adv.) χωρίς ‘separately, asunder, apart, by oneself or by
      themselves’, (dat.) χήτει ‘in lack of’, χατέω ‘to crave, to long for, to have
      need of, to lack’, χατίζω ‘to have need of, to crave; to lack, to be without’,
      χατίζων ‘a needy, poor person’; Latin hērēs ‘heir’; Gothic gaidw ‘lack’;
      Crimean Gothic geen ‘to go’; Swedish gå ‘to go’; Danish gaa ‘to go’; Old
      English gān ‘to go, to come, to proceed’, gād ‘want, lack’, gbsne ‘barren,
      deprived of, without; wanting, scarce; dead’; Old Frisian gān, gēn ‘to go’; Old Saxon -gān in ful-gān ‘to accomplish’; Middle Dutch gaen ‘to go’
      (Modern Dutch gaan); Old High German gān ‘to go’ (New High German
      gehen). Rix 1998a:152—153 *ĝºeh÷- ‘to leave behind, to abandon’;
      Pokorny 1959:418—419 *ĝhē-, *ĝhēi- ‘to be empty, void; to lack’; Walde
      1927—1932.I:542—544 *ĝhē(i)-; Mann 1984—1987:311 *ghāi̯ō (*ghāmi,
      *ghĭghāmi) ‘to go, to move, to depart’, 331—332 *ghōros (?) ‘space,
      extent, stretch’, 417 *ghĭghāmi; Watkins 1985:21 *ghē- (contracted from
      *ghe˜-) (suffixed o-grade form: *ghō-ro- ‘empty space’) and 2000:28
      *ghē- ‘to release, to let go’ (contracted from earlier *ghe™-); Mallory—
      Adams 1997:349 *gheh÷- ‘to leave’; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.I:426;
      Boisacq 1950:461—462 *ĝhē(i)-, *ĝhī-, *ĝhə-, 1046, 1058—1059, and
      1059 *ĝhē-, *ĝhēi-, *ĝhī-; Frisk 1970—1973.I:861—862, II:1077—1078,
      II:1095—1096, and II:1125—1126; Hofmann 1966:145 *“hē(i)-, *“hə-,
      417 *“hē(i)-, and 424 *“hēi-; Chantraine 1968—1980.I:536 *ghi-ghē-mi,
      II:1249 *ghē-, *ghə-, II:1257 *ghē-re/o-, and II:1281—1282; Walde—
      Hofmann 1965—1972.I:641—642 *“hēi-; Ernout—Meillet 1979:292; De
      Vaan 2008:282—283 *ǵºeh÷ro- ‘derelict’; Orël 2003:125 Proto-Germanic
      *ᵹanᵹanan, 133—134 *ᵹēnan; Kroonen 2013:174 Proto-Germanic *gēn-
      ‘to go’ (< *ǵºeh÷-); Feist 1939:185 *“hēi̯-; Lehmann 1986:139 *ĝhēy- ‘to
      lack, to be empty’; Onions 1966:403 *ghē(i)-; Klein 1971:316 *ĝhē-,
      *ĝhēi-; Kluge—Mitzka 1967:241 *ghē-; Kluge—Seebold 1989:252;
      Benveniste 1973:68—69; Falk—Torp 1903—1906.I:209—210.
      D. Proto-Altaic *ga- ‘to take, to take off, to take away; to let go, to leave; to
      put’: Proto-Tungus *ga- ‘to take’ > Manchu ɢai- ‘to take, to take away, to
      take off’; Spoken Manchu (Sibo) ɢia- ‘to take, to take away, to take off’;
      Evenki ga- ‘to take’; Lamut / Even ga- ‘to take’; Negidal ga- ‘to take’;
      Ulch ɢa- ‘to take’; Orok ɢa- ‘to take’; Nanay / Gold ɢa- ‘to take’; Oroch
      ga- ‘to take’; Udihe ga- ‘to take’. Proto-Turkic *Ko- (perhaps originally
      *Ka- but changed to *Ko- under the influence of the synonymous stem
      *Kod- ‘to put; to leave’) ‘to put; to let go; to leave’ > Turkish ko-, koy- ‘to
      put; to let go; to leave; to permit; to suppose’; Karaim qo- ‘to put; to
      leave’; Chuvash χïv-, χu- ‘to put; to leave’. Starostin—Dybo—Mudrak
      2003:525 *ga ‘to take, to put’.
      Buck 1949:2.76 widow; 10.47 go; 12.18 leave. Bomhard—Kerns 1994:396—
      397, no. 234.

  22. IE-Dravidian no 6. From Bomhard :
    373. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *gen-a ‘jaw, cheek’:
    A. Proto-Afrasian *gen- ‘jaw, cheek’: Proto-Semitic *ʔa-gan-, *wa-gan-
    ‘cheek’ > Arabic "a-ǧna-t, "i-ǧna-t, "u-ǧna-t ‘fullest part of the cheek’,
    wa-ǧnā" ‘having strong cheeks (strong she-camel)’, wa-ǧna-t, wi-ǧna-t,
    wu-ǧna-t, wa-ǧana-t ‘cheek’; Śḥeri / Jibbāli ōgən ‘to have prominent
    cheekbones’, έgənt ‘cheekbone’; Mehri wəgnēt ‘cheekbone’; Ḥarsūsi
    wegnēt ‘cheek’. D. Cohen 1970— :7 and 493—494. Chadic: Sura gė́n
    ‘cheek’; Dera gə́ŋgá ‘cheek’; Pa’a gàncə́ka ‘cheek’; Zime-Dari gin
    ‘cheek’; Zime-Batna gḭ̀n ‘cheek’. Jungraithmayr—Ibriszimow 1994.II:
    B. Dravidian: Tamil cenni, cennai ‘cheek’; Malayalam cennam ‘jaw, cheek’;
    Kota keyṇ ‘cheek just in front of the ear’; KannaDa kenne ‘the upper
    cheek’; Tuḷu kenni, kennè ‘cheek’
    . Burrow—Emeneau 1984:181, no. 1989.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *gºenu- ‘jaw, cheek’: Sanskrit (f.) hánu-ḥ (also
    hánū) ‘jaw, cheek’; Avestan zānu- ‘jaw’. Pokorny 1959:381—382 *“enuand
    (*“enədh- :) *“onədh- ‘jaw, cheek’; Walde 1927—1932.I:587
    *“(h)enu-s; Mann 1984—1987:393—394 *ĝenus (*ĝenu̯ə, *ĝenəu̯ə,
    *ĝenə) ‘jaw, jowl, angle of the face, angle, wedge’; Watkins 1985:19
    *genu- and 2000:26 genu- ‘jawbone, chin’ (variant form *g(h)enu-);
    Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.I:183 *%’enu-s, II:815 *%’enu- and 1995.I:157
    *%’enu-s, I:715 *%’enu- ‘jaw, chin’; Mallory—Adams 1997:322 *ĝénu-
    ‘jaw’ and 2006:174 *ĝénu- ‘jaw’, 176 *ĝénu-. It appears that there were
    two variants in Proto-Indo-European: (1) *gºenu- and (2) *k’enu-. The first
    is found only in Indo-Iranian, while the second is found in the remaining
    daughter languages. It is only the first variant (provided it is not an Indo-
    Iranian innovation) that belongs here.
    Buck 1949:4.207 jaw (Proto-Indo-European *gwenu- ‘jaw, cheek, chin’); 4.208
    cheek; 4.209 chin. Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 637, *genû ‘jaw, cheek’.

    1. Here the final vowel, that in IE is -u but not in Dravidian, should exclude a loanword, also unlikely for such an important anatomical word. I have difficulties with the phonological reconstruction used by Bomhard. I prefer a more traditional *ǵh- to explain Skt. hanu-. It is remarkable of course the sound k- again in Dravidian instead of IE voiced palatal.

  23. PIE-Dravidian no 7. :

    377. Proto-Nostratic root *gid- (~ *ged-) or *ɢid- (~ *ɢed-):
    (vb.) *gid- or *ɢid- ‘to force, drive, or press together; to join; to unite; to
    gather (together); to collect’;
    (n.) *gid-a or *ɢid-a ‘force, compulsion; collection, heap; union’; (adj.)
    ‘pressed close together, near, united’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *gid- ‘to force, drive, or press together; to join; to unite; to
    gather (together); to collect’: Proto-Semitic *gad-ad- ‘to force, drive, or
    press together; to join; to unite; to gather (together); to collect’ > Hebrew
    gāðað [dd^G*] ‘to gather in bands or troops’, gəðūð [dWdG=] ‘band, troop’;
    Phoenician (pl.) "gddm ‘troops’; Akkadian *gudūdu ‘military detachment’
    (Hebrew loan); Geez / Ethiopic gadada [ገደደ] ‘to force, to compel, to be
    cruel, to be deformed’, gədud [ግዱድ] ‘serious, severe, impure, dirty’,
    bagədud [በግዱድ] ‘by force’; Tigre gədd ‘compulsion, force’; Tigrinya
    gädädä ‘to force, to compel’, (bä)gəddi ‘compulsory’; Amharic gäddädä
    ‘to force, to oblige’; Harari gädād ‘stubborn’; Gurage (Soddo) (ag)giddädä
    ‘to force someone to do something’. D. Cohen 1970— :99—100;
    Murtonen 1989:127; Klein 1987:91 (different from gāðað ‘to cut’); Leslau
    1979:262 and 1987:181 (not derived from Semitic *gdd ‘to cut’). Egyptian
    (*gid- > *g¨id- > *d¨id- >) ddb ‘to gather; to assemble, to come together
    (people); *to heap or pile up’, ddmt /didma-t/ ‘heap, pile’; Coptic (Sahidic)
    ǧatme [jatme], (Akhmimic) ǧetme [jetme] ‘heap (of grain)’. Hannig
    1995:1019; Erman—Grapow 1921:223 and 1926—1963.5:632 and 5:634;
    Černý 1976:321; Vycichl 1983:332. Highland East Cushitic: Hadiyya
    gidd-is- ‘to compel, to force; to persuade’; Kambata gidd-is- ‘to order’.
    Hudson 1989:279 and 318.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil kiṭṭu (kiṭṭi-) ‘to draw near (in time or place); to be on
    friendly terms with; to be attained, accomplished; to be clenched (as the
    teeth in lockjaw); to approach, to attack, to meet, to tie, to bind’, kiṭṭa
    ‘near, close by’, kiṭṭam ‘nearness, vicinity’, kiṭṭi ‘clamps (used in torture,
    etc.)’, kiṭṭinar ‘relations, friends, associates’, kiṭai (-pp-, -tt-) ‘(vb.) to beobtained, found; to come into one’s possession; to join, to come together;
    to approach, to encounter; to oppose; (n.) comparison, likeness, equality’;
    Malayalam kiṭa ‘approach, match, equality’, kiṭayuka ‘to knock against, to
    quarrel, to be found or obtained’, kiṭaccal ‘meeting, quarrelling’, kiṭekka
    ‘to be obtained, to engage in’, kiṭṭuka ‘to come to hand, to be obtained, to
    reach’, kiṭṭam ‘vicinity, nearness’, kiṭṭi ‘torture by pressing the hands
    between two sticks’; Toda kiṭ- (kiṭy-) ‘to be caught (in crowd, by buffalo’s
    horns, by promise that one must keep, etc.)’, kïḍ- ‘vicinity’; Kannaḍa kiṭṭu
    ‘to touch, to reach, to come to hand, to be obtained’, giṭṭisu ‘to cause
    oneself to be reached’, kiṭṭi ‘torture in which hands, ears, or noses are
    pressed between two sticks’, kiḍu ‘touching, approach’; Koḍagu kïṭṭ-
    (kïṭṭi-) ‘to be gotten, to come into possession of’; Tuḷu kiṭṭa ‘proximity;
    near’, giṭṭu ‘proximate, near’; Koraga kiṭṭi ‘to touch’; Telugu kiṭṭu ‘to
    approach, to draw near, to agree, to suit’; Malto kiṭe ‘near, nigh’. Burrow—
    Emeneau 1984:141—142, no. 1538.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *gºedº- (secondary o-grade form: *gºodº-) ‘to force,
    drive, or press together; to join; to unite; to gather (together); to collect’:

    Looks good.

  24. PIE-Dravidian no 8 .I don't understand Bomhards logic regarding IE here :
    383. Proto-Nostratic root *gir¨- (~ *ger¨-):
    (vb.) *gir¨- ‘to be or become old’;
    (n.) *gir¨-a ‘old age, old person’; (adj.) ‘old’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *ger- ‘to be or become old’: Proto-East Cushitic *gerʕ- ‘to
    become old’ > Galla / Oromo jaar-sa ‘to become old’; Gidole ker"- ‘to
    become old’; Sidamo geeɗ-, geeɗɗ- (< *geer-ɗ-) ‘to grow old (of people)’,
    (pl.) geerra ‘old men, elders’, geer-co ‘old man, old woman’; Gedeo /
    Darasa geer-co ‘old man, old woman’, (pl.) gee"re ‘old men’. Hudson
    1989:107; Sasse 1979:37. Proto-Chadic *garǝ ‘to grow old’ > Kirfi gaaro
    ‘old’; Ngizim gàrú ‘to grow old’; Tera gorǝ ‘to grow old’. Newman
    1977:27. Takács 2011:197 *g-r ‘old’; Ehret 1995:186, no. 284, *gerʕ- ‘to
    become old’.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil kir̤am, kir̤aṭu ‘old age; aged person, animal, or thing
    (contemptuous)’, kir̤amai, kir̤avu ‘old’, kir̤avan, kir̤avōn ‘old man’, (f.)
    kir̤ avi ‘old woman’, kir̤ atan ‘old fellow’ (used in contempt), (f.) kir̤aṭi ‘old
    lady’ (used in contempt); Malayalam kir̤avan ‘old man’, (f.) kir̤ avi, kir̤atti
    ‘old woman’; Kannaḍa ker̤ava, ker̤iva ‘old man’; Tuḷu kīru̥ ‘ancient, old’.
    Burrow—Emeneau 1984:145, no. 1579.
    C. (?) Proto-Indo-European *gºr-eH- (> *gºr-ē-) ‘gray-haired, old’: Proto-
    Germanic *¦rbwaz ‘gray, gray-haired’ > Old Icelandic grár ‘gray, grayhaired’;
    Faroese gráur ‘gray’; Norwegian graa ‘gray’; Danish graa ‘gray’;
    Old Swedish grā ‘gray’ (Modern Swedish grå ‘gray’); Old English grbg
    ‘gray’; Old Frisian grē ‘gray’; Dutch grauw ‘gray’; Old High German grāo
    ‘gray’ (New High German grau ‘gray’). Watkins 2000:30 *gh(e)r- ‘to
    shine, to glow; gray’; Orël 2003:142 Proto-Germanic *ᵹrēwaz; Kroonen 2013:189 Proto-Germanic *grēwa- ‘grey’; De Vries 1977:185 *ghrēi̯-,
    *ghrēu̯-; Onions 1966:413 *ghrēghwos; Klein 1971:322; Falk—Torp
    1903—1906.I:242—243 Germanic stem *grâwa-; Kluge—Mitzka 1967:
    268; Kluge—Seebold 1989:276. Old Frisian grīs ‘gray’; Old Saxon grīs
    ‘gray’; Dutch grijs ‘gray’; Old High German grīs ‘gray’; Middle High
    German grīse ‘old man’ (New High German Greis). Kluge—Mitzka
    1967:269; Kluge—Seebold 1989:277; Orël 2003:143 Proto-Germanic
    *ᵹrīsaz; Kroonen 2013:191 Proto-Germanic *grīsa- ‘grey’.
    Buck 1949:14.15 old.

    Instead I propose , this Sanskrit Word :

    I am sure its of IE etymology .

    1. Of course, it is better for the comparison, this is the root according to present IE theories, accepted also by Mayrhofer:

  25. IE-Dravidian no. 9 . From Bomhard again . It also has Sumerian :
    421. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *kºar-a ‘edge, side, bank’:
    Perhaps a derivative of:
    (vb.) *kºar- ‘to twist, turn, spin, or wind around’;
    (n.) *kºar-a ‘ring, circle, curve’; (adj.) ‘round, curved, twisted’
    A. Afrasian: Semitic: Geez / Ethiopic karir [ከሪር], k¦arir [ኬሪር], korār
    [ኮራር], karer [ከሬር], kerār [ኬራር] ‘(round) hill, ravine, rock’. Leslau
    B. Dravidian: Tamil karai ‘shore, bank, ridge of a field, border of a cloth’;
    Malayalam kara ‘shore, riverside, land (opposite to sea), colored border of
    a cloth’, karal ‘border, margin, edge’; Kannaḍa kare ‘bank, shore,
    boundary, border of a cloth’; Koḍagu kare ‘bank’; Tuḷu karè ‘seashore,
    bank of a river, border, colored border of a cloth’; Telugu kara ‘shore,
    bank’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:120, no. 1293.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *kºer-/*kºor-/*kºr̥ - ‘edge, shore, bank’: Avestan
    karana- ‘end, border, shore’; Farsi karān ‘shore, side’; Lithuanian krãštas
    ‘edge, verge, border, brim, bank’, krañtas ‘bank, seashore’; Latvian krasts
    ‘shore, bank (of a river)’, krants ‘cliff’; Russian krutój [крутой] ‘steep’,
    krúča [круча] ‘steep slope’. Pokorny 1959:584—585 *kert-, *kerǝt-,
    *krāt- ‘to twist or turn together’; Walde 1927—1932.I:421—422 *qer-,
    *qerāt-; Mann 1984—1987:535 *korōn-, *korǝn- ‘edge, rim, border’,
    557—558 *krontos ‘turned, bent; turn, bend, edge’; Watkins 1985:30
    *kert- ‘to turn, to entwine’ and 2000:41 *kert- ‘to turn, to entwine’ (zerograde
    form *kr̥ t-); Fraenkel 1962—1965.I:288 and I:289; Smoczyński
    2007.1:307 and 1:308.
    D. Uralic: Selkup Samoyed kery ‘edge, brim’. Rédei 1986—1988:148.
    E. Proto-Altaic *kºāre ‘edge’: Proto-Tungus *χāri- ‘border, hem’ > Ulch
    χārịča ‘border, hem’; Nanay / Gold χāri-, χāriča ‘border, hem’.
    Starostin—Dybo—Mudrak 2003:767—768 *kªāre ‘edge’. Starostin—
    Dybo—Mudrak also include Proto-Mongolian *kira ‘edge, ridge’ and Proto-Turkic *Kir ‘isolated mountain; mountain top, mountain ridge;
    steppe, desert, level ground; edge’. However, the Mongolian and Turkic
    forms are separated from the Tungus forms in this book and are included
    instead under Proto-Nostratic (n.) *kºir-a ‘uppermost part (of anything):
    horn, head, skull, crown of head; tip, top, summit, peak’.
    Sumerian kar ‘embankment, quay-wall, wall along a canal or moat, mooring place,
    harbor’. Buck 1949:1.27 shore. Illič-Svityč 1971—1984.I:340—341, no. 216, *Ḳarʌ
    ‘cliff, steep elevation’; Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 1161, *ḲarXó ‘bank, edge’;
    Bomhard—Kerns 1994:422, no. 264.

    In epsd there is kar "harbor, quay" Akk. kāru "quay, port; bank".

  26. PIE-Dravidian no 10 . Its enough for one day :) . I think I will continue this venture . I hope I will find more good ones .
    422. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *kºar-a ‘hardness, strength, firmness, fortitude’; (adj.)
    ‘hard, strong, firm’:
    Identical to:
    (n.) *khar-a ‘roughness, coarseness’; (adj.) ‘rough, coarse’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *kar- ‘hard, dry’: Proto-Semitic *kar-ar- ‘to be or become
    hard, dry’ > Geez / Ethiopic karra [ከረ], karara [ከረረ] ‘to be dry, to dry up
    (spring)’; Tigrinya kärärä ‘to be hard, dry’; Amharic kärrärä ‘to become
    hard, to dry out’; Harari kärära ‘to become stiff’. Leslau 1963:94 and
    1987:293—294. Southern Cushitic: Proto-Rift *karaħ- ‘hard, dry’ >
    Burunge karaḥadi ‘hard, dry’; K’wadza kalahayi ‘dry, withered, hard’.
    Ehret 1980:366.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil karumai ‘strength, greatness’; Malayalam karu, karu
    ‘stout, hard’, karuma ‘hardness, strength of a man’, karuman ‘one who is
    strong and able’, karuttu ‘strength, vigor, power, fortitude, courage’;
    Kannaḍa kara, karu ‘greatness, abundance, power’; Telugu karamu ‘much,
    great, very’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:119, no. 1287. [(?) Tamil kār̤ ‘(vb.)
    to become hard, mature; to be firm or strong in mind; to be implacable; (n.)
    hardness, solidity or close grain (as of timber), core, strength of mind’,
    kār̤ppu ‘close grain (as of the heart of timber), essence’, kār̤ i ‘great
    strength, toughness, hardness’, kār̤ untu ‘heart or core of a tree’;
    Malayalam kar̤ampu ‘pulp of fruit, pith, essence’; Kannaḍa kār̤ime, kāḷime
    ‘obstinacy, haughtiness’; (?) Parji kāṛ- ‘to expand hood (serpent)’.
    Burrow—Emeneau 1984:138, no. 1491.]
    C. Proto-Indo-European *kºar- ‘hard, strong, firm’: Sanskrit karkaṭa-ḥ ‘crab’,
    karkara-ḥ ‘hard, firm’; Greek καρκίνος ‘crab’, κάρτος, κράτος ‘strength,
    might’, καρτερός ‘strong, stout, staunch, sturdy’, κρατύς ‘strong, mighty’;
    Latin cancer (< *carcro-) ‘crab’; Gothic hardus ‘hard, stern’; Old
    Icelandic harðr ‘hard, stern, severe’, herða ‘to make hard’; Norwegian
    hard ‘hard, strong’; Swedish hård ‘hard, strong’; Danish haard ‘hard,
    strong’; Old English heard ‘hard, strong, stern, severe, brave, stubborn’,heardian ‘to harden’, heardnes ‘hardness’, (adv.) hearde ‘hardly, firmly,
    very severely, strictly, vehemently; exceedingly, greatly; painfully,
    grievously’; Old Frisian herd ‘hard’, herda ‘to harden’; Old Saxon hard
    ‘hard’, herdian ‘to harden’; Old High German hart ‘hard’ (New High
    German hart), harten ‘to harden’ (New High German härten). Pokorny
    1959:531—532 *kar-, (reduplicated) *karkar- ‘hard’; Walde 1927—
    1932.I:354—355 *qar-, (reduplicated) *qarqar-; Mann 1984—1987:475
    *kark- (?) ‘crab’, 475—476 *karkǝros ‘rough, tough, harsh, coarse’, 478
    *kartus ‘hard, harsh, bitter’, 544 *kratos, -is, -us ‘strong; strength, power,
    force’; Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.II:533 (reduplicated) *k[º]ark[º]arand
    1995.I:451 *kºarkºar- ‘rough, hard’; Watkins 1985:27 *kar- and
    2000:37 *kar- ‘hard’; Mallory—Adams 1997:512 *karkr(o)- ‘crab’, *kar-
    ‘hard’; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.I:169 and I:170; Boisacq 1950:414 *qarand
    510—511 *qar-; Frisk 1970—1973.I:789—790 and II:8—10 *qartúor
    *qortú- beside *qr̥ tú-; Chantraine 1968—1980.I:498—499 and I:578—
    579; Hofmann 1966:133 and 158 *qre-t-, *qr̥ t- (root *qar-); Ernout—
    Meillet 1979:91; Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.I:151 *qar-; De Vaan
    2008:86—87; Orël 2003:161 Proto-Germanic *xarđīn, 162 *xarđjanan,
    162 *xarđuz; Kroonen 2013:211 Proto-Germanic *hardu- ‘hard, severe’;
    Feist 1939:246—247 *kar-; Lehmann 1986:177 *kar-; Falk—Torp
    1903—1906.I:265 *kortú-; De Vries 1977:210—211; Onions 1966:427
    Common Germanic *χarðuz; Klein 1971:334 *qar-; Kluge—Mitzka
    1967:290 *kar-; Kluge—Seebold 1989:294.
    Buck 1949:4.81 strong, mighty, powerful; 15.74 hard; 15.84 dry. Bomhard—
    Kerns 1994:425—426, no. 268; Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 1943, *q̇aHøŕó
    ‘hard, firm’.

    1. 423 is of course is similar :
      423. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *kºar-a ‘roughness, coarseness’; (adj.) ‘rough, coarse’:
      Identical to:
      (n.) *kºar-a ‘hardness, strength, firmness, fortitude’; (adj.) ‘hard, strong, firm’
      (n.) *kºar-a ‘bitterness, pungency, harshness’; (adj.) ‘bitter, pungent, harsh,
      sharp, caustic, hot (of taste), acrid’
      A. Proto-Afrasian *kar- ‘rough, coarse’: Proto-Semitic *kar-ad- ‘rough,
      coarse’ > Geez / Ethiopic kardada [ከርደደ] ‘to be rough, coarse’, kǝrdud
      [ክርዱድ] ‘rough, coarse’; Amharic käräddädä ‘to be rough’. Leslau 1987:
      B. Dravidian: Tamil karaṭu ‘roughness, unevenness, churlish temper’, karaṭṭu
      ‘rugged, uneven, unpolished’; Malayalam karaṭu ‘what is rough or
      uneven’, karu ‘rough’, karuppu ‘roughness’, karukarukka ‘to be harsh,
      sharp, rough, irritating’; Kannaḍa karaḍu ‘that which is rough, uneven,
      unpolished, hard, or waste, useless, or wicked’; Tuḷu karaḍu̥, karaḍu ‘rough, coarse, worn out’, kargōṭa ‘hardness, hard-heartedness; hard, hardhearted’,
      garu ‘rough’; Telugu kara ‘sharp’, karusu ‘rough, harsh, harsh
      words’, karaku, karuku ‘harshness, roughness, sharpness; rough, harsh,
      sharp’, gari ‘hardness, stiffness, sharpness’, karaṭi ‘stubborn, brutish,
      villainous’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:117, no. 1265.
      C. Proto-Indo-European *kºar- ‘rough, hard, harsh’: Sanskrit karkaśá-ḥ
      ‘rough, hard’; Pāḷi kakkasa- ‘rough, harsh’; Prakrit kakkasa- ‘rough, hard’;
      Lithuanian kratùs ‘rough, uneven’. Pokorny 1959:531—532 *kar-,
      (reduplicated) *karkar- ‘hard’; Walde 1927—1932.I:354—355 *qar-,
      (reduplicated) *qarqar-; Mann 1984—1987:475—476 *karkǝros ‘rough,
      tough, harsh, coarse’, 478 *kartus ‘hard, harsh, bitter’; Mayrhofer 1956—
      Buck 1949:15.76 rough. Bomhard—Kerns 1994:426, no. 269.


      also this :
      424. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *khar-a ‘bitterness, pungency, harshness’; (adj.) ‘bitter,
      pungent, harsh, sharp, caustic, hot (of taste), acrid’:
      Derivative of:
      (n.) *khar-a ‘roughness, coarseness’; (adj.) ‘rough, coarse’
      A. Dravidian: Tamil kār ‘to be pungent, acrid, hot to the taste, very saltish or brackish’, kāram ‘pungency; caustic; alkali’, kārppu ‘pungency, saltness’, kari ‘to be saltish to the taste, to smart (as the eyes from oil or soap or chili), to feel an irritating sensation in the throat due to acidity of the stomach; to nag, to worry’, karippu ‘pungency, worrying, nagging’, karil ‘pungency’, (reduplicated) karakara ‘to feel irritation (as from sand or grit in the eye), to feel irritation in the throat, to be hoarse’, karakarappu ‘irritation in the throat, hoarseness’, karakar-enal ‘being irritated in the
      throat’; Malayalam kāram ‘caustic; different salts; pungency (as of
      pepper)’, (reduplicated) karukarukka ‘to be harsh, sharp, rough, irritating
      (for example, of grating sensation in the eyes)’; Kota ka·rm- ‘hot taste (of peppers, chilies, etc.), burning sensation if pepper is put in the eye’; Toda ko·rm ‘curry’, kary- (karc-) ‘to tickle (nose)’; Kannaḍa kāra ‘pungency’, karlu ‘salt land’; Koḍagu ka·ra ‘hot (as the taste of curry)’; Tuḷu kāra ‘tasting or smelling hot; hot, pungent’, kāruppu ‘a strong or black sort of salt’; Telugu kāru ‘saltness; salt, brackish’, kāramu ‘pungency; pungent, acrid, caustic’; Kolami karoṭ ‘salty’; Konḍa karya ‘saltness’; Pengo kariya ‘saltness’; Manḍa kariya ‘salty’; Brahui xarēn ‘bitter’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:137, no. 1466. Tamil kār̤ ‘to be pungent, acrid’, kār̤ppu ‘pungency’, kāṭṭu ‘pungency, acridity’ (Telugu loan); Kannaḍa kāṭa, gāṭa, gāṭu ‘strong stifling smell (as of tobacco, chilies, etc.)’; Tuḷu gāṭu̥, gāṭi ‘hot, pungent’; Telugu gāṭu ‘pungency, acridity’; Kolami gāṭam ‘hot, pungent’. Burrow— Emeneau 1984:138—139, no. 1491.
      B. Proto-Indo-European *khar-/*khr̥ - ‘sharp, pungent’: Sanskrit kaṭú-ḥ (<
      *kṛt-ú-) ‘sharp, pungent’; Lithuanian kartùs ‘bitter’. Mayrhofer 1956—
      1980.I:143; Walde 1927—1932.II:578; Mann 1984—1987:478 *kartus
      ‘hard, harsh, bitter’; Fraenkel 1962—1965.I:225; Smoczyński 2007.1:260.
      C. Uralic: Proto-Finno-Ugrian *karwa ‘bitter, sharp, pungent’ > Finnish
      karvas ‘acrid, pungent, bitter’, karvaus ‘bitterness, acridity’, karvastele-‘to smart’; Lapp / Saami (Lule) kaarvees ‘bitter’ (Finnish loan); Votyak / Udmurt kurÓt ‘sharp, pungent; bitter’; Zyrian / Komi (Sysola) kurÓd,
      (Permyak) kurÓt ‘bitter’; Ostyak / Xanty korǝ¦- ‘to burn, to smart’, korwaŋ ‘burning’. Rédei 1986—1988:128—129 *karwa.
      Buck 1949:15.37 bitter; 15.38 acid, sour. Hakola 2000:58, no. 218.

      Happy 2017 guys :) .

    3. It is curious, but in Japanese a 'pungent' taste is 'karai'... of course, also Japanese language has partly a continental origin (through Korea).

      The Skt. root is quite different because has a dental, it is derived from kṛt-, meaning 'to cut', from IE *(s)kVr...
      Tamil kāṭṭu and Telugu gāṭu maybe are loanwords from Indo-Aryan, since clearly do not belong to the same root. On the other hand, someone proposed that Skt. kaṭu comes from Dravidian, see Burrow: "Ta. kaṭu (-pp-, -tt-) to throb and pain (as from sting, venomous bite, prick, toothache), ache (as from rheumatism, colic, dysentery, the leg from walking, head from carrying load, arm from writing), be too highly seasoned, pungent, be angry, indignant, wroth, move swiftly; n. bitterness, pungency, poison, astringency; severe, cruel, harsh, extreme"

  27. PIE-Dravidian no 11.
    426. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *kºar-a ‘heart, core, essence’:
    A. Dravidian: Malayalam karaḷ, karuḷ ‘lungs and heart, liver, bowels; heart,
    mind’, kariḷ ‘heart’; Kota karl ‘heart, mind, desire’; Kannaḍa karuḷ,
    karaḷu, karḷu, kaḷḷu ‘an entrail, the bowels; love’; Koḍagu karï ‘intestines’;
    Tuḷu karalu̥, karlu̥ ‘the bowels, the liver’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:118,
    no. 1274; Krishnamurti 2003:14 *kar-Vḷ ‘intestines, bowels’. [(?) Tamil
    kār̤ ‘(vb.) to become hard, mature; to be firm or strong in mind; to be
    implacable; (n.) hardness, solidity or close grain (as of timber), core,strength of mind’, kār̤ppu ‘close grain (as of the heart of timber), essence’,
    kār̤ i ‘great strength, toughness, hardness’, kār̤ untu ‘heart or core of a tree’;
    Malayalam kar̤ampu ‘pulp of fruit, pith, essence’; Kannaḍa kār̤ime, kāḷime
    ‘obstinacy, haughtiness’; (?) Parji kāṛ- ‘to expand hood (serpent)’.
    Burrow—Emeneau 1984:138, no. 1491.]
    B. Proto-Indo-European *kºert’-/*kºr̥ t’- ‘heart’: Hittite (nom.-acc. sg.) ki-ir
    ‘heart’, (gen. sg. kar-ti-ya-aš); Palaic (dat.-loc. sg.) ka-a-ar-ti ‘heart’;
    Greek καρδία (poet. κήρ) ‘heart’; Armenian sirt ‘heart’; Latin cor ‘heart’
    (gen. sg. cordis); Old Irish cride ‘heart’; Welsh craidd ‘center, heart’;
    Cornish créz ‘middle’; Gothic hairtō ‘heart’; Old Icelandic hjarta ‘heart’;
    Norwegian hjarta ‘heart’; Swedish hjärta ‘heart’; Danish hjerte ‘heart’;
    Old English heorte ‘heart’; Old Frisian herte ‘heart’; Old Saxon herta
    ‘heart’; Dutch hart ‘heart’; Old High German herza ‘heart’ (New High
    German Herz); Lithuanian širdìs ‘heart’, šerdìs ‘core, pith, heart’; Latvian
    sird̃ s ‘heart’; Old Church Slavic srъdьce ‘heart’, srěda ‘center, middle,
    midst’; Russian sérdce [сердце] ‘heart’; Slovak srdce ‘heart’. The
    following (but with a different initial consonant: *gºert’-/*gºr̥ t’- ‘heart’)
    may belong here as well: Sanskrit hṛ́daya- ‘heart; mind, soul; breast, chest,
    stomach, interior’; Avestan zǝrǝd- ‘heart’; Baluchi zirdē ‘heart’. Pokorny
    1959:579—580 (*$ered-:) *$erd-, *$ērd-, *$r̥ d-, *$red- ‘heart’; Walde
    1927—1932.I:423—424 (*$ered-:) *$ē̆rd-, *$r̥ d-, *$red-; Mann 1984—
    1987:610 *$erd- (*$erdis, -ā, -i̯ǝ) ‘heart, core, center’, 637―638 *$r̥ d-
    ‘core, center, heart’; Watkins 1985:30 *kerd- and 2000:41 *kerd- ‘heart’;
    Lehmann 1986:171; Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.I:173, I:186. I:273,
    II:801, II:812, II:878 *$[º]er-t’- and 1995.I:148, I:160, I:238, I:702, I:712,
    I:775 *$ºer(-t’)- ‘heart’, I:148, I:160, I:171 *$ºr̥ -t’-; Mallory—Adams
    1997:262—263 *$ḗrd ‘heart’; Puhvel 1984— .4:189—191 *$ērd(i) :
    *$r̥ d(-y)-; Kloekhorst 2008b:469—471; Boisacq 1950:412—413 *kērd-,
    *%r̥ d-; Frisk 1970—1973.I:787—788 *kērd; Hofmann 1966:133 *kērd-;
    Chantraine 1968—1980.I:497—498 *kērd; Fraenkel 1962—1965.II:986—
    987; Smoczyński 2007.1:638—639 *#kērd-Ø; De Vaan 2008:134—135;
    Ernout—Meillet 1979:142; Kroonen 2013:222 Proto-Germanic *hertōn-
    ‘heart’; Orël 2003:170 Proto-Germanic *xertōn; Feist 1939:234—235;
    Lehmann 1986:171 *$erd-; De Vries 1977:232 *$erd- (beside *ĝhr̥ d- in
    Indo-Iranian); Falk—Torp 1903—1906.I:293—294; Onions 1966:433
    *kē̆rd-, *kr̥ d-; Klein 1971:338; Hoad 1986:212; Kluge—Mitzka 1967:306
    *kē̆rd- (*kr̥ d-); Kluge—Seebold 1989:307 *#erd-; Vercoullie 1898:105.
    Buck 1949:4.44 heart.

  28. PIE-Dravidian no 12 .
    433. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *kºay-a ‘solitude, loneliness, separateness’; (adj.) ‘alone’:
    Extended form (Afrasian and Indo-European):
    (n.) *kºay-w-a ‘solitude, loneliness, separateness’; (adj.) ‘alone’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *kayw- ‘alone’: Proto-East Cushitic *kaww- (< *kayw-)
    ‘alone’ > Somali kaw ‘one’; Konso xaww-aa ‘alone, separate, different’;
    Gidole haww ‘alone’; Rendille kow ‘one’. Sasse 1979:44.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil kaimmai ‘widowhood, widow, lovelorn condition’,
    kaintalai, kayini, kaini ‘widow’, kai-kkilai ‘unreciprocated love’; Tuḷu kaipoṇjavu ‘a single woman’ (poṇjavu, poṇjevu ‘a female in general, a
    grown-up woman’); Parji kētal, (NE.) kēṭal ‘widow’, kētub ‘widower’,
    kētub cind ‘orphan’; Gadba (Ollari) kēṭal ‘widow’. Burrow—Emeneau
    1984:183, no. 2028.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *kºay- (extended form *kºay-wo-) ‘alone’: Latin
    caelebs ‘unmarried, single’; Sanskrit kévala-ḥ ‘exclusively one’s own,
    alone’; Old Church Slavic cě-glъ ‘alone’; Latvian kaîls ‘barren, childless’.
    Pokorny 1959:519 *kai-, *kai-u̯o-, *kai-u̯elo- ‘alone’; Walde 1927—
    1932.I:326 *qai-; Mann 1984—1987:459 *kai- ‘alone, separate, only’, 460
    *kailos ‘single, alone, deprived’; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.I:267 *kaiwelo-;
    Mallory—Adams 1997:12 *kai-u̯elos ‘alone’; De Vaan 2008:80; Walde—
    Hofmann 1965—1972.I:130 *qaiu̯elo-, *qai-u̯o-, *qai-lo-; Ernout—
    Meillet 1979:83.
    Buck 1949:13.33 alone, only. Bomhard—Kerns 1994:411—412, no. 252;
    Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 1950, *q̇aywE(-Ló) ‘exclusively one’s own’ (→
    ‘alone’, ‘entire’).

  29. IE-Dravidian no 13 .
    436. Proto-Nostratic root *kºay-:
    (vb.) *kºay- ‘to scoop out’;
    (n.) *kºay-a ‘spoon, ladle’
    Extended form:
    (vb.) *kºay-V-w- ‘to dig’;
    (n.) *kºay-w-a ‘cave, pit, hollow’
    A. Dravidian: Malayalam kayyil ‘ladle, spoon’; Betta Kuruba kīlù ‘ladle’; Tuḷu
    kailu̥ ‘ladle, spoon’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:117, no. 1257.
    B. Proto-Indo-European *kºay-wr̥ -tº, *kºay-wn̥-tº ‘cave, hollow’: Sanskrit
    kévaṭa-ḥ ‘cave, hollow’; Greek καιάδᾱς ‘pit or underground cavern’,
    καιετός ‘fissure produced by an earthquake’. Pokorny 1959:521 *kaiu̯r̥ -t,
    *kaiu̯n̥-t; Walde 1927—1932.I:327 *kaiu̯r̥ -t ‘cleft, hollow’; Mallory—
    Adams 1997:96 (?) *káiu̯r̥ (t) ‘cave, fissure’; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.I:267
    *kaiwr̥ -t, *kaiwn̥-t; Boisacq 1950:390 *qəiu̯r̥ t-; Hofmann 1966:128;
    Chantraine 1968—1980.I:479 *kai-wr̥ /n̥-t-; Frisk 1970—1973.I:753
    *qaiu̯r̥ -t-; Benveniste 1935:111 *kai-wr̥ -t, alongside *kai-wn̥-t in Greek
    (Hesychius) (pl.) καίατα· “ρύγματα. According to Joki (1973:130), the
    Indo-European forms are loans from Uralic
    C. Proto-Uralic *kayз ‘spoon, ladle, shovel’: (?) Livonian k>>i, kååi ‘spoon,
    ladle’; (?) Votyak / Udmurt kuj ‘shovel, winnowing-shovel’; Zyrian /
    Komi koj- ‘to shovel (snow)’; (?) Yurak Samoyed / Nenets huu ‘spoon,
    ladle’; (?) Tavgi Samoyed / Nganasan kụi ‘spoon, ladle’; (?) Selkup
    Samoyed kujak ‘spoon, ladle’; (?) Kamassian kaigu ‘spoon, ladle’. Rédei
    1986—1988:117—118 *kajз (*kojз); Décsy 1990:99 [*kaja] ‘spoon’.
    Proto-Finno-Permian *koywa- ‘to dig’ > Finnish kaivos ‘mine, pit’, kaiva-
    ‘to dig, to delve, to burrow, to dig out’; Estonian kaeva- ‘to dig’; Cheremis
    / Mari koe- ‘to dig, to shovel’. Joki 1973:130; Rédei 1986—1988:117—
    118 and 170—171 *kojwa-; Décsy 1990:100 Proto-Uralic [*kojva] ‘to dig,
    to burrow, to scoop’.
    Buck 1949:5.37 spoon; 8.22 dig; 12.72 hollow. Illič-Svityč 1971—1984.I:
    333—334, no. 209, *Ḳajwʌ ‘to dig’; Bomhard—Kerns 1994:427—428, no.271; Hakola 2000:48, no. 168; Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 969, *koyó ~ *kayó
    ‘to draw; scoop, spoon’ and, no. 1241, *Ḳay[i]wa ‘to dig’.

  30. I propose an alternate proposal for Sanskrit Kumara to be related to this :
    447. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *kºum-a ‘man, male; penis’:
    A. Afrasian: Semitic: Arabic kumurr ‘having a large penis’, kumurra-t,
    kamara-t ‘penis’.
    B. Dravidian: Malayalam kumpi ‘penis’; Tuḷu kumbi ‘penis’. Burrow—
    Emeneau 1984:159, no. 1749.
    C. Proto-Kartvelian *kmar- ‘husband’: Georgian kmar- ‘husband’; Laz
    komoǯ-, komonǯ-, kimoǯ- ‘husband’; Mingrelian komonǯ-, komoǯ- (<
    *kmoǯ- < *kmor-) ‘husband’. Klimov 1964:198 *kmar- and 1998:218
    *kmar- ‘husband’; Fähnrich—Sardshweladse 1995:379 *kmar-; Fähnrich
    1994:221 and 2007:468—469 *kmar-.
    Buck 1949:2.1 man (human being); 2.21 man (vs. woman); 2.31 husband;
    4.492 penis. Different etymology in Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 888, *kümâ (or
    *küHmâ) ‘man, person’.

  31. PIE-Dravidian no 13 :
    449. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *kºur-a ‘blood’:
    A. (?) Afrasian: Egyptian tr ‘blood; red color (designation for blood)’.
    Erman—Grapow 1926—1963.5:386; Hannig 1995:959.B. Dravidian: Tamil kuruti ‘blood, red color’; Malayalam kuruti ‘blood’;
    Kannaḍa kurudi ‘colored red water’; Tuḷu kurdi, kurudi ‘red liquid
    prepared by mixing turmeric and lime, used for auspicious purposes’.
    Burrow—Emeneau 1984:162, no. 1788.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *kºr-ew-H-/*kºr-ow-H-/*kºr-u-H- (> *kºr-ū-)
    ‘blood, gore’: Sanskrit kravíṣ- ‘flesh’, krūrá-ḥ ‘wounded, raw, blood’;
    Greek κρέας (< *κρέ+ας) ‘flesh, meat’; Latin cruor ‘the blood that flows
    from a wound, gore’, cruentus ‘bloody’, crūdus ‘bleeding, uncooked,
    raw’; Old Irish crú ‘blood’; Old Icelandic hrár ‘raw’; Faroese ráur ‘raw’;
    Norwegian raa ‘raw’; Swedish rå ‘raw’; Danish raa ‘raw’; Old English
    hrēaw ‘uncooked, raw’; Old Saxon hrāo ‘raw’; Dutch rauw ‘raw’; Old
    High German (h)rao ‘raw’ (New High German roh); Lithuanian kraũjas
    ‘blood’, krùvinas ‘bloody’; Old Church Slavic krъvь ‘blood’; Russian
    krovʹ [кровь] ‘blood’. Pokorny 1959:621—622 *kreu-, *kreu̯ǝ-, *krū-
    ‘thick (clotting) blood’; Walde 1927—1932.I:478—480 *qreu-, *qreu̯ǝ-;
    Mann 1984—1987:551 *kreu̯os (*krǝu̯os, *kruu̯os) ‘raw flesh, gore,
    blood’, 551 *kreu̯n̥t-, 559 *krouu̯-, 562—563 *kruu̯n̥t- ‘bloody’, 563
    *kruu̯os ‘blood’; Watkins 1985:32 *kreuǝ- and 2000:44 *kreuǝ- ‘raw
    flesh’ (oldest form *kreuš-); Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.II:698
    *k[º]reuH-/*k[º]ruH- and 1995.I:604 *kºreuH-/*kºruH- ‘raw meat’;
    Mallory—Adams 1997:71 (nom.-acc.) *kréuha ‘blood (outside the body),
    gore’ (gen. *kruhaós), *kréuha-s, *kréuha-ii̯o-; Mayrhofer 1956—
    1980.I:277 and 280; Boisacq 1950:512—513 *qreu̯ǝs-; Frisk 1970—
    1973.II:11—12 *qreu̯ǝs-; Hofmann 1966:159 *qreu̯ǝs-; Chantraine
    1968—1980.I:580 *qrewǝs-; De Vaan 2008:146—147; Ernout—Meillet
    1979:152; Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.I:294—295 *qreu̯-os; Orël
    2003:185 Proto-Germanic *xrawaz; Kroonen 2013:244 *hrawa- ‘raw’; De
    Vries 1977:251 *kreu-; Onions 1966:742 *krowos; Klein 1971:619
    *qrewə-, *qreu-; Kluge—Mitzka 1967:605 *krou̯o-; Kluge—Seebold
    1989:604; Falk—Torp 1903—1906.II:84—85 Germanic stem *hrā̆wa-;
    Fraenkel 1962—1965.I:290; Smoczyński 2007.1:308—309.
    Sumerian gu-ru-un, guru÷÷-un, kurin ‘blood’.
    Buck 1949:4.15 blood. Bomhard—Kerns 1994:422—423, no. 265; Illič-Svityč
    1971—1984.I:360—361, no. 237, (?) *Ḳurʌ ‘blood’; Dolgopolsky to appear,
    no. 1163, *Ḳur[Xû] ‘blood’.

    1. Correction , it should be no. 14 .

    2. Starling gives a broader picture:

      Borean (approx.) : KVRV
      Meaning : blood, red
      Eurasiatic : *ḳurV blood, red
      Sino-Caucasian : *gVrV ?
      African (misc.) : Bantu *-kúdà 'red colour'.

      Eurasiatic: *ḳurV
      Meaning: blood, red
      Borean: Borean
      Indo-European: *krewǝ-
      Altaic: *k`i̯ū́ŕu
      Dravidian: *kurud- (also *kural 'brown' SDr 1550)
      Eskimo-Aleut: *qaju
      Comments: Cf. also Esk. *kavir-(u) 'red'.
      References: МССНЯ 345, ОСНЯ 1, 360; ND 1163 *Ḳur[Xu] 'blood' (IE+Drav + very dubious Ah. and Arab.).

      Sum. kurun means also a kind of beer. Foxvog says: "kurun, kúrun beer ("made from barley malt and/or emmer wheat" probably with "grape syrup to sweeten and strengthen" Powell, Wine and the Vine (1994) 104) (karānu, kurunnu).

    3. I wonder if the IE root h₁rewdʰ "red" could be connected to this root too (it ending looks like the drav. kurud).

  32. IE-Dravidian no 15 . If the Wikitionay suggestion is correct, then we have a case .
    470. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *k’aŋ-a ‘knot, knob, joint’:
    Derivative of:
    (vb.) *k’aŋ- ‘to bend, twist, turn, or tie together’;
    (n.) *k’aŋ-a ‘wreath, rope, cord, fiber, tie, band, string’
    A. Dravidian: Tamil kaṇ ‘joint in bamboo or cane’, kaṇu ‘joint of bamboo,
    cane, etc., knuckle, joint of the spine, vertebra’, kaṇukkai ‘wrist’, kaṇukkāl
    ‘ankle’; Malayalam kaṇ, kaṇu, kaṇṇu, kaṇpu ‘joint in knot or cane’,
    kaṇavu ‘node of bamboo, cane, etc.’, kaṇakkai, kaṇaṅkai ‘wrist’, kaṇakkāl,
    kaṇaṅkāl ‘ankle’, kaṇippu ‘articulation of limbs’; Kota kaṇ ‘joint of
    bamboo’; Toda koṇ ‘joint of bamboo or cane’; Kannaḍa kaṇ ‘joint in
    reeds, sticks, etc.’, gaṇalu ‘knuckle of the fingers, joint or knot of any
    cane’, gaṇike ‘knot or joint’; Tuḷu kāra kaṇṇu̥ ‘ankle’; Telugu kanu, kannu
    ‘joint in cane or reed’, kaṇupu, gaṇupu ‘joint, knot, node (of bamboo,
    sugarcane, etc.)’; Kolami gana ‘knot in tree’; Naikṛi khan ‘joint in
    bamboo’; Gondi gana, ganakay ‘wrist’; Kuṛux xann ‘place on bamboo or
    cane where side shoot was cut away’; Brahui xan ‘knot in wood’.
    Burrow—Emeneau 1984:110, no. 1160.
    B. Proto-Indo-European (*k’en-/*k’on-/)*k’n- ‘knot, knob’: Old Icelandic
    knappr ‘knob’, knúi ‘knuckle’, knúta ‘knuckle-bone, joint-bone’, knútr
    ‘knot’, knýttr ‘knotted, crippled’, knykill ‘small knot’, knöttr ‘ball’;
    Norwegian knast ‘knot’; Swedish knagg ‘knot’; Old English cnotta ‘knot’;
    Middle English cnap ‘knob’, cnag ‘knot, peg’, cnarre ‘knot’, cnarri
    ‘knotty, gnarled’, cnobbe ‘knob’, cnobbel ‘knob’, cnop ‘knob’, cnoppe
    ‘knob, bud’, cnorre ‘knot, excrescence’, cnottel ‘little knot’, cnotti
    ‘knotty’, cnottien ‘knot’, cnurned ‘gnarled, knotty’, cnokil ‘knuckle’;
    Middle Dutch knolle ‘clod, ball’; Middle Low German knobbe ‘knot,
    knob, bud’, knotte ‘knot, knob’, knökel ‘knuckle’; Middle High German
    knolle ‘clod, ball’, knotze ‘knot, knob’; New High German Knast ‘knot’,
    Knorren ‘knot, knotty protuberance’, Knopf ‘knot, knob, button’, Knolle
    ‘clod, lump; knot, knob, protuberance; bulb, tuber’, Knöchel ‘knuckle,
    ankle (bone)’, Knochen ‘bone’, Knoten ‘knot’, Knubbe ‘knot’. Watkins
    1985:19 *gen- and 2000:26 *g(e)n- ‘to compress into a ball’; Orël
    2003:219 Proto-Germanic *knuttōn, 219 *knūtaz; Kroonen 2013:298—
    299 Proto-Germanic *knūþan- ~ *knuttan- ‘knot’; De Vries 1977:320,
    322, and 323; Onions 1966:508 and 509; Klein 1971:404; Kluge—Mitzka
    1967:383—384, 384, and 385; Kluge—Seebold 1989:384 and 385.

    1. Perhaps also Sumerian gana ‘band, tie,shackles'.

  33. PIE-Dravidian no 16 .
    509. Proto-Nostratic root *k¦ºwhal- (~ *k¦whºǝl-):
    (vb.) *k¦ºwhal- ‘to go, to walk, to move about’;
    (n.) *k¦ºal-a ‘walking, walk, wandering, roaming’
    Probably identical to:
    (vb.) *k¦ºwhal- ‘to revolve, to go around, to roll’;
    (n.) *k¦ºwhal-a ‘circle, circuit’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *k¦wal- ‘to go, to walk, to move about’: Berber: Tuareg əkəl
    ‘to go, to spend the hours in the middle of the day at, to spend the day at
    home’, sikəl ‘to travel, to go on foot (animal)’; Siwa ukel- ‘to go, to walk’,
    tikli ‘step, footstep’; Wargla kəl ‘to spend the middle of the day’, sikəl ‘to
    go on foot, to walk along’, tikli ‘walk, gait, going’; Mzab çəl ‘to spend the
    middle of the day, to spend the day’; Tamazight kəl, cəl ‘to spend the day,
    to spend the day doing something; to take place, to happen’, akəl, acəl ‘to
    step on, to stamp (one’s foot), to trample’; Kabyle tikliwin ‘walking, pace;
    conduct; walk’. Cushitic: Saho-Afar *kalah- ‘to travel’ > Saho kalaah-,
    kalaaħ- ‘to travel’. Central Chadic *kal- ‘to run, to go (quickly)’ > Mbara
    kal- ‘to run, to go (quickly)’; Mafa kǝl- ‘to run, to go (quickly)’; Gisiga
    kal- ‘to run, to go (quickly)’. East Chadic *kVl- ‘to enter’ > Kera kele- ‘to
    enter’. Orël—Stolbova 1995:310, no. 1418, *kal- ‘go’ and 310, no. 1420,
    *kalah- ‘go’.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil kulavu (kulavi-) ‘to walk, to move about’; Toda kwal-
    (kwad-) ‘to go round and round (millet in a mortar pit, buffaloes in a pen),
    to frisk about, to run about wasting time’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:163,
    no. 1803.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *kwhºel-/*k¦whºol-/*k¦whl̥- ‘to go, to walk, to move
    about’: Sanskrit cárati, calati ‘to move one’s self, to go, to walk, to move,to stir, to roam about, to wander’; Avestan carāiti ‘to go, to move’; Greek
    πολέω ‘to go about, to range over’, πολεύω ‘to turn about, to go about’.
    Rix 1998a:345—347 *kßelh÷-

    1. ‘to twist, to turn, to turn round’; Pokorny
      1959:639—640 *kßel-, *kßelǝ- ‘to turn’; Walde 1927—1932.I:514—516
      *qßel-; Mann 1984—1987:1024 *qu̯elō ‘to turn, to move, to go’; Watkins
      1985:33 *k¦el- and 2000:45 *k¦el- (also *k¦elǝ-) ‘to revolve, to move
      around, to sojourn, to dwell’; Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.I:220 *k[º]ºeland
      1995.I:190, I:225, I:622 *kººel- ‘to rotate, to move’; Mallory—Adams
      1997:606—607 *k¦el- ‘to turn’; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.I:376; Hofmann
      1966:260—261 *qßelō; Chantraine 1968—1980.II:877—878 *k¦elō;
      Boisacq 1950:764 *qßel-; Frisk 1970—1973.II:500—501 *qßelō, *qßolei̯ō.
      D. Proto-Uralic *kulke- ‘to ramble about, to move about, to roam or wander
      about’: Finnish kulke-/kulje- ‘to go, to walk, to travel, to stroll, to ramble’;
      Estonian kulg ‘course, process, run, motion, going’, kulgema- ‘to proceed,
      to take one’s course, to run, to pass’; Lapp / Saami golʹgâ- ‘to float (with
      the current), to run; to shower down; to leak very much; to ramble, to
      roam, to wander about’; Mordvin kolge- ‘to drip, to run; to leak, to be
      leaky’; Ostyak / Xanty kogǝl- ‘to walk, to stride’; Zyrian / Komi kylal- ‘to
      float, to drift (on water); to flood; to swim; to travel or drift downstream’,
      kylt- ‘to drift or swim with the current’; Hungarian halad- ‘to depart, to
      proceed, to move forward’; Yurak Samoyed / Nenets huuly- ‘to swim; to
      move by ship; to travel downstream’. Rédei 1986—1988:198 *kulke-;
      Décsy 1990:101 *kulka ‘to go, to progress’; Sammallahti 1988:544 Proto-
      Finno-Ugrian *kulki- ‘to run’; Collinder 1955:26—27 and 1977:46.
      E. Proto-Chukchi-Kamchatkan *(ðə)kəlK- ‘to follow or chase’: Chukchi kəle-
      ‘to follow, to chase, to catch, to copy’, ɣe-rkəle-lin ‘followed’, kəle-l"etətku-,
      keel"e-tku- ‘to chase’, kəla-jo-lqəl ‘pattern (to follow)’; Kerek kəlalʀa(
      a)t- ‘to chase’, klaa-ju-lXəl ‘pattern’; Koryak kəle- ‘to follow’,
      kəlelʀet- ‘to chase’; Alyutor (t)kəla-, kəla-l"at- ‘to follow’; Kamchadal /
      Itelmen (Western) kalkaz ‘to follow’. Fortescue 2005:144.
      Buck 1949:10.45 walk; 10.52 follow; 10.53 pursue. Bomhard—Kerns 1994:
      471—473, no. 317.

    2. About this root *kwel/ kwal, I think it fits better that *wel/*wal for Sum. bal / bala, at least for its meaning as "rotate, turn over, cross; reign, rotation, turn, term of office" (from kwal > pal - for example bal(a) becomes palû "period of office" in Akkadian.)

      The reason I think it fits better is because of the many Greek words in -polos, meaning "servant" or generally "someone involved in a kind of service / task / office", like aipolos = αιπόλος "goatherder", αμφιπόλος amphipolos = "female servant", θαλαμηπόλος thalamepolos = "chamber servant" etc (for words in -kul- -kol- there is also in Latin anculus = "servant" and ancula "woman servant" from the same root - and boukolos "cowherd in Greek).

      On the other hand, one can notice the closeness between *kwel/*kwal and *wel/*wal; also *wer/*war and *kwer/*kwar, all meaning almost the same thing ("to turn", "round" etc). They all seem evolved from the same archaic root.

    3. Yes, taht's what also Daniel suggested to me :). Not sure what will Giacomo say though.

    4. The roots are similar in form and meaning, maybe *kwal is a sort of extension of *wal (with specific connotation). *kwal seems more referred to wheels and movement of persons:

      *wal, to the round form of objects but also to rotation:

      So, both seem good semantically for Sum. bala. Since we do not have other instances of IE w-/Sum. b-, and there is a theory that Sum. b was pronounce p, I think Kyriakos' proposal can be taken into account, but it would be better to have other instances of kw>b in Sumerian.

  34. PIE-Dravidian no. 17 .
    511. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *k¦ºwhal-a ‘that which turns, rolls, revolves, or goes round
    and round’ (> ‘wheel’ in the daughter languages):
    Derivative of:
    (vb.) *k¦ºwhal- ‘to revolve, to go around, to roll’;
    (n.) *k¦ºwhal-a ‘circle, circuit’ A. Afrasian: Semitic: Tigre "ǝnkǝlolo, «ǝnkǝlolo ‘hoop, wheel’. Littmann—
    Höfner 1962:473.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil kāl ‘wheel, cart’; Kannaḍa gāli ‘wheel’; Tuḷu gāli
    ‘wheel’; Telugu kalu ‘a carriage wheel’, gānu, gālu ‘wheel’
    . Burrow—
    Emeneau 1984:138, no. 1483.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *k¦ºwhelo-, *k¦ºwholo-, (reduplicated) *k¦ºwhe-k¦ºwhlo-,
    *k¦ºwho-k¦ºwhlo- ‘wheel’: Sanskrit cakrá-ḥ ‘wheel’; Pāḷi cakka- ‘wheel’; Hindi
    cāk ‘any kind of wheel, millstone’; Avestan caxra- ‘wheel’; Greek κύκλος
    ‘a ring, circle; round; a wheel’, (adv.) κύκλῳ ‘in a circle or ring, round
    about’; Latin colus ‘spinning wheel’; Old Icelandic hvel ‘wheel’, hjól, hvél
    ‘wheel’; Faroese hjól ‘wheel’; Norwegian hjul ‘wheel’; Swedish hjul
    ‘wheel’; Danish hjul ‘wheel’; Old English hwēol ‘wheel’; Middle Low
    German wēl ‘wheel’; Dutch wiel ‘wheel’; Tocharian A kukäl, B kokale
    ‘cart, wagon, chariot’; Old Church Slavic kolo ‘wheel’; Russian kolesó
    [колесо] ‘wheel’; Czech kolo ‘wheel’; Serbo-Croatian kȍlo ‘wheel, circle’.
    Pokorny 1959:640 *kßekßlo-, *kßokßlo- (?) ‘wheel’; Walde 1927—1932.I:
    514—516 *qßelo-s, *qßolo-s, *qße-qßlo-s ‘wheel’; Mann 1957:40 *qu̯elos
    and 1984—1987:1027 *qu̯equ̯olos (*qu̯equ̯ǝlos, *qu̯qu̯los, -ā, -om)
    ‘turning, wheel, rim’; Watkins 1985:33 *k¦(e)-k¦l-o- ‘circle’ and 2000:45
    *k¦(e)-k¦l-o- ‘wheel, circle’; Mallory—Adams 1997:640 *k¦ek¦lóm
    ‘wheel’; Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.I:220, II:718 *k[º]ºek[º]ºlo- and
    1995.I:190, I:622 *kººekººlo- ‘circle, wheel, wheeled carriage/cart’;
    Chantraine 1968—1980.I:597 *k¦e-k¦l-o-, *k¦elo-m; Boisacq 1950:531
    *qßeqßlo-s; Frisk 1970—1973.II:44—45 *qße-qßlo-, *qßo-qßlo-, *qßélo-m;
    Hofmann 1966:164—165 *qße-qßlos, *qßel-; De Vaan 2008:125 and 127;
    Ernout—Meillet 1979:134—135; Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.I:250
    *qßolos, *qßelos; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.I:366; Orël 2003:199—200
    Proto-Germanic *xweᵹwlan ~ *xwexwlan; Kroonen 2013:264—265 Proto-
    Germanic *hwehla- ~ *hweula- ‘wheel’; De Vries 1977:232—233 and 270
    *kßel-; Falk—Torp 1903—1906.I:294—295; Klein 1971:825 *q¦e-q¦los;
    Onions 1966:1001 *q¦eq¦lo-; Van Windekens 1976—1982.I:239—240
    *qßeqßlo-; Adams 1999:200 *k¦ek¦ló-; Derksen 2008:229—230.
    Buck 1949:10.76 wheel.

  35. PIE-Dravidian no. 18.
    515. Proto-Nostratic root *k¦whºar- (~ *k¦ºǝr-):
    (vb.) *k¦ºwhar- ‘to cut’;
    (n.) *k¦ºwhar-a ‘piece cut off; knife’
    (vb.) *k¦ºwhar- ‘to cut a groove, to hollow out, to dig’;
    (n.) *k¦ºwhar-a ‘cut, hole, hollow, digging, excavation, pit, groove, trench’
    (vb.) *k¦ºwhar- ‘to cut short, to reduce, to decrease, to diminish, to lessen’;
    (n.) *k¦ºwhar-a ‘shortness’; (adj.) ‘short’
    A. Proto-Afrasian (?) *k¦war- ~ *k¦wur- ‘to cut’: East Chadic *kur- ‘knife’ >
    Somray kura ‘knife’. West Chadic: Ngizim kàrmú ‘to chop, to cut down, to
    chop off’. Proto-Southern Cushitic *kur- ‘to mince’ > K’wadza kulunso
    ‘mortar’; Dahalo kur- ‘to mince’. Ehret 1980:247. Orël—Stolbova
    1995:328, no. 1503, *kur- ‘knife’; Ehret 1995:200, no. 330, *kur-/*kar- ‘to
    cut up’.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil kurai ‘(vb.) to cut, to reap; (n.) piece, section’, kuru
    (kuruv-, kurr-) ‘to pluck’; Malayalam kurekka ‘to cut off’; Koḍagu korv-
    (kort-) ‘to make a fallen branch into a club’; Toda kwarf- (kwart-) ‘to cut’;
    Kannaḍa kore, kori ‘to cut, to break through, to bore, to pierce’, kori ‘a
    large branch cut off from a thorn-bush’, kore ‘cutting, cut-off piece’,
    koreyuvike ‘cutting, etc.’, koreta, korata ‘act of cutting, etc.; the piercing of
    cold’, korcu, koccu ‘to cut away, to cut up, to cut to pieces’
    ; Tuḷu kudupuni
    ‘to cut, to reap’, kudè ‘a piece of wood’, kujimbu, kujumbu ‘a chip,
    fragment’; Telugu kōra ‘a cut-off portion’; Kui krāpa (krāt-) ‘(vb.) to cut,
    to saw; (n.) the act of sawing’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:169—170, no.
    1859. Tamil kūru ‘section, division, part, share’; Telugu kōru ‘a share, the
    king’s or government’s portion’; Malayalam kūru, kūr ‘part, share, division
    of time, party, partnership’, kūrrān ‘partner’; Kota ku·r (obl. ku·t-) ‘share’;
    Toda ku·r ‘share, share inherited from father’; Kannaḍa kōru ‘part, portion,
    share in cultivation’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:174—175, no. 1924.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *k¦ºwher-/*k¦ºwhor-/*k¦ºwhr̥ - ‘to cut’: Hittite (3rd sg. pres.
    act.) ku-e-ir-zi ‘to cut, to cut up, to cut off’, (3rd pl. pres. act.) ku-ra-an-zi,
    (instr. sg.) ku-ru-uz-zi-it ‘cutter’, (1st sg. pret. act.) ku-e-ir-šu-un ‘to cut
    (off)’, (acc. sg.) ku-ra-an-na-an ‘section, area’, (nom. sg.) ku-e-ra-aš,
    ku-ra-aš ‘field, parcel, territory, (land) area, precinct, subdivision’; Luwian
    (3rd sg. pres. act.) ku-wa-ar-ti ‘to cut’ (?), kursawar ‘cut (off)’;
    Hieroglyphic Luwian kura/i- ‘to cut’; Welsh pryd (< *k¦ºr̥ -tºu-) ‘time’;
    Oscan -pert in petiro-pert ‘four times’; Sanskrit -kṛt ‘…time(s)’ in sa-kṛ́t
    ‘once’. Rix 1998a:350—351 *kßer- ‘to cut, to carve’; Mann 1984—
    1987:1027 *qu̯er- ‘to cut, to detach, to strip, to scrape’; Mallory—Adams
    1997:144 *k¦er- ‘to cut’; Bomhard 1984:114; Kronasser 1956:65, §81;
    Puhvel 1984— .4:212—218; Kloekhorst 2008b:486—487 *k¦er-/*k¦r-.
    Note: Forms meaning ‘to do, to make’ are often included here, but a more
    plausible derivation is from Proto-Nostratic *k¦ºir- (~ *k¦ºer-) ‘to twist or
    twine together, to tie together, to bind, to fasten’ (see below).
    D. Proto-Uralic *kurз ‘knife’: Finnish kuras/kurakse- ‘club, saber,
    broadsword, knife’; Vote kuras ‘knife’; Estonian kuurask ‘knife’; Lapp /
    Saami (Southern) korr ‘small knife, common knife’; Forest Yurak
    Samoyed / Forest Nenets kar ‘knife, dagger’; Yenisei Samoyed / Enets
    kooru ‘knife’; Motor kuro ‘knife’. Collinder 1955:29 and 1977:48; Rédei
    1986—1988:218—219 *kurз; Décsy 1990:101 *kura ‘knife’; Sammallahti
    1988:537 *kurå ‘knife’.
    Sumerian kurû ‘to cut, to cut off, to cut through, to separate, to divide’.
    Buck 1949:15.78 sharp. Bomhard—Kerns 1994:481—482, no. 328; Hakola
    2000:83, no. 344.

  36. PIE-Dravidian no. 19.
    518. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *k¦ºwhar-a ‘vessel, pot’:
    A. Afrasian: Semitic: Akkadian karpu, karpatu ‘pot, vase, jug’; Ugaritic krpn
    ‘cup, goblet’.
    B. Dravidian: Gondi karvi ‘narrow-mouthed earthen vessel for oil or liquor’;
    Koḍagu karava ‘clay pot with narrow neck’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:118,
    no. 1273(a). Telugu gurigi ‘a very small earthen pot’; Gondi kurvi ‘earthen
    cooking pot’, kurvī ‘earthen jar’, kuṛvī ‘pitcher (black, for cooking)’; Kui
    kui ‘pot’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:162, no. 1797; Krishnamurti 2003:8
    *kur-Vwi ‘small pot’.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *k¦ºwher-/*k¦ºwhor- ‘vessel, pot’: Sanskrit carú-ḥ
    ‘vessel, pot’; Old Icelandic hverr ‘kettle, cauldron’; Old English hwer ‘pot,
    bowl, kettle, cauldron’; Old High German (h)wer ‘cauldron’; Old Irish
    co(i)re ‘cauldron’; Middle Welsh peir ‘cauldron’. Pokorny 1959:642
    **kßer-’ 'dish'; Walde 1927—1932.I:518 *qßer-; Mann 1984—1987:1028 *qu̯ernā, -is (*qu̯erən-) ‘pot, shell, skull’, 1028 *qu̯eros, -is, -us ‘pot, pan,
    vessel, cauldron’; Watkins 1985:34 *k¦er- ‘something shaped like a dish
    or shell’; Mallory—Adams 1997:443 *k¦werus ‘large cooking pot,
    cauldron’; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.I:377; Orël 2003:200 Proto-Germanic
    *xweraz; Kroonen 2013:265 Proto-Germanic *hwera- ‘kettle’; De Vries
    D. Proto-Altaic *kºhure ‘basket, vessel’: Proto-Tungus *χurid- ‘a vessel for
    berries’ > Evenki uridīk ‘a vessel for berries’; Nanay / Gold χordaχĩ ‘a
    vessel for berries’. Proto-Turkic *Küri- ‘a measure of capacity; a kind of
    basket for vegetables’ > Old Turkic (Old Uighur) küri ‘a measure of
    capacity, a peck (2½ bushels)’; Karakhanide Turkic kürin ‘a kind of basket
    for vegetables’; Uighur kürε ‘a measure of capacity’; Sary-Uighur kºọr ‘a
    measure of capacity’. Starostin—Dybo—Mudrak 2003:854 *kªure
    Buck 1949:5.26 pot; 5.27 kettle; 5.34 pitcher, jug; 5.35 cup. Bomhard—Kerns
    1994:481, no. 327.

  37. PIE-Dravidian no. 20 . I am seeing there are many . I didn't list all of them now, but will do in time :) .
    539. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *k’¦war-b-a ‘the inside, the middle, interior, inward part’:
    A. Proto-Afrasian (?) *k’¦warb- ‘the inside, the middle, interior, inward part’:
    Proto-Semitic *k’irb- (< *k’w¦ǝrb-) ‘midst, inward part’ > Hebrew ḳereβ
    [br#q#] ‘inward part, midst’; Ugaritic ḳrb ‘midst, female genitalia’;
    Akkadian ḳerbu ‘midst’. Murtonen 1989:386; Klein 1987:591. Egyptian
    q&b ‘intestines, interior of the body, middle of anything’. Hannig 1995:849;
    Faulkner 1962:275; Erman—Grapow 1921:188 and 1926—1963.5:9;
    Gardiner 1957:596.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil karu ‘fetus, embryo, egg, germ, young of animal’,
    karuppai ‘womb’, karuvam ‘fetus, embryo’; Malayalam karu ‘embryo,
    yolk’; Kota karv ‘fetus of animal, larva of bees, pregnant (of animals)’;
    Telugu karuvu ‘fetus’, kari ‘uterus of animals’; Parji kerba ‘egg’; Gadba
    (Ollari) karbe ‘egg’; Gondi garba ‘egg’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:119, no.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *k’¦werbhº-/*k’¦worbhº-/*k’¦wr̥bhº-, *k’¦wrebhº- ‘the inside, the middle, interior, inward part’: Sanskrit gárbha-ḥ ‘womb, the inside,middle, interior’; Avestan garəwō ‘womb’, gǝrǝbuš ‘the young of an
    animal’; Greek βρέφος ‘the babe in the womb, fetus’; Old Church Slavic
    žrěbę, žrěbьcь ‘foal’. Mann 1984―1987:370 *gu̯rebhnos, -es-
    (*gu̯rebhmn̥, -ōn) ‘fetus, infant, animal’; Mallory—Adams 1997:615
    *g¦erbhen-, *g¦rebhos; Hofmann 1966:39; Boisacq 1950:133 *gßrebh-os;
    Frisk 1970―1973.I:266 *gßrebh-, *gßerbh-; Chantraine 1968—1980.I:195
    *g¦er-bh-/*g¦r-ebh-. Mayrhofer (1956―1980.I:329), on the other hand,
    compares Sanskrit gárbha-ḥ with Greek δελφύς ‘womb’, as does Frisk
    (1970―1973.I:363), while Chantraine (1968—1980.I:195) notes that
    Sanskrit gárbha-ḥ can go with either Greek βρέφος or δελφύς.
    Buck 1949:4.47 womb; 12.37 middle. Möller 1911:101; Bomhard—Kerns
    1994:489, no. 336.

    1. This is very interesting. Some Dravidian words look like loanwords from Indo-Aryan, but others (karu, kari) not.

    2. In Greek there is also kolpos κόλπος "womb". But I think it could be also connected to Sum. murub, wr. murub6; murub4; murub2; murub; murub3 "middle; female genitals, vulva; buttocks, rump; knob; mouth; gate (of city or large building); space between, distance; link; hips" Akk. abullu; birītu; bişşūru; pinku; pû; qablu; qinnatu; ûru. we have talked before (gwr-eb? > b(w)r-e?wb > mur-ub.

    3. Thank you Kyriakos , Giacomo . Perhaps the root which Bomhard suggests , I guess this set of Sanskrit words are also related :

      So coming from *kwar- /*gwar- .

  38. This is about the IE Sumerian connection again.

    melea [EXCLAMATION] (17x: Old Babylonian) wr. me-li-e-a "an exclamation" Akk. inimma = an expression - exclamation of sorrow. According to CAD inimma means "alas!".

    compared to Gr. μέλεος (-α, -ον) meleos masc. (-a fem. -on neut.) meaning "vain, useless, unhappy, miserable"; it's used also as an ecxlamation f. example μέλεοι meleoi (miserable (people)!). Like in the phrase of the Delphic oracle to the Athemians "῏Ω μέλεοι (oh meleoi), τί κάθησθε; Λιπὼν φύγ' ες ἔσχατα γαίης / δώματα καὶ πόλιος τροχοειδέος ἄκρα κάρηνα etc" [O miserable (people), why are you standing sit? Abandon your dwellings and the top the hills of your wheel shaped ( = circular) city etc" (That was the first answer of the oracle to the question what to do with the Persian invasion).

    The etymology is uncertain, but Pokorny thinks it belongs to this root:

    English meaning to fail; to deceive
    German meaning `verfehlen, trügen'
    Grammatical comments
    General comments
    Derivatives mel-i̯o- `böse'
    Av. mairya- `betrügerisch, schurkisch'; arm. meł, Pl. mełk` `Sünde'; gr. μέλεος meleos `vergeblich, nichtig, unglücklich, elend' (scheint als *μελε[σ]ος auf dem -es-St. *meles- zu beruhen, dessen schwächste Stufe *ml̥s-, βλασ- vielleicht in βλάσ-φημος als `Verfehltes, Unpassendes sagend');vielleicht μύλη `Mißgeburt'? zu ἀμβλίσκω, ἀμβλόω `tue eine Fehlgeburt'; mir. mell `Irrtum, Fehler' (*mel-s-os, vom es-St.), mellaim `betrüge', maile `Böses'; cymr. mall `verderbt' (*ml̥so-); lit. mẽlas `Lüge', lett. Pl. męli ds., màldît `irren, sich versehen', mùldêt `herumirren, phantasieren, sich plagen', mèlst `verwirrt reden'.

    1. Also here:

      μέλεος meleos

      I.idle, useless, Lat. irritus, Hom.: neut. as adv. in vain, Il.
      II.unhappy, miserable, ὦ μέλεοι, τί κάθησθε; Orac. ap. Hdt.; μέλεος γάμων unhappy in marriage, Aesch., etc.; μ. ἔργα, μ. θάνατος id=Aesch.
      deriv. uncertain
      1 μέλεος, η, ον

    2. Here the explanation of the Greek word is rather strange IMO :) .

      Here's Pokorny's root :

    3. Gr. μέλας melas "black" seems to be from some other root:

      But Pokorny's root for μέλεος meleos seems odd, too.

  39. Sum. malag [NEIGHBOR] (26x: ED IIIb, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. ma-la "female neighbor; secondary wife" Akk. ši'ītu ("girlfriend") - Akk. ši'ītu describes also Sum. usar (I think we discussed about it at the first post).

    The only Gr. word I can think of is μέλε mele, and ὦ μέλε o mele, only in vocativ., ὦ μέλε o mele!, dear! good friend! Ar.
    deriv. uncertain

    It reminds also a semitic word for "angel"

    1. Another possible comparison is to Gr. μαλακός malakos ( = soft, "molle", but it may mean also "effeminate").

  40. Another similar word.

    Sum. munu, wr. munu4 "malt" (Akk. buqlu)

    compared to Gr. βύνη byne "malt for brewing" [ m/b?] - origin uknown.

  41. Another Sum. mun, wr. mun; mun4; munu3 "(to be) brackish; salt" (Akk. marru; ţabtu)

    and another Gr. βύνη byne, which, according to Hesychius means "sea" (it's also a name for a godess of the sea)*bu%2Fnh

    The rason I put that comparison is that in Greek there is word ἅλς hals which mean both "salt" and "sea".

    1. It's a funny coincidence that in Sum. munus "woman" looks similar to Sum. mun/munu = "salt", while the IE root *sal = "salt" looks also like Sum. sal "woman".

    2. The godess named as Βύνη Byne ("sea" / "malt"?) or Λευκοθέα Leucothea ( = White Godess) is the godess Ἰνώ Ino, who, according to the myth, is responsible for the practice of roasting corn.

      That is maybe no coincidence, but perhaps connecting her both with malting and sea / salt (Sum. munu / mun). Well, that's my idea.

  42. That seems unlikely, but you never know...

    Sum. munus, wr. munus; nu-nus "woman; female" Akk. sinništu, compared to (some forms of reflexes of the IE root) *gwen- (I think we have discussed this before).
    These forms (taken by Frisk) include a boetian βανά bana = woman (plural) βανη̃κας banekas· γυναι̃καςgynaikas H.; also an (incertain) cypriot type βονά bona (Kretschmer Glotta 5, 266, Schwyzer 275).

    In Greek "woman" is γυνή gunḗ (genitive γυναικός gynaikos).
    I'm trying to translate from Frisk.

    Etymology : old word for ‘woman’, which is preserved also to most of the IE languages. Greek γυνή gyne, βανά bana, both with (differently coloured) reduced vowels, have a direct counterpart in old Indian (vedic) gnā́ ‘unearthy woman, godess’ (usually read as disyllabic), avestan gənā ‘woman’. From a non clear root gynai- γυναι- matches also armenian kanay- iin plural form kanay-k‘ (Nom.), kanay-s (Akk.); the -κ- is found also in messapian gunakhai ‘γυναικί’ (?), as also in old phrygian bonok (greek. LW?) (Lit. bei Schwyzer 583 m. A. 4). — The labiovelar Anlaut, which is already determined by the alternation γ g- and β b-, is also confirmed by got. qino (n-St.), old ir. ben (ā-St.) ‘woman’, both from IE *gu̯en-. The high grade, which in Greek was eliminated, in favour of the passing weak grade, appears still among others in armenian kin, old pr. genna, aksl. žena, old indian. jáni-, toch. A śäṃ. On the contrary, at a same manner, the weak grade appears in old irish. ban- (in compound words), Gen. sing. mnā (from *bnā-s). .... not from here μνάομαι mnaomai ‘betroth', but from μέμνημαι, μιμνήσκω ['remember]; s. Benveniste Sprachgesch. u. Wortbed. 13ff.
    Page 1,334-335.

    So, the proposal is about a possible archaic root *gwen-[os?] weak grade *bwn-os > m(w)n-ws ? munus.

    1. Yet, about mnaomai "to be mindful of, remember, court (for a wife) ( < *men) there is also a view that it is connected to the *gw(h)en root for "woman". For example here:
      "differently Kleinhans with Pedersen Groupement 48 Anm. Gk. γυνή “woman” (*gʷunü), gen. γυναικός, beside böot. βανά̄ (*gʷenü), pl. βανῆκες; *gʷnü-, from it *βνᾱ- bna-, Gk. μνᾱ- mna- puts in μνάομαι mnaoimai “ unengaged, free “, in addition μνηστήρ mnester “ suitor “, μνηστύς mnestus “ courtship “, μνηστη ἄλοχος mneste alochos “ lawful wife “ (with secondary -σ-); O.Ir. ben (*gʷenü), gen. sg. mná (*gʷn-üs), gen. pl. ban (*gʷen-ōm), ), in the compound ban-(ban-chú “ female dog “); besides bé n. “ woman “ (*gʷen); Welsh ben-yw “ feminine, female “, Corn. ben-en “ bride, betrothed woman “;

    2. Sorry, I wrote gw(h)en, I meant of g(h)wen.. I wonder if there is a possibility that this root gw(h)en is connected somehow to *men, for example through a root like *gno- 'know' < PIE *gneh3-, (like "to know a wife" - in biblical sense, also somehow connexted also to *gneh1

      Since also the other "mun-" (like in munsub for "shepherd") seems to mean "take care of, mind of".

  43. PIE-Dravidian no 21.
    569. Proto-Nostratic root *qºhathº- (~ *qºhǝthº-):
    (vb.) *qºhathº- ‘to beat, to strike, to fight’;
    (n.) *qºhathº-a ‘anger, fury, wrath, spite; fight, battle, quarrel; killing, slaughter’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *kat- ‘to beat, to strike’: Proto-Semitic *kat-at- ‘to beat, to
    strike’ > Arabic (Datina) katt ‘to demolish, to cut down’; Hebrew kāθaθ
    [tt^K*] ‘to crush, to pound’; Aramaic kəθaθ ‘to crush, to pound’; Ugaritic
    ktt ‘beaten (copper)’; Akkadian katātu ‘to be low or short; to suffer
    physical collapse; (in astrology) to descend to the horizon’; Geez /
    Ethiopic katta [ከተ] ‘to cut in little pieces, to beat’; Tigre (reduplicated)
    kätkäta ‘to hurt, to beat’; Tigrinya (reduplicated) kätkätä ‘to cut’; Amharic
    (reduplicated) kätäkkätä ‘to cut in little pieces, to chop up (wood)’; Gurage
    (reduplicated) kətäkätä ‘to break into pieces’, kätta ‘to break bread in half;
    to make an incision in the eye’. Klein 1987:290; Leslau 1979:356, 357 and
    1987:298. Proto-Semitic *kat-as¨- ‘to beat, to strike’ > Hebrew kāθaš
    [vt^K*] ‘to crush, to pound’; Aramaic kəθaš ‘to beat, to crush, to pound’;
    Syriac kəθaš ‘to beat; to quarrel, to contend’. Murtonen 1989:242; Klein
    1987:290. Egyptian (reduplicated) ktkt ‘to beat, to strike’; Coptic
    (reduplicated) čotčet [qotqet] ‘to cut, to break, to destroy’. Hannig
    1995:890; Erman—Grapow 1926—1963.5:146; Vycichl 1983:348.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil katavu (katavi-) ‘to be angry with, to be displeased with,
    to quarrel with’, katam ‘anger’, katar̤ ‘to be angry with, to be displeased
    with, to be furious’, katar̤vu ‘fury, heat, vehemence’, kati ‘to be angry
    with’; Malayalam katam ‘wrath’, kataykkuka ‘to get angry’, katarppu
    ‘getting angry’; Kannaḍa kati, khati, kāti, khāti ‘anger, wrath’; Kolami
    ka·ti ‘anger, hate’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:112, no. 1186. Tamil kātu
    (kāti-) ‘to kill, to murder, to cut, to divide’, kātu ‘murder’, kātal ‘killing,
    fighting, cutting, breaking’; Kannaḍa kādu ‘to wage war, to fight, to
    contend with’, kāduha ‘fighting’; Tuḷu kāduni ‘to quarrel, to fight, to
    wrestle’, kādaḍuni ‘to fight’, kādāṭa ‘a fight, war, battle’. Burrow—
    Emeneau 1984:135, no. 1447.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *kºhathº- ‘to fight’: Sanskrit śátru-ḥ ‘enemy, foe,
    rival’; Prakrit sattu- ‘enemy, foe’; Old Irish cath ‘battle’; Welsh cad ‘war’;
    Old Icelandic (in compounds) höð- ‘war, slaughter’; Old English (in

    1. compounds) heaðu- ‘war, battle’; Old High German (in compounds) hadu-
      ‘fight, battle’; Middle High German hader ‘quarrel, strife’ (New High
      German Hader); Old Church Slavic kotora ‘battle’; Hittite kattu- ‘enmity,
      strife’. Pokorny 1959:534 *$at- ‘to fight, to struggle’, *$atu-, *$at(e)ro-
      ‘fight, struggle’; Walde 1927—1932.I:339 *kat-; Mann 1984—1987:603 *$ati̯ō ‘to strike, to beat’, 603 *$atros, -us (?) ‘striking, forceful’, 603
      *$atus, -ū, -ā ‘battle, fight’, 637 *$ot- (*$otei̯ō, *$otos) ‘spite, anger; to
      spite, to bother, to rage’; Watkins 1985:27 *kat- and 2000:37 *kat- ‘to
      fight’; Mallory—Adams 1997:201 *katu- ‘fight’; Puhvel 1984— .4:138—
      140 *katu- ‘strife’; Kloekhorst 2008b:466; Kluge—Mitzka 1967:279—
      280; Kluge—Seebold 1989:285; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.III:294; Orël
      2003:165 Proto-Germanic *xaþuz; Kroonen 2013:214 Proto-Germanic
      *haþarō- ‘fight’ and 214—215 *haþu- ‘battle’; De Vries 1977:278—279;
      Derksen 2008:240. According to Boisacq (1950:502), Chantraine (1968—
      1980.I:572), and Hofmann (1966:156), Greek κοτέω ‘to bear a grudge
      against, to be angry’, κότος ‘grudge, rancor, wrath’ belong here as well.
      However, Frisk (1970—1973.I:931—932) questions this comparison.
      D. Yukaghir qatik- ‘to wrestle’. Nikolaeva 2006:381.
      E. Chukchi-Kamchatkan: Proto-Chukotian *qKtvə- ‘to stab (to death)’ >
      Chukchi qetvə- ‘to stab (an animal) to death’; Koryak (Kamen) qatvə- ‘to
      stab’; Alyutor qatv(ə)- ‘to stab, to wound’. Fortescue 2005:233.
      Buck 1949:16.42 anger; 20.11 fight (vb.); 20.12 battle (sb.); 20.13 war.
      Bomhard—Kerns 1994:429, no. 273; Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 1224,
      *ḳ[a]ṭó (or *ḳaʔitó ?) ‘to kill, to wage a war’.

  44. PIE-Dravidian no 22.
    570. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *q’ab-a ‘jaw’:
    A. Dravidian: Tamil kavuḷ ‘cheek, temple or jaw of elephant’; Malayalam
    kaviḷ ‘cheek’; Tuḷu kauḷu ‘the cheek’, kavuṇḍrasa, kavuḍrasa ‘cancer of
    the cheek’; Parji gavla, (metathesis in) galva ‘jaw’; (?) Telugu gauda ‘the
    cheek’; (?) Kui kūlu ‘cheek’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:124, no. 1337.
    Either here or with Proto-Nostratic *k’apºh-a ‘jaw, jawbone’.
    B. Proto-Kartvelian *q’ab- ‘jaw’: Georgian q’b-a ‘jaw’, ni-q’b-er-i ‘chin,
    jaw’; Svan q’ab, hä-q’b-a ‘cheek’. Palmaitis—Gudjedjiani 1985:269 and
    315; Klimov 1964:209 *"ba- and 1998:238 *"ba- ‘jaw’; Fähnrich—
    Sardshweladse 1995:404 *"ab-; Fähnrich 2007:503 *"ab-.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *k’ebhº-/*k’obhº- ‘(vb.) to munch, to chew; (n.) jaw’:
    Old Irish gop (Modern Irish gob) ‘beak, mouth’; New High German Kebe
    ‘fish-gill’; Lithuanian žėbiù, žė̃bti ‘to munch’; Czech žábra ‘fish-gill’.
    Pokorny 1959:382 *ĝep(h)-, *ĝebh- ‘jaw, mouth; to eat’; Walde 1927—
    1932.I:570—571 *ĝep(h)-, *ĝebh-; Mann 1984—1987:389 *ĝebh-
    (*ĝebhl-, *ĝobh-) ‘jaw’; Watkins 1985:19 *gep(h)-, *gebh- and 2000:26
    *gep(h)-, *gebh- ‘jaw, mouth’; Mallory—Adams 1997:175 *ĝeP- ‘to eat,
    to masticate’; Orël 2003:212 Proto-Germanic *keƀran; Kroonen 2013:283
    *ǵebº-; Fraenkel 1962—1965.II:1294—1295; Smoczyński 2007.1:775
    *ǵebº-. Note: Not related to *k’em-bº-/*k’om-bº-/*k’m̥ -bº- ‘to chew (up),
    to bite, to cut to pieces, to crush’, *k’om-bºo-s ‘tooth, spike, nail’ (see
    below, no 573).
    Buck 1949:4.207 jaw. Bomhard 1996a:219, no. 624; Dolgopolsky to appear,
    no. 1903, *"Abó ‘jaw’.

    I think this Sanskrit word is related :

  45. PIE-Dravidian no. 23 .
    586. Proto-Nostratic root *q’¦war- (~ *q’¦wǝr-) or *q’¦wur- (~ *q’¦wor-):
    (vb.) *q’¦war- or *q’¦wur- ‘to call out, to cry out’;
    (n.) *q’¦war-a or *q’¦wur-a ‘call, cry, shout’
    A. Afrasian: Semitic: Arabic ḳaraẓa ‘to praise, to commend, to laud, to extol,
    to acclaim’.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil kūru (kūri-) ‘to speak, to assert, to cry out the price, to
    cry aloud, to proclaim’, kūrram ‘word’, kūrru ‘proclamation, utterance,
    word’; Malayalam kūruka ‘to speak, to proclaim’, kūrru ‘call, cry of men,
    noise’, kūrram ‘cry (as for help)’; Kannaḍa gūrṇisu, gūrmisu ‘to murmur
    or roar (as water of a river or the sea), to sound (as a trumpet), to roar or
    bellow, to cry aloud’; Telugu ghūrṇillu ‘to sound, to resound’ (gh- is from
    Sanskrit ghūrṇ- ‘to move to and fro’ [> Telugu ghūrṇillu ‘to whirl, to turn
    around’]) ; Tuḷu gūruni ‘to hoot’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:174, no. 1921.
    C. Proto-Kartvelian *q’ur- ‘to howl (of wolves, dogs)’: Georgian q’ur- in
    q’urq’ul- (< *q’ur-q’ur-) ‘howling (of wolves, dogs)’; Mingrelian "ur- ‘to
    howl (of wolves, dogs)’; Laz (q’)ur-, q’u(r)- ‘to cry, to be angry’. Schmidt
    1962:141; Fähnrich—Sardshweladse 1995:420 *"ur-; Fähnrich 2007:521
    *"ur-; Klimov 1964:211 *"wir- ‘to cry (out), to shout’ (Georgian q’vir- ‘to
    cry out, to shout’) and 1998:246 *"ur- ‘to howl (of wolves, dogs)’.
    D. Proto-Indo-European *k’¦wer-/*k’¦wor-/*k’¦wr̥ - ‘to make a sound, to call, to
    call out, to praise’: Sanskrit gṛṇā́ti ‘to call, to call out, to invoke, to praise,
    to extol’, gī́r ‘words, speech, voice, language, invocation, praise, verse’,
    guráte ‘to salute’, gūrtí-ḥ ‘approval, praise’; Latin grātus ‘pleasing,
    welcome, agreeable’, grātēs ‘thanks, gratitude’; Old High German queran
    ‘to sigh’ (New High German quarren); Lithuanian giriù, gìrti ‘to praise, to
    commend’. Rix 1998a:188—189 *gßerH- ‘to extol, to praise, to honor’;
    Pokorny 1959:478 *gßer(ə)- ‘to raise one’s voice’; Walde 1927—
    1932.I:686—687 *gßer(āˣ)-; Mann 1984—1987:373 *gu̯r̥ - ‘appellation,
    song, praise; to revere, to sacrifice, to worship’, 374—375 *gu̯r̥ i̯ō ‘to sing,
    to praise’, 375 *gu̯r̥ksi̯ō (*gu̯r̥ks$ō, *gu̯r̥s$ō) ‘to call, to cry, to appeal’,
    376 *gu̯r̥̄tos ‘revered, favored, important’, *gu̯r̥̄tis ‘reverence, favor,
    importance’; Watkins 1985:25 *gw¦erə- ‘to praise (aloud)’ and 2000:34
    *g¦werə- (oldest form: *gw¦erš-; suffixed zero-grade form: *g¦wr̥ ˜-to-) ‘to
    favor’; Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.I:205 *k’ºerH-/*k’ºr̥H- > *k’ºr̥̄- and
    1995.I:177 *k’ºerH-/*k’ºr̥H- > *k’ºr̥̄- ‘to raise the voice’; Mallory—Adams
    1997:449 *g¦werhx- ‘to praise’; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.I:336, I:340, I:342,
    and I:343; De Vaan 2008:271—272 *g¦wrH-to- ‘praised (in a song)’;
    Ernout—Meillet 1979:281—282; Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.I:619—
    620 *gßer(āˣ)-; Kluge—Mitzka 1967:573; Kluge—Seebold 1989:574.
    Proto-Indo-European *k’w¦erdhº-/*k’w¦ordhº-/*k’w¦r̥dhº- ‘to call out, to cry out’:
    Avestan (adj.) gərəδō ‘howling’; Armenian kardam ‘to call, to read out’.
    Pokorny 1959:478 *gßer(ə)- ‘to raise one’s voice’; Walde 1927—1932.I:
    686—687 *gßer(āˣ)-; Mann 1984—1987:373 *gu̯r̥dh-; Watkins 1985:25
    *g¦werə- ‘to praise (aloud)’ and 2000:34 *gw¦erə- (oldest form: *gw¦erš-) ‘to
    favor’; Smoczyński 2007.1:183—184 *gßr̥H-é-; Fraenkel 1962—1965.I:
    154.Buck 1949:15.44 sound (sb.); 16.79 praise (sb.); 18.13 shout, cry out.
    Bomhard—Kerns 1994:516—517, no. 364; Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 1938,
    *"qur[ħ]ó ‘to bark, to howl (of canines)’, ‘to cry, to shout’.

  46. IE-Dravidian no. 24 .
    B. Dravidian: Tamil cira ‘to be eminent, illustrious; to surpass; to be
    abundant; to be auspicious; to be graceful; to rejoice’, cirantōr ‘the great,
    the illustrious, gods, relatives, ascetics’, cirappu ‘pre-eminence, pomp,
    abundance, wealth, happiness, esteem’, ciravu ‘meritorious deed’;
    Malayalam cirakka (cirannu) ‘to be glorious’; Kannaḍa serapu
    ‘hospitality, honor, festival’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:225, no. 2589.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *kºhreyH-/*kºhriH- (> *kºhrī-) ‘(adj.) better, superior,
    glorious, illustrious; (n.) high rank’: Sanskrit śréyas- ‘more splendid or
    beautiful, more excellent or distinguished, superior, preferable, better’, śrī-
    ‘high rank, power, might, majesty, royal dignity; light, luster, radiance,
    splendor, glory, beauty, grace, loveliness’; Avestan srayah- ‘fairer, more
    beautiful’, srī- ‘beauty, fairness’, srīra- ‘fair, beautiful’; Greek κρείων,
    κρέων ‘ruler, lord, master’. Pokorny 1959:618 *$krei- ‘to shine forth’;
    Walde 1927—1932.I:478 *$krei-; Mann 1984—1987:637 *$kreii̯o- (*$krēi̯o-)
    ‘superior’; Boisacq 1950:513; Chantraine 1968—1980.I:580; Frisk 1970—
    1973.II:12; Hofmann 1966:159 *%krei-.

  47. PIE-Dravidian no. 25 .
    678. Proto-Nostratic root *ʔut’- (~ *ʔot’-):
    (vb.) *ʔut’- ‘to stretch, to lengthen’;
    (n.) *ʔut’-a ‘wide-open space, outdoor area, exterior; length, distance’; (adj.)
    ‘wide, broad, long’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *ʔut’- ‘wide, broad, long’: Semitic: Arabic "aṭaṭ- ‘long,
    tall’. D. Cohen 1970— :16. Proto-Southern Cushitic *ʔuḍ- (or *uḍ- or
    *ʔuuḍ- or *uuḍ-) ‘wide, broad’ > Iraqw ur ‘big, large’, uraw- ‘to grow up’,
    ures- ‘to rear’; K’wadza ulungayo ‘wide, broad’; Ma’a uda ‘far’. Ehret
    B. Dravidian: Iruḷa uddya ‘long’; Kota udm ‘length’; Kannaḍa udda, uddi,
    uddu ‘height, length, depth’; Koḍagu udda ‘length, height’, uddatë ‘long’;
    Tuḷu udda ‘length, distance’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:60, no. 621.
    Malayalam utakuka ‘to prosper, to thrive’; Kannaḍa odagu, odugu, odavu
    ‘to become endowed with power, to prosper, to thrive, to increase’; Tuḷu
    odaguni ‘to prosper’; Telugu odavu ‘to flourish’, odalu ‘to increase, to
    flourish’, odugu, oduvu ‘(vb.) to increase, to thrive; (n.) abundance’.
    Burrow—Emeneau 1984:59, no. 605.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *ʔū̆t’- ‘out, out of, outside, away from’: Sanskrit
    (prefix) ud- ‘up, upwards; upon, on; over, above; out, out of, away from,
    apart’, úttara-ḥ ‘upper, higher, superior’, uttamá-ḥ ‘uppermost, highest’;
    Old Persian ud ‘up’; Gothic (adv.) ūt ‘out’, (adv.) ūta ‘outside’, (adv.)
    ūtana ‘from outside, up to’; Old Icelandic út ‘out, towards the outer side’,
    úti ‘out, out of doors’; Swedish ut ‘out’; Danish ud ‘out’; Old English ūt
    ‘out’, ūte ‘outside, in the open air’, ūterra ‘outer, exterior’, ūtan ‘outside,
    from outside’, Ùtan ‘to drive out, to banish’; Old Frisian ūt ‘out’; Old
    Saxon ūt ‘out’; Dutch uit ‘out’; Old High German ūz ‘out’ (New High
    German aus), ūzan(a) (adv.) ‘outside’; Latin ūs- in ūsque ‘at every point,
    through and through, from…to, all the way, continuously’. Pokorny
    1959:1103—1104 *ū̆d- ‘up, out’; Walde 1927—1932.I:189—190 *ū̆d;
    Mann 1984—1987:1473—1474 *ū̆d, *ū̆d- ‘out, off, away, up’, 1475
    *ū̆ds$os ‘high’, and 1475 *ū̆d-ter- (*ū̆ter-) ‘extreme, outer, upper, further’;
    Watkins 1985:72 *ud- (also *ūd-) and 2000:94 *ud- (also *ūd-) ‘up, out’;
    Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.I:243 *ut[º]-, *ut’- and 1995.I:212 *utº-, *ut’-
    ‘up, out’; Mallory—Adams 1997:612 *ūd ‘upward, out (from under)’;
    Mayrhofer 1956—1980.I:101 and I:102; Lindsay 1894:595 *ud ‘out, up
    out’; De Vaan 2008:646; Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.II:844; Ernout—
    Meillet 1979:756; Orël 2003:437 Proto-Germanic *ūt, 437 *ūtai, 437
    *ūtanē̆, 437 *ūtaraz, 437 *ūtjanan; Kroonen 2013:562 *ūt ‘out’ and 563
    *uz ‘out (of)’; Feist 1939:537; Lehmann 1986:384 *ū̆d- ‘upward’; De
    Vries 1977:636 *ud-; Falk—Torp 1903—1906.II:406—408 *ū̆d; Onions
    1966:636; Klein 1971:523 *ud ‘up, out, away’; Kluge—Mitzka 1967:39
    *ū̆d; Kluge—Seebold 1989:49 *ud-; Boutkan—Siebinga 2005:425. Note:
    The original meaning was ‘wide-open space, outdoor area, exterior’.
    Buck 1949:12.57 long; 12.61 wide, broad
    Also I remember the Sumerian ed [ASCEND] (595x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian) wr. ed3; |UD×U+U+U.DU| "to go up or down; to demolish; to scratch; to rage, be rabid" Akk. arādu; elû; naqāru; šegû.

    1. Here PAA and Dravidian are close, while IE is quite different, especially Skt., where ud means basically 'upward', but also 'out' is not properly the same as 'wide, long'... I think the two roots (PAA-Drav. and IE) can be unrelated.

  48. I continue with Sumerian. About brewing etc, there is also this Sumerian word:

    dida [WORT] (2002x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Early Old Babylonian, Old Babylonian, unknown) wr. dida; didax(|U2.SA|) "sweet wort, an ingredient for beer making; beer for transport" Akk. billatu

    Akkad. billatu here means "beer"

    But here billatu means "a dry substance used in the preparation of beer, beer of second quality" (also "billetu" or "biltu" = "mixture"). Also "alloy of metalls", "mixing vat", "admixture".

    So, I'm trying a comparison with the Gr. word for "beer", that is ζῦθος zythos ‎(zûthos), or ζῦτος zytos ‎(zûtos) (z = sd).
    Etymology: Unknown; suggested sources have included Egyptian, Scythian, Pre-Greek, or a native origin, in which case it would be related to ζύμη ‎(zúmē, “yeast”).

    1. Pokorny's root is *i̯eu-1

      English meaning "to mix (of meal preparation)"
      German meaning `vermengen, bei der Speisezubereitung'

      Grammatical comments
      General comments(: i̯ēu-, i̯ō[u]-; i̯u-, i̯ū-; letzteres auf Grund der Dehnstufen oder von einer schweren Basis *i̯eu̯ə-), ursprünglich wohl `in Bewegung setzen'; s. i̯eu-dh-.

      Ai. yā́uti, yuváti `vermengt', ud-ā-yāuti `rührt auf', pra-yāuti `rührt um', yū̆tí- f. `Mischung', ā-yávana- n. `Rührlöffel'; lit. jaunù, joviaũ, jaũti `heißes Wasser darüber gießen', lett. jàut `Teig einrühren, mischen', javs `Gemengsel von Viehfutter', lit. jõvalas `Schweinefutter, Treber';

      gr. ζῦθος, ζύθος zythos `ägyptisches Gerstenbier'??;

      alb.-tosk. gjär `Suppe' (*i̯ō-no-), geg. gjanë `Schmutz, Teich, Schwemme';
      ablauteud gallorom. iutta aus gall. *i̯u-tā, mlat. iotta `Brühe', mcymr. iwt, ncymr. uwd, iwd m., acorn. abret. iot, nbret. ioud, iod `Brei'; air. íth `Brei, Brühe' hat das ī wohl von íth `Fett' bezogen (Thurneysen Gr. 39).
      s-St. i̯ō̆(u)s-, i̯ūs- `Brühe':

      ai. yūṣ (nur Nom.), yūṣá-, уuṣa- m. n. `Brühe', lat. iūs, iūris `Brühe, Suppe', lit. júšė (*i̯ūsii̯ā) `schlechte Suppe aus Sauerteig mit Wasser durchgerührt', apr. juse `Fleischbrühe', aksl. jucha (*i̯ousā) `Brühe, Suppe' (nhd. Jauche aus dem Westslav.); dazu die to-Ableitung nschwed. ōst (*i̯ūsto), anord. ostr (sekundäres ō) `Käse' und finn.-urnord. juusto, nschwed. dial.ūst ds.;

      vielleicht dazu gr. ζύ̄μη zyme ` Sauerteig' (*i̯ūsmā oder i̯ūmā) und ζωμός `Brühe, Suppe'(*i̯ō[u]smos oder *i̯ō[u]mos).

      References WP. I 199, WH. I 734, Trautmann 110.
      See also Pages 507

    2. Note: The writing didax(|U2.SA|) remind "ai. yūṣ (nur Nom.), yūṣá-, уuṣa- m. n. `Brühe', lat. iūs, iūris `Brühe, Suppe', lit. júšė (*i̯ūsii̯ā) `schlechte Suppe aus Sauerteig mit Wasser durchgerührt'."

    3. I mean that the logogramms [U2.SA] may reflect yūṣá-, while the actual word dida may be some other type of the same root *yeu, due to a process similar to the one of zythos (z in Greek can been derived by strengthening a y with a d); so we could have in Sumerian perhaps d-yeu-ta > dye(u)ta > dyta (writing dida)

      Also, this is an interesting article about brewing in ancient Mesopotamia

      Peter Damerow
      Sumerian Beer: The Origins of Brewing Technology in Ancient Mesopotamia

    4. Akkad. "billatu" / "billetu" / "biltu" reminds me of Gr. πόλτος / πολτός poltos "porridge" compared usually to Latin "pollen" (assumed from root *pel "flour, dust").

      G. Dziebel has connected this root *pel to the *kwel root:

    5. Obviously from the meaning "turning" again. About billatu, I gave a look at its entry at CAD. It says that "it may designate the dry mixture of malted and roasted grain, ready for infusion and fermentation and possibly also the first, still unfermented, infusion itself, i.e. the sweet wort." Also it says "it seems that billatu refers in this [New Babylonian] period to beer as generic term."

      About the writing [U2.SA], I thought first that it could be from u2= plant (or bread etc) and sa = "roasted" or us = "second quality" and sa "roasted", but it didn't make sense, since dida is obviously a thick liquid (even dried) as described already. Also, CAD says: "The meaning of U'.SA in the compound logogramm KAŠ.U.SA (also KAŠ.US.SA) is uknown".
      So, I think that the proposal about "yūṣá" can stay.

    6. There was also a Latin word for poltos, puls, pultis, very popular in ancient Italy. Also today in Northern Italy the 'polenta' (made with corn) is very popular, and we still say 'poltiglia' for something like mud.

      The Akkadian verb is balālu 'to mix'. Difficult to connect it with the IE root given here:

    7. Well, I'm almost sure that it has to do with "kwel" (pol-, like in -polos "turn" etc). Also, I think these words could be connected to this:

    8. Hmm, this word is pālūda "trained, filtered; gilded; a kind of sweet beverage made of water, flour, and honey (according to others, a mixture of grated apples with sugar and cardamoms); jelly; (met.) the purest and choicest part of anything; the bason of a pair of scales;--pālūdaʼi rawāqi ribʻī, Vernal showers;--palūda gasht, He has become free from sin, is purified."

  49. PIE-Dravidian no. 26.
    689. Proto-Nostratic root *haw- (~ *həw-):
    (vb.) *haw- ‘to long for, to desire’;
    (n.) *haw-a ‘desire’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *haw- ‘(vb.) to long for, to desire; (n.) desire’: Proto-
    Semitic *haw-ay- ‘(vb.) to long for, to desire; (n.) desire’ > Hebrew
    hawwāh [hW*h^] ‘desire’; Arabic hawiya ‘to love, to desire’, hawan ‘love,
    affection, desire, longing’; Mehri šəhwū ‘to like’; Śḥeri / Jibbāli s͂həbé ‘to
    appreciate something (beautiful), to think something is fine; to like
    something overmuch’. D. Cohen 1970— :386; Klein 1987:142. Cushitic:
    Somali hawo ‘desire, passion’; Galla / Oromo haw- ‘to want’. Orël—
    Stolbova 1995:259, no. 1162, *haw- ‘to want’.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil āvu (āvi-) ‘to desire’, avāvu (avāvi-) ‘to desire, to crave
    for, to covet’, avā ‘desire for a thing, covetousness’; Malayalam āvikka ‘to
    desire’, āval ‘desire’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:36, no. 394.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *hew- [*haw-] ‘to long for, to desire’: Sanskrit ávati
    ‘to be pleased, to strive for’, áva-ḥ ‘favor, protection, gratification’;
    Avestan avaiti ‘to protect, to help’, avah- ‘protection’; Latin aveō ‘to long
    for, to desire’, avidus ‘passionately desiring, longing for’; Welsh ewyllys
    ‘will’, awydd ‘desire’ (Latin loan). Rix 1998a:244 *høeu̯- ‘to enjoy’;
    Pokorny 1959:77—78 *au̯-, *au̯ē-, *au̯ēi- ‘to like’; Walde 1927—
    1932.I:19 *au̯-, *au̯ē-, *au̯ēi-; Mann 1984—1987:45—46 *au̯ē-i̯ō ‘to like,
    to favor, to want’, 47 *au̯is ‘desire’; Mallory—Adams 1997:197 *haeu- ‘to
    favor’ and 317 *húeu- ‘to enjoy’; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.I:57 and I:58;
    Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.I:81—82; Ernout—Meillet 1979:56; De
    Vaan 2008:65.
    Buck 1949:16.62 desire (vb.). Illič-Svityč 1971—1984.I:241—242, no. 100,
    *hawʌ ‘to desire passionately’; Caldwell 1913:588 and 607; Bomhard—Kerns
    1994:587, no. 458; Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 790, *hawó ‘to desire, to love’.

  50. PIE-Dravidian no. 27 .
    703. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *ħal¨-a ‘hole, hollow, cavity’:
    A. Dravidian: Tamil aḷai ‘anthill, hole in the ground, hollow in a tree, cave’;
    Malayalam aḷa ‘hole (in trees, in the ground)’, aḷḷāppu ‘hole, hollow’;
    Beṭṭa Kuruba aḷe ‘hole’; Kota aḷ ‘cave’; Toda oḷb ‘animal’s den, cave’;
    Telugu laga ‘hole, burrow’; Kuṛux alap ‘hollow place underground,
    cavern’, lātā ‘hole, cavity, den’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:29, no. 308.
    B. Proto-Indo-European *¸hhel-wo- [*hh¸al-wo-] ‘hollow, cavity’: Latin alvus
    ‘belly, womb’, alveus ‘a hollow, cavity’; Hittite (gen. sg.) ḫal-lu-wa-aš
    ‘hollow, pit’, (gen. sg.) ḫal-lu-u-wa-aš ‘hollow, deep’, (denominative verb,
    3rd sg. pret. act.) ḫal-lu-wa-nu-ut ‘to put down (deep), to lower, to let
    deteriorate’. Pokorny 1959:88—89 *u-lo-s (*ēu-l-) ‘pipe, tube; a hollow,
    elongated cavity’; Walde 1927—1932.I:25—26 *aulo-s (: *ēul-); Mann
    1984—1987:18 *alu̯os, -i̯os, -i̯ə ‘hollow, channel, cavity’; Watkins 1985:4
    *aulo- and 2000:6 *aulo- ‘hole, cavity’ (variant [metathesized] form
    *alwo-); Mallory—Adams 1997:96 *høelu̯os ~ *høeulos ‘elongated cavity,
    hollow’; Puhvel 1984— .3:47—49; Ernout—Meillet 1979:36; Walde—
    Hofmann 1965—1972.I:34—35 *aul-, *au̯el-; De Vaan 2008:25 *høeulo-
    ‘tube, belly’. Not related to: Greek αὐλός ‘any tube or pipe; flute’, αὐλών
    ‘a hollow way, defile, glen; a canal, aqueduct, trench; a channel, strait’;
    Lithuanian aũlas ‘top (of a boot)’, aulỹs ‘beehive’; Bulgarian úlej
    ‘beehive’; Norwegian (dial.) aul, aule ‘pipe’. In view of Hittite (nom. sg.)
    a-ú-li-iš ‘tube-shaped organ in the neck, throat (?), windpipe (?)’, without
    initial a-coloring laryngeal, the Greek, Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic forms,
    together with the Hittite, must be derived from Proto-Indo-European
    *hewlo-s [*hawlos] (traditional *oeeu̯lo-s) ‘pipe, tube’ and, by extension,
    ‘any tube-shaped object’. Mann 1984—1987:42 *aulos, -i̯os ‘hollow,
    channel’; Frisk 1970—1973.I:186—187; Chantraine 1968—1980.I:140—
    141; Boisacq 1950:101; Hofmann 1966:28; Kloekhorst 2008b:229—230;
    Orël 2003:29 Proto-Germanic *aulaz; Kroonen 2013:42 Proto-Germanic
    *aula- ~ *eula(n)- ‘stalk (of angelica)’; Shevelov 1964:241; Fraenkel
    1962—1965.I:25—26; Smoczyński 2007.1:34 *høeu̯-l-.
    Buck 1949:12.75 hollow (= cavity); 12.85 hole.

    Also Sanskrit aluka :

    1. Latin alum (uncertain plant/root), alium (garlic) also , as Giacomo pointed me way back on a related discussion .

  51. PIE-Dravidian no. 28.
    712. Proto-Nostratic root *ħar- (~ *ħər-):
    (vb.) *ħar- ‘to prepare, to make ready, to put together’;
    (n.) *ħar-a ‘way, manner, method’
    A. Afrasian: Egyptian ḥr ‘to prepare, to make ready’. Hannig 1995:555;
    Faulkner 1962:176; Erman—Grapow 1921:114 and 1926—1963.3:146—
    147; Gardiner 1957:582.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil aram ‘moral or religious duty, virtue, dharma’, aravan
    ‘one who is virtuous, god, Buddha, ascetic, etc.’, aravi ‘virtue, that which
    is holy, female ascetic’, araviya ‘virtuous’, araviyān ‘virtuous man’, aran
    ‘sacrificer’; Malayalam aram ‘law, dharma’; Kannaḍa ara, aru ‘virtue,
    charity, alms, law, dharma’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:29, no. 311. Tamil
    āru ‘way, road, path, means, manner, method’; Malayalam āru ‘way,
    manner’; Kota -a·r in: o·yṇ-a·r ‘path’, a·ḷ-a·r ‘way, distance’; Toda o·r
    ‘way, entrance into thicket’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:37—38, no. 405.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *¸hher- [*¸hhar-]/*hh¸r̥ - ‘to prepare, to make ready, to
    put together’: Avestan arānte ‘to arrange, to settle, to establish, to fix’;
    Sanskrit ṛtá-ḥ ‘right, true’, ṛtú-ḥ ‘fixed time, order, rule’, ṛtí-ḥ ‘way,
    manner’, arpáyati ‘to put into, to fix’, arámati-ḥ ‘readiness, proper thinking’, áram ‘readily, enough’; Armenian aṙnem ‘to make’; Greek
    ἀραρίσκω ‘to join together, to fashion, to fix, to fit together, to construct,
    to prepare, to contrive, to fit, to equip, to make fitting or pleasing’; Latin
    ars, -tis ‘way, method, skill, profession, art, occupation’; Tocharian A
    ārwar ‘ready, prepared’. Rix 1998a:240—241 *høer- ‘to be joined or fit
    together’; Pokorny 1959:55—61 *ar- ‘to fix, to suit’; Walde 1927—
    1932.I:69—76 *ar-; Mann 1984—1987:31 *ar- ‘to join, to fit’, 32 *ār- ‘to
    join, to tie’, 36 *artos, -i̯os, -us ‘joined; adjoining; join’, 1106 *r̥ tos, -os,
    -us ‘right, proper; rightness, fitness’; Watkins 1985:3 *ar- (also *arə-) and
    2000:5 *ar- ‘to fit together’ (oldest form *šar-); Mallory—Adams
    1997:362 *haer- ‘to prepare, to make ready, to put together’; Mayrhofer
    1956—1980.I:48 *ar-, I:51 *ar-, I:122 *ar-, and I:123 *ar-; Hofmann
    1966:22 *ar-; Chantraine 1968—1980.I:101—102; Boisacq 1950:73;
    Frisk 1970—1973.I:128—129; Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.I:70 *ar-;
    Ernout—Meillet 1979:48—49; De Vaan 2008:55; Adams 1999:53 *haer-
    ‘to fit together’; Van Windekens 1976—1982.I:169 *ar- ‘to fit together’.

    1. D. Yukaghir (Southern / Kolyma) ara(ń)ńə- ‘light; easy, handy; frisky,
      dashing, adroit’, ara ‘adroitness’, arajrəŋo:- ‘energetic, laborious’,
      (Northern / Tundra) arińńe- ‘light; easy, handy; frisky, dashing, adroit’.
      Nikolaeva 2006:112.
      E. Proto-Altaic *ărV- ‘(vb.) to do, to make; (n.) way, method’: Proto-Tungus
      *ar- ‘(vb.) to make, to work, to construct; to come to one’s senses; to
      cause fear (of an evil ghost), to appear to one’s imagination; (n.) shape,
      form; evil spirit’ > Evenki arit- ‘to cause fear (of an evil ghost), to appear
      to one’s imagination’, arū- ‘to come to one’s senses’, arinka ‘evil spirit’;
      Lamut / Even arị-, ar- ‘to cause fear (of an evil ghost), to appear to one’s
      imagination’, ar- ‘to come to one’s senses’, arịŋqъ̣ ‘evil spirit’; Negidal
      ayị ‘evil spirit’; Manchu ara- ‘to do, to make’, arbun ‘form, shape, image’,
      ari ‘evil spirit’; Spoken Manchu (Sibo) arəvən, arəvun ‘appearance, form’;
      Nanay / Gold arị ‘evil spirit’. Proto-Mongolian *arga ‘way, method’ >
      Written Mongolian ar¦a ‘means, method; way out, possibility’; Khalkha
      arga ‘way, method’; Buriat arga ‘way, method’; Kalmyk arɢə ‘way,
      method’; Ordos arɢa ‘way, method’; Dagur arga ‘way, method’; Shira-
      Yughur arag ‘way, method’; Monguor arɢa ‘way, method’. Poppe
      1955:58. Proto-Turkic *ar- ‘to make magic, to cast spells; to deceive’ >
      Old Turkic (Old Uighur, Orkhon) ar- ‘to deceive’, arvïš ‘magic’;
      Karakhanide Turkic ar-, arva- ‘to make magic, to cast spells’; Turkish
      (dial.) arpa¦ ‘magic’; Turkmenian (dial.) arvaχ ‘evil spirit’; Uzbek avra-
      ‘to make magic, to cast spells; to deceive’; Uighur a(r)ba- ‘to make magic,
      to cast spells’; Tatar arbi- ‘to make magic, to cast spells’; Bashkir arba-
      ‘to make magic, to cast spells’; Kirghiz arba- ‘to make magic, to cast
      spells’; Kazakh arba- ‘to make magic, to cast spells’; Oyrot (Mountain
      Altai) arba-n- ‘to scold’; Yakut arbā- ‘to make magic, to cast spells’.
      Starostin—Dybo—Mudrak 2003:313—314 *ărV ‘witchcraft, craft’.F. Proto-Eskimo *aʀənqiɣ- ‘to fix or arrange’: Alutiiq Alaskan Yupik
      aʀənqiɣ- (Kodiak also anqiɣ-) ‘to be opportune, handy’; Central Alaskan
      Yupik aʀənqiɣ- ‘to be or make satisfactory’; Central Siberian Yupik
      aʀənqiɣnəq ‘right hand’; Sirenik aʀənəqat- ‘to force to do, to insist that
      someone do something’; Seward Peninsula Inuit aaqik- ‘to store away’;
      North Alaskan Inuit aatqik- ‘to straighten or make the bed’; Western
      Canadian Inuit (Caribou) aatqik- ‘to repair’; Eastern Canadian Inuit
      aaqqi(k)- ‘to cure, to manage, to repair’, aaqqisuʀ- ‘to arrange, to put in
      order’; Greenlandic Inuit aaqqiɣ- ‘to fix, to make or get better’, aaqqiššuʀ-
      ‘to arrange, to set right’. Fortescue—Jacobson—Kaplan 1994:42.
      Sumerian har ‘to build, to construct, to create, to produce’.
      Its possibilty that Sanskrit Arya is related and also Dravidian words are related to the notion as well.

  52. For Aryan , Bomhard has separate root :
    714. Proto-Nostratic root *ħar- (~ *ħər-):
    (vb.) *ħar- ‘to be superior, to be higher in status or rank, to be above or over’;
    (n.) *ħar-a ‘nobleman, master, chief, superior’; (adj.) ‘free-born, noble’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *ħar- ‘(vb.) to be superior, to be higher in status or rank, to
    be above or over; (adj.) free-born, noble; (n.) nobleman, master, chief,
    superior’: Proto-Semitic *ħar-ar- ‘to be free-born, to be or become free, to
    set free’, *ħar(r)-/*ħur(r)- ‘noble, free-born’ > Hebrew ḥōr [roj] ‘noble’;
    Arabic ḥurr ‘noble, free-born; free, independent’, ḥarra ‘to liberate, to
    free, to set free, to release, to emancipate’, ḥurrīya ‘freedom, liberty,
    independence, unrestraint, license’; Aramaic ḥərar ‘to be or become free’;
    Ugaritic ḥrr ‘free’; Sabaean ḥrr ‘freemen, free-born men’; Geez / Ethiopic
    ḥarāwi [ሐራዊ] ‘free-born, nobleman’, ḥarāwənnā [ሐራውና] ‘freedom’,
    ḥarənnat [ሐርነት] ‘freedom’; Tigrinya ḥara ‘free’, ḥarənnät ‘freedom’;
    Tigre ḥara ‘free; freedom’; Amharic hurr ‘free’; Gurage hurru bālä ‘to
    become free, to set free’. Klein 1987:211; Zammit 2002:137; Leslau 1979:
    328 and 1987:240—241. Egyptian ḥry ‘chief, master, overseer, superior’,
    ḥr ‘on, upon, over’, ḥrw ‘upper part, top’; Coptic hi- [xi-] (< *ha&yaw <
    *ḥaryaw) ‘on, in, at’, hray [xrai] ‘upper part’. Erman—Grapow 1921:113
    and 1926—1963.3:131—132, 3:133—136, 3:142—143; Hannig 1995:546,
    547, and 548; Faulkner 1962:174; Gardiner 1957:582; Černý 1976:271—
    272 and 291—292; Vycichl 1983:285—286 and 308.
    B. Proto-Indo-European *¸hher-yo- [*¸hhar-yo-] ‘a superior, a person higher in
    status or rank’: Sanskrit ā́rya-ḥ ‘a respectable or honorable person, a
    highly-esteemed person; master, owner’, árya-ḥ ‘master, lord’; Pāḷi ariya-
    ‘noble, distinguished, of high birth’; Old Persian ariya- (perhaps āriya-)
    ‘Aryan’ (Farsi ērān ‘Iran’); Avestan airya- ‘noble’; Old Irish aire
    ‘nobleman, man of rank’; Runic (m. nom. pl. superl.) -arjostez ‘noblest’
    (Tune Stone, Østfold, Norway; 400 CE). Pokorny 1959:67 *ari̯o- ‘lord,
    host’; Walde 1927—1932.I:80 *ari̯o-; Mann 1984—1987:34 *ari̯os ‘man,
    hero; manly’; Watkins 1985:3 *aryo- ‘lord, ruler’ and 2000:5 *aryo- self designation
    of the Indo-Iranians; Mallory—Adams 1997:213 *húerós ~
    *heri̯os ‘member of one’s own (ethnic) group, peer, freeman; (Indo Iranian) Aryan’; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.I:52 and I:79; Orël 2003:23
    Proto-Germanic *arjaz; Krause 1971:53 arjōstēʀ; Antonsen 1975:44—45
    Proto-Germanic */ar-jɔ̄st-a-ez/ (m. nom. pl. superl. of */ar-ja-z/).
    C. Proto-Chukchi-Kamchatkan *Krəm(K) ‘leader’: Chukchi erəm(e) ‘leader’;
    Kerek ajm ‘leader’; Koryak ajəm(a) ‘leader’; Alyutor arm(a) ‘leader’;
    Kamchadal / Itelmen (Eastern) armagnan, erm ‘officer’, erm klec ‘king,
    emperor’, ermein ‘Russian’, (Southern) arm ‘master’. Fortescue 2005:38.
    Buck 1949:19.36 noble, nobleman; 19.41 master. Möller 1911:16; Bomhard—
    Kerns 1994:533—534, no. 387.

    Looks good. So Giacomo indeed Semitic Aryans ;) .

    1. Yes, I think also the name 'hurri' of the Hurrians must be related. Very interesting also that in Hittite 'arawa' means 'free', arawahh 'to free', arawes 'to become free'.

  53. PIE-Dravidian no. 29 .
    715. Proto-Nostratic root *ħar- (~ *ħər-):
    (vb.) *ħar- ‘to scratch, to scrape’ (> ‘to plow’ in the daughter languages);
    (n.) *ħar-a ‘scraping, scratching’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *ħar- ‘to scratch, to scrape’ (> ‘to plow’): Proto-Semitic
    *ħar-at¨- ‘to plow’ > Hebrew ḥāraš [vr^j*] ‘to cut in, to engrave, to plow’;
    Aramaic ḥəraθ ‘to plow’; Phoenician ḥrš ‘to plow’; Ugaritic ḥrt ‘to plow’;
    Akkadian erēšu ‘to plow, to till’; Arabic ḥarata ‘to plow, to till’; Sabaean
    ḥrt ‘plowed lands’; Śḥeri / Jibbāli ḥárɔ́t ‘to grow plants with fertilizer’;
    Geez / Ethiopic ḥarasa [ሐረሰ] ‘to plow, to cultivate land’, māḥras
    [ማሕረስ] ‘a plow, a plowshare’; Tigrinya ḥaräsä ‘to plow’, maḥräša ‘a
    plow’; Tigre ḥarsa ‘to plow’, maḥräša ‘a plow’; Harari ḥaräsa ‘to plow’;
    Amharic arräsä ‘to plow, to till, to cultivate’, maräša ‘a plow’; Gafat
    arräsä ‘to plow’; Gurage aräsä ‘to plow, to cultivate’, maräša ‘a plow’;
    Argobba ḥarräsa ‘to plow’. Murtonen 1989:198—199; Klein 1987:234;
    Leslau 1963:87, 1979:91, and 1987:243; Zammit 2002:136—137. Proto-
    East Cushitic *ħa(a)r- ‘to scratch, to scrape’ > Afar ħaar-is- ‘to clean out
    the contents of viscera’; Hadiyya haar- ‘to scratch’; Burji har"- ‘to plow,
    to cultivate’; Konso har- ‘to scoop soil from a hole’; Gidole haar-awwa
    ‘razor, blade for shaving’. Sasse 1982:92; Hudson 1989:196 and 280.
    Proto-Southern Cushitic *ħer- ‘to shave’ > Asa hera ‘razor’; Ma’a -ha ‘to
    shave’, -haré ‘to sharpen’, iharíme ‘whetstone’. Ehret 1980:301. [Ehret
    1995:375, no. 757, *ḥer- ‘to scrape off’.] Takács 2011:173 *ḥ-r (perhaps
    *ḥar-) ‘to scratch, to scrape’.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil araka ‘a plow with bullocks’; Malto are ‘a plow’.
    Burrow—Emeneau 1984:19, no. 198.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *¸hher(H)- [*¸hhar(H)-] ‘to plow’: Hittite (3rd sg.
    pres.) ḫar-aš-zi ‘to plow’; Greek ἀρόω ‘to plow’; Latin arō ‘to plow’; Old
    Irish airim ‘to plow’; Gothic arjan ‘to plow’; Old Icelandic erja ‘to plow’;
    Old English erian ‘to plow’, ierþ ‘plowing’; Old High German erran ‘to
    plow’; Lithuanian ariù, árti ‘to plow, to till’; Old Church Slavic ralu ‘a
    plow’, orjǫ, orati ‘to plow’; Tocharian A āre ‘a plow’. Rix 1998a:243
    *h2øerh2ø- ‘to plow or break up (land)’; Pokorny 1959:62—63 *ar(ə)- ‘to plow’; Walde 1927—1932.I:78—79 *arā-; Mann 1984—1987:35 *arō,
    -i̯ō (*arā-) ‘to plow’; Watkins 1985:3 *arə- and 2000:5 *arə- ‘to plow’
    (oldest form *šer›-, colored to *šar›-); Mallory—Adams 1997:434
    *haérhùi̯e/o- ‘to plow’; Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.II:687—688 *Har- and
    1995.I:593—594 *Har- ‘to work land, to plow’; Sturtevant 1942:40—41,
    §37f; Puhvel 1984— .3:184—185 (Puhvel considers Hittite ḫar(a)š- to be
    a loan from Akkadian or West Semitic); Tischler 1977— .1:182—183;
    Kloekhorst 2008b:312—314; Frisk 1970—1973.I:147—148; Chantraine
    1968—1980.I:112—113; Boisacq 1950:80; Hofmann 1966:24; De Vaan
    2008:55 *høerhù-i̯e/o- ‘to plough’; Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.I:69;
    Ernout—Meillet 1979:48 *arə-; Orël 2003:23 Proto-Germanic *arjanan;
    Kroonen 2013:28 Proto-Germanic *arjan- ‘to plow’; Feist 1939:56—57
    *arə-; Lehmann 1986:42 *ar(ə)-; De Vries 1977:104; Adams 1999:49
    *høerhù-; Van Windekens 1976—1982.I:167; Fraenkel 1962—1965.I:17;
    Smoczyński 2007.1:23—24; Derksen 2008:372—373 *høerhù- and 373—
    Sumerian har(-har) ‘to scratch, to scrape’.

    This reminds me for example Bhagwan Singhs suggestion for Arya :) .

  54. Again I am to my own surprise noticing many , I list the last one for now . I think 50 will be reached with ease.

    PIE-Dravidian no. 30 .
    Proto-Nostratic (n.) *ħur-a (and/or *ħer-a ?) ‘hawk-like bird: falcon, hawk,
    eagle, kite’:
    A. Afrasian: Egyptian Ḥr, Ḥrw ‘the god Horus (one of the two brother hawkgods)’;
    Coptic hōr [xwr] ‘the god Horus’. Hannig 1995:543—544;
    Erman—Grapow 1921:112 and 1926—1963.3:122—124; Faulkner 1962:
    173; Gardiner 1957:582; Vycichl 1983:307—308; Černý 1976:291.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil eruvai ‘a kind of kite whose head is white and whose
    body is brown, eagle’; Malayalam eruva ‘eagle, kite’. Burrow—Emeneau
    1984:80, no. 818.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *¸hhor-/*¸hhr̥ - ‘eagle’: Hittite ḫara(n)- (< *¸hhr̥ -n-)
    (nom. sg. ḫa-a-ra-aš, gen. sg. ḫa-ra-na-aš) ‘eagle’, (?) ḫarrani- or
    ḫurrani- name of an ornithomatic bird; Palaic ḫa-ra-a-aš ‘eagle’; Greek
    ὄρνις ‘bird’; Armenian oror ‘kite, gull’; Welsh eryr ‘eagle’; Gothic ara
    ‘eagle’; Old Icelandic (poet.) ari, örn (< *arnu-) (gen. sg. arnar, acc. örnu,
    pl. ernir) ‘eagle’; Old English earn ‘eagle’ (Middle English ern(e), earn);
    Old High German aro, arn ‘eagle’ (New High German [poetic] Aar);
    Lithuanian erẽlis (dial. arẽlis) ‘eagle’; Latvian èrglis ‘eagle’; Old Prussian
    arelie ‘eagle’; Old Church Slavic orьlъ ‘eagle’; Russian orël [орëл]
    ‘eagle’; Czech orel ‘eagle’; Polish orzeł ‘eagle’; Upper Sorbian worjoł
    ‘eagle’; Lower Sorbian jerjoł, jerjeł ‘eagle’; Bulgarian orél ‘eagle’; Serbo-
    Croatian órao ‘eagle’. Pokorny 1959:325—326 *er-, *or- ‘eagle’; Walde
    1927—1932.I:135 *er-, *or- ‘eagle’; Mann 1984—1987:889—890 *ornis
    (*ornu̯is ?) ‘petulant, dashing; dasher, flier’, 890—891 *oros, -i̯os
    (*"oros) ‘eagle, hawk’; Watkins 1985:46 *or- and 2000:60 *or- ‘large
    bird’ (earliest form *›er-, colored to *›or-); Mallory—Adams 1997:173
    *Hùor- ‘eagle’; Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.I:158 *Hùor- and 1995.I:136
    Hùor- ‘eagle’ (also I:455, I:765 *Her-, o-grade *Hor-); Sturtevant
    1951:31, §58, Indo-Hittite *¦orn-; Kloekhorst 2008b:301—302; Puhvel
    1984— .3:137—139 Hittite ḫāraniš < *H1÷órones and 3:139; Tischler 1977— :170—171; Boisacq 1950:714; Frisk 1970—1973.II:421—422
    *or-(elo-)n-; Hofmann 1966:238 *er-; Chantraine 1968—1980.II:822—
    823; Beekes 1969:130; Orël 2003:25 Proto-Germanic *arōn; Kroonen
    2013:32 Proto-Germanic *aran- ‘eagle’; Feist 1939:54—55; Lehmann
    1986:40; De Vries 1977:13 and 688; Onions 1966:324; Klein 1971:256;
    Kluge—Mitzka 1967:1; Kluge—Seebold 1989:1; Derksen 2008:377—
    378; Fraenkel 1962—1965.I:122; Smoczyński 2007.1:147. Pokorny
    (1959:325—326) reconstructs Proto-Indo-European *er- on the basis of
    Lithuanian erẽlis, but Cowgill (1965:146, fn. 2) questions the validity of
    this reconstruction since he takes Lithuanian erẽlis to be assimilated from
    the dialectal form arẽlis. Cowgill points out that the relative antiquity of
    the Lithuanian dialectal form is confirmed by Old Prussian arelie. Finally,
    he points out that Latvian èrglis has undergone even more remodeling.
    Sumerian hu-rí-in ‘eagle’.

  55. PIE-Dravidian no. 31.
    Dravidian: Tuḷu barakelu̥ ‘inundation’; Telugu varada ‘flood, torrent,
    inundation, deluge’, varru ‘flow, flood’; Parji vered ‘flood’; Konḍa urda
    ‘flood’; Kuwi varda pīyu ‘torrential rain’, vāru ‘flood’. Burrow—Emeneau
    1984:481—482, no. 5323.
    Proto-Indo-European *¸hhew-r- [*¸hhaw-r-]/*¸hhow-r-/*¸hhu-r-, *¸hhw-er-
    /*¸hhw-or- ‘(vb.) to sprinkle, to spray, to rain; (n.) rain, moisture’: Sanskrit
    vā́ri ‘water, rain, fluid’; Avestan vairi- ‘lake’, vār- ‘to rain’; Hittite (3rd
    pl.) ḫur-na-an-zi ‘to sprinkle’, ḫur-na-a-iš ‘spray’, (3rd pl.) ḫu-u-wa-raan-
    zi ‘to sprinkle’; Palaic (3rd sg. pres. act.) ḫu-wa-ar-ni-na-i ‘to sprinkle’;
    Tocharian A wär, B war ‘water’; Greek οὖρον ‘urine’, ῥαίνω (< *Hwrn̥-
    yō) ‘to sprinkle, to be sprinkle’; Latin ūrīna ‘urine’; Old Irish feraim ‘to
    pour’; Old Icelandic aurr ‘moist earth, clay, mud’, ver ‘sea’, úr ‘light rain,
    drizzle’, ýra ‘to drizzle’; Swedish (dial.) örja ‘swamp’; Old English ēar
    ‘sea’, wbr ‘spray’. Rix 1998a:259 *høu̯erh÷- ‘to sprinkle, to spray’;
    Pokorny 1959:80—81 *au̯er- ‘water, rain, river’; Walde 1927—
    1932.I:268—269 *u̯er-; Mann 1984—1987:895—896 *ouros, -om (*əur-)
    ‘water, brine; moisture, mire’; Watkins 1985:44 *wēr- and 2000:100
    *wē-r- ‘water, liquid, milk’ (contracted from earlier *we™-r-; zero-grade
    *u™-r-, contracted to *ūr-); Mallory—Adams 1997:636 *u̯é/óhxr- ‘water’;
    Puhvel 1984— .3:397—398 and 3:402—404; Boisacq 1950:729 *u̯er-s-,
    enlargement of *u̯er-, and 833 *u̯rn̥-i̯ō; Chantraine 1968—1980.II:839 and
    II:965 *wren-; Frisk 1970—1983.II:447 (Sanskrit várṣati < *u̯érseti) and
    II:639—640 *u̯ren-; Hofmann 1966:244—245 *u̯er-s-, *u̯er- and 294
    *u̯rn̥i̯ō (root *u̯ren-); Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.II:840 *u̯er-, *u̯er-s-;

  56. PIE-Dravidian no. 32.
    732. Proto-Nostratic root *ħul- (~ *ħol-):
    (vb.) *ħul- ‘to destroy, to lay waste, to cause to perish’;
    (n.) *ħul-a ‘ruin, destruction; end, death’
    A. Dravidian: Tamil ula ‘to become diminished, to be wasted, to be devoid of,
    to die, to terminate’, ulakkai ‘end, ruin, death’, ulappu ‘wasting, perishing,
    defect, death, limit’, ulai ‘to perish, to be ruined, to ruin’, ulaivu ‘ruin,
    destruction, defeat, trouble, poverty’; Malayalam ulakkuka ‘to shrink up’,
    ulayuka ‘to be impoverished, ruined’, ulaccal, ulavu ‘ruin’. Burrow—
    Emeneau 1984:66, no. 671.
    B. Proto-Indo-European *¸hhul- (> *¸hhol-) ‘to smite, to destroy’: Hittite (3rd
    sg. pres.) ḫu-ul-la-a-i ‘to smite, to destroy’, (ptc.) ḫu-ul-ḫu-li-ya-an-te-eš
    ‘smitten’, ḫu-ul-la-an-za-iš ‘battle’; Greek ὄλλῡμι ‘to destroy, to make an
    end of’, –ëåèñïò ‘ruin, destruction, death’; Latin ab-oleō ‘to destroy’. Rix
    1998a:264 *hùelh÷- ‘to perish, to be ruined or destroyed’; Pokorny
    1959:777 *ol-(e)- ‘to destroy’; Mann 1984—1987:871—872 *ol-, *olu-
    ‘to destroy’; Watkins 1985:46 *ol- and 2000:60 *olə- ‘to destroy’ (oldest form *›aele™-, colored to *›aole™-; with variant [metathesized] form *›alea™-,
    contracted to *›alē-); Mallory—Adams 1997:158 *h3elh1÷- ‘to rend, to
    destroy’; Couvreur 1937:143—144; Tischler 1977— :273—276; Cowgill
    1965:146—147 *Ol̥-ne-O-mi; Beekes 1969:131 *ħùelħ÷- and 236; Boisacq
    1950:696; Frisk 1970—1973.II:378—379; Hofmann 1966:230; Chantraine
    1968—1980.II:792—793; Ernout—Meillet 1979:3—4; Walde—Hofmann
    1965—1972.I:4—5; De Vaan 2008:21. Puhvel (1984— .3:363—368),
    however, rejects this etymology. See also Kloekhorst 2008b:358—360.
    Sumerian hul ‘to destroy’.
    Buck 1949:9.21 strike (hit, beat); 11.27 destroy. Bomhard—Kerns 1994:552—
    553, no. 412.

  57. PIE-Dravidian no. 33.
    744. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *ʕaŋ-a ‘upper part’; (particle) *ʕaŋ- ‘up, above’:
    A. Proto-Afrasian *ʕaŋ- ‘(n.) upper part; (particle) up, above’: Proto-Southern
    Cushitic *ʕaŋ- ‘up, above’ > Iraqw aŋ ‘in the past, long ago’; Burunge oŋ
    (pl. omeri) ‘mountain’; K’wadza onka (pl. oma) ‘mountain’; Ma’a aná
    ‘above’, aŋilá ‘above’. Ehret 1980:276. Proto-Southern Cushitic *ʕaŋ-
    ‘head’ > Ma’a mu"a, angálo ‘head’; Dahalo «àni ‘head’. Ehret 1980:276.
    Highland East Cushitic: Sidamo aaná ‘on (top of)’, aana ‘over, above’.
    Hudson 1989:348. [Ehret 1995:351, no. 689, *ʕaŋ-/*ʕiŋ- ‘tip, peak, top’.]
    B. [Dravidian: Tamil aṇ ‘upper part’, aṇa ‘to lift the head’, aṇar ‘to rise, to
    move upwards’, aṇavu (aṇavi-) ‘to go upward, to ascend’, aṇṇal
    ‘greatness, exaltation, superiority, great man, king, god’, aṇṇā ‘to look
    upward, to gape, to hold the head erect’; Malayalam aṇṇa ‘upwards,
    above’, aṇṇal ‘high, God, esp. Arhat’, aṇṇā ‘looking upwards’; Kannaḍa
    aṇṇe, aṇṇa, aṇa ‘excellence, purity’; Tuḷu aṇāvuni, aṇṇāvuni ‘to look up,
    to lift up the face, to gaze’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:12, no. 110. Tamil
    āṇi ‘excellence, superiority’, āṇi-ppon ‘gold of the finest quality’, āṇimuttu
    ‘pearl of the finest quality’; Kannaḍa āṇi ‘excellence, superiority,
    preciousness’, āṇi-pon ‘gold of the finest quality’; Malayalam āṇikkaram
    ‘the choicest of anything’, āṇi-pponnu ‘finest gold’. Burrow—Emeneau
    1984:33, no. 354.]
    C. [(?) Proto-Altaic *āŋo (‘front, front side’ >) ‘right (side)’: Proto-Tungus
    *āŋ(gi)- ‘right’ > Evenki anŋū, āńŋū ‘right’; Lamut / Even āngъ̣¦ ‘right’;
    Negidal ańŋị-dā ‘right’; Oroch āńǯä ‘right’; Udihe ayaŋaǯa ‘right’; Solon
    angida ‘right’. Proto-Mongolian *eŋge- ‘south; front (of cloth)’ > Written
    Mongolian eŋger ‘flap of a garment, lapel(s); southern slope of a mountain
    or hill’, eŋ ‘width (of material), dimension, extent’, eŋ ‘very, most’ (eŋ
    terigün ‘first of all, very first’); Khalkha enger ‘south; front (of cloth)’;
    Buriat enger ‘front (of cloth)’; Kalmyk eŋgə, eŋgṛ ‘shore’; Ordos enger
    ‘front (of cloth)’; Dagur enge ‘front (of cloth)’; Dongxiang engie ‘front (of
    cloth)’; Monguor ŋge ‘front (of cloth)’. Proto-Turkic *oŋ ‘right; good,
    lucky; west’ > Old Turkic (Old Uighur) oŋ ‘right; good, lucky; west’;
    Karakhanide Turkic oŋ ‘right; good, lucky’; Turkish (dial.) on ‘right; good,lucky’; Turkmenian oŋ ‘good, lucky’; Uzbek ọŋ ‘right; good, lucky’;
    Uighur oŋ ‘right’; Karaim oŋ ‘right; good, lucky’; Tatar uŋ ‘right; good,
    lucky’; Bashkir uŋ ‘right; good, lucky’; Kirghiz oŋ ‘right; good, lucky’;
    Kazakh oŋ ‘right’; Noghay oŋ ‘right; good, lucky’; Sary-Uighur oŋ ‘right’;
    Oyrot (Mountain Altai) oŋ ‘right; good, lucky’; Tuva oŋ ‘right’; Yakut uŋa
    ‘right; southern’, uŋuor ‘on the other bank’. Starostin—Dybo—Mudrak
    2003:305 **āŋo ‘right’.]
    Sumerian an ‘high’, an ‘heaven’, an ‘over, above’, an-da ‘more than; over,
    above, on top of’, an-na ‘to be raised, elevated’, an-na ‘high’, an-na ‘over,
    above’, an-na ‘in heaven’.
    Buck 1949:1.22 mountain; hill; 4.20 head; 12.33 top; 12.41 right; 12.48 south.
    Note: the Dravidian and Altaic forms are phonologically ambiguous — they
    may belong with Proto-Nostratic *xaŋ- (~ *xəŋ-) ‘(vb.) to lift, to raise; to rise,
    to go upward, to ascend; (n.) that which is most prominent, visible, or
    noticeable; (particle) on top of, over, above’ instead.

    Connect of course ana- Look up ana- at
    before verbs an-, prefix meaning 1. "upward," 2. "back, backward, against," 3. "again, anew," from Greek ana "up, upon; throughout; back; again; anew," cognate with Old English on, from PIE root *ano- "on, upon, above".

  58. PIE-Dravidian no. 34.
    Dravidian: Tamil vali ‘to draw, to pull, to row; to have contortions or
    convulsions’, vali, valippu ‘pulling, dragging, spasm, convulsion’;
    Malayalam vali ‘drawing, pull, tug, spasm’, valikka ‘to draw, to drag, to
    row; to have spasms’, valippikka ‘to cause to pull’, valippu ‘drawing,
    pulling, spasm’, valiyuka ‘to be drawn, to extend, to have spasmodic pain’;
    Koḍagu bali- (balip-, balic-) ‘to snatch, to pull’, balip- ‘the act of
    dragging’; Koraga bali ‘to pull’; Kui velba- (ves-) ‘(vb.) to pull, to pull up;
    (n.) pulling’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:477, no. 5282.
    Proto-Indo-European *¸¦hhwel-/*¸¦hhwol-/*¸¦hhwl̥- ‘to draw, to pull, to tear out’:
    Latin vellō ‘to pluck, to pull, to tear out’; Lithuanian velkù, vil͂kti ‘to drag,
    to pull’; Old Church Slavic vlěkǫ, vlěšti ‘to draw, to drag’; Avestan (in
    compounds) varək- ‘to draw’; Gothic wilwan ‘to rob, to plunder’, wilwa
    ‘robber’. Rix 1998a:620 *u̯elk- ‘to drag, to draw, to pull’; Pokorny
    1959:1144—1145 *u̯el- ‘to tear’, 1145 *u̯elk- ‘to pull’; Walde 1927—
    1932.I:304—305 *u̯el- and I:305 *u̯elk-; Mann 1984—1987:1509 *u̯el- ‘to
    snatch, to tug’, 1511 *u̯elk- ‘to pull, to tug, to jerk’, 1512 *u̯elu̯mn- ‘pull,
    tear, jerk; fleece’, 1512 *u̯elu̯ō, -i̯ō ‘to snatch, to pluck, to rob’, 1572
    *u̯olk-; Watkins 1985:76 *wel- and 2000:98 *wel- ‘to tear, to pull’;
    Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.II:492, fn. 1, *u̯el- and 1995.I:413, fn. 1,
    *wel- ‘to lacerate, to tear apart; to wound; to kill’; Mallory—Adams
    1997:471 *húu̯elk- ‘to pull’; Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.II:744—745
    *u̯el-; Ernout—Meillet 1979:718 *wel-; De Vaan 2008:659; Orël 2003:454
    Proto-Germanic *welwanan; Feist 1939:564—565 *u̯el-; Lehmann
    1986:404 *wel- ‘to tear, to rob; to wound’; Smoczyński 2007.1:753—754
    *h2u̯elk-; Fraenkel 1962—1965.II:1253; Derksen 2008:514.

  59. PIE-Dravidian no. 35.
    768. Proto-Nostratic root *x¦wat’- (~ *x¦wət’-):
    (vb.) *x¦wat’- ‘to chatter, to speak’;
    (n.) *x¦wat’-a ‘chatter, talk’
    A. Afrasian: Proto-Semitic *xat’-ab- ‘to speak’ > Arabic ḫaṭaba ‘to deliver a
    public address, to make a speech; to preach, to deliver a sermon’; ḫuṭba
    ‘public address, speech; oration; letter, note, message’, taḫāṭub
    ‘conversation, talk, discussion, (inter)communication’. Proto-Semitic
    *xat’-il- ‘to talk nonsense, to prattle’ > Arabic ḫaṭila ‘to talk nonsense, to
    indulge in idle or unseemly talk’, ḫaṭal ‘idle talk, prattle’, ḫaṭil ‘garrulous,
    chattering, given to silly talk; stupid, foolish’.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil vataru (vatari-) ‘to chatter, to prate, to be talkative, to
    lisp, to abuse’; Kannaḍa odaru ‘to sound, to cry aloud, to shout, to shriek,
    to howl’, odarukive ‘sounding, crying aloud’; Tuḷu badaritana
    ‘defamation’; Telugu vadaru, vaduru ‘to prattle, to prate, to babble, to
    chatter, to jabber’, vadarũbōtu ‘prattler, babbler’. Burrow—Emeneau
    1984:473, no. 5244.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *¸¦hhwet’- ‘to say, to speak’: Sanskrit vāda-ḥ ‘speech,
    discourse, talk, utterance, statement’, vádati ‘to speak, to say, to utter, to
    tell, to report, to speak to, to talk with, to address’; Greek (?) ἀείδω (<
    *ἀ+είδω < *awe-ud- < *H2we-H2ud- [cf. Sihler 1995:55, §61.1.a, and 86,
    §90; Buck 1933:89; Grammont 1948:137—138 *a-we-wdō]) ‘to sing’,
    αὐδάω ‘to utter sounds, to speak’, αὐδή (Doric αὐδά) ‘the human voice,
    speech’, ἀηδώ, ἀηδών ‘nightingale’; Lithuanian vadinù, vadìnti ‘to call, to
    name’. Rix 1998a:225 *h2u̯edH- ‘to sound, to speak’ (note: Rix
    [1998a:256—257] derives Greek ἀείδω from *h2u̯ei̯d- ‘to sing’); Pokorny
    1959:76—77 *au̯- *au̯ed- ‘to speak’; Walde 1927—1932.I:251—252
    *u̯ed-; Mann 1984—1987:45 *au̯ed- (*əu̯ed-, *aud-, *əud-) ‘to sing’, 1496
    *u̯ed- ‘to speak, to utter’, and 1558 *u̯od- ‘call, sound’; Watkins 1985:73
    *wed- (possibly oldest root form *əwed- becoming *awed-) and 2000:95 *wed- ‘to speak’ (oldest form *a2wed-); Mallory—Adams 1997:535 *u̯ed-
    ‘to raise one’s voice’; Boisacq 1950:15, 17 *u̯ed- (or *au̯ed-), and 99;
    Chantraine 1968—1980.I:21—22 Greek ἀείδω < *ἀ-+ε-ιδ-ειν, dissimilated
    from *ἀ-+ε-+δ-ειν, I:26, and I:137—138; Frisk 1970—1973.I:22—23, I:26
    *(a)u̯ed-, and I:184 *au̯ed-; Beekes 1969:56—57 (Beekes rejects
    derivation of Greek ἀείδω from *ἀ-+ε-+δ-ειν) and 89 *ħ2u̯ē̆d- : *ħ2eud-;
    Hofmann 1966:4, 5, and 28; Wyatt 1972a:51—52 Greek ἀείδω < *weid-
    ‘to make known’; L. Meyer 1901—1902.I:23—24; Prellwitz 1905:8, 10,
    and 64; Polomé 1965:24 Greek ἀηδών < *Ḁw-e-Awd-; Wharton 1890a:18;
    Smoczyński 2007.1:710 *h2u̯edH- Fraenkel 1962—1965.II:177—178.
    D. Uralic: Finno-Ugrian: Finnish vatustaa, vatvoa ‘to dwell on something, to
    chatter’; Estonian vada ‘to chatter, to prattle, to jabber’.
    E. (?) Chukchi-Kamchatkan *vetɣav- ‘to speak’: Chukchi wetɣaw- ‘to speak
    (out)’, wetɣaw ‘speech, word’, rə-wetɣaw- ‘to speak (with someone), to
    decide’; Alyutor vitɣav- ‘to decide’, (Palana) nə-ta-vetɣ-əŋ-qen ‘talkative’;
    Koryak vetɣav- ‘to reach agreement’, nə-vetɣəŋ-qen ‘talkative’. Fortescue
    Buck 1949:18.21 speak, talk. Hakola 2000:211, no 944.

  60. PIE-Dravidian no.36.
    785. Proto-Nostratic root *wal- (~ *wəl-):
    (vb.) *wal- ‘to be or become strong’;
    (n.) *wal-a ‘strength, power’
    A. Afrasian: Highland East Cushitic: Sidamo walk’á ‘strength, power’,
    walk’a-beelo ‘lacking strength, tired, weak’. Hudson 1989:400.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil val ‘strong, hard, forceful, skilful’, vallamai, vallam,
    vallai ‘strength’, vali ‘(vb.) to be strong, hard; to compel; (n.) strength,
    power’, valiya ‘strong, big’, valuppu ‘firmness, strength’, valu ‘(vb.) to be
    strong or hard; (n.) strength, skill, ability’; Malayalam val, valu, valiya
    ‘strong, powerful, great’, valluka ‘to be able, strong’; Kannaḍa bal ‘to
    grow strong or firm’, bali ‘to increase; to grow; to grow strong, stout; to
    become tight, firm, hard; to increase (tr.); to make strong, firm’, bal(u),
    bolu ‘strength, firmness, bigness, greatness, abundance, excess’, balisu ‘to
    make strong’; Tuḷu bala ‘strength’, Koḍagu bala ‘strength, power’, ballyë
    ‘great’; Telugu vali ‘big, large’, valamu ‘largeness, stoutness’, baliyu ‘to
    grow fat, to increase’, baluvu ‘strength, intensity; heavy, great, excessive,
    big, strong, severe’; Gadba valan ‘thick, stout’. Burrow—Emeneau
    1984:476—477, no. 5276; Krishnamurti 2003:394 *wal ‘strong’.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *wal- ‘to be strong’: Latin valeō ‘to be strong’; Old
    Irish faln-, foln- (in deponent forms) ‘to rule’, flaith (< *wlati-) ‘lordship’;

    1. Welsh gwledig ‘prince’, gwlad ‘country’; Gothic waldan ‘to rule, to
      govern’; Old Icelandic valda ‘to wield, to rule over’, vald ‘power,
      authority’; Swedish våla ‘to cause, to be the cause of’; Old English
      geweald ‘power’, wealdan ‘to have control over, to wield (weapon); to
      govern; to possess; to cause’, gewealden ‘under control, subjected’,
      wealdend ‘ruler, king, controller’, gewieldan ‘to overpower, to subdue, to
      domesticate’, wielde ‘strong, victorious’; Old Frisian walda ‘to have power
      over, to rule over’, wald ‘power, control’; Old Saxon waldan ‘to rule, to
      have control over, to govern’, giwald ‘power, control’; Old High German
      waltan ‘to rule, to govern’ (New High German walten), giwalt ‘power,
      control’ (New High German Gewalt); Lithuanian valdaũ, valdýti ‘to
      govern’, valdõnas ‘ruler, lord, master’; Old Church Slavic vladǫ, vlasti ‘to
      rule’, vlastь ‘power’; Tocharian A wäl, B walo ‘king’, A/B wlāw- ‘to
      control’, B wawlāwar, wlāwalñe ‘control’. Rix 1998a:617—618 *u̯elH- ‘to
      be strong, to have control or power over’; Pokorny 1959:1111—1112
      *u̯al-, *u̯al-d(h)- ‘to be strong’; Walde 1927—1932.I:219 *u̯al-; Mann 1984—1987:1488 *u̯al- ‘good, strong, able’, 1488 *u̯aldh-, 1509—1510
      *u̯el- ‘big, great; greater, stronger; to be big, to be strong, to be able;
      greatly, strongly, very’, 1552 *u̯l̥dh- ‘to grow strong, to thrive’, 1570—
      1571 *u̯oldh- ‘to rule, to control, to possess’; Watkins 1985:73—74 *waland
      2000:95 *wal- ‘to be strong’; Mallory—Adams 1997:490 *u̯al- ‘to be
      strong, to rule’; De Vaan 2008:651—652; Walde—Hofmann 1965—
      1972.II:727—728; Ernout—Meillet 1979:711—712 *wᵒlē-; Orël 2003:443
      Proto-Germanic *walđan, 443 *walđanan, 443 *walđaz, 443 *walđiᵹaz ~
      *walđuᵹaz, 443 *walđiz, 443 *walđjan, 443 *walđōn; Kroonen 2013:569
      Proto-Germanic *waldan- ‘to rule over, to have authority over’; Feist
      1939:548 *u̯al-; Lehmann 1986:392 *wal-, *wal-dh-; De Vries 1977:640;
      Onions 1966:1006 *wal-; Klein 1971:827—828 *wal-dh-, extended form
      of *wal-; Boutkan—Siebinga 2005:428; Kluge—Mitzka 1977:835—836
      *u̯al-; Kluge—Seebold 1989:776; Adams 1999:581—582 and 617 *wleha-
      w-; Van Windekens 1976—1982.I:554 *u̯el- and I:576—577 *u̯elā;
      Fraenkel 1962—1965.II:1188—1189; Smoczyński 2007.1:730—731;
      Derksen 2008:524 and 526.
      D. Yukaghir (Northern Tundra) wola- ‘to force’. Nikolaeva 2006:457.
      Buck 1949:4.81 strong, mighty, powerful; 19.31 rule (vb.), govern. Bomhard—
      Kerns 1994:610—611, no. 487; Illič-Svityč 1971—1984.II:109—110, no. 350,
      *wol<a ‘big’; Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 2469, *waló ‘to be strong, to be
      I have no idea how he missed Sanskrit bala 'power , strength , might , vigour , force , validity attested since Rigveda .

    2. Yes, probably because they don't realize that Skt. b- can easily come from v-. Mayrhofer instead cites some reference to a derivation from v- and cites also Lat. de-bilis 'weak', and Greek belteros, beltion 'better' (<stronger).

    3. Wikipedia gives a root *bel for these words:

      One wonders if there is a connection with the theonym Bel in Semitic (like Ba'al etc)

    4. Yes, I also wonder, and the comparison was made by M. Shendge at least. Wiktionary gives this Semitic root:
      *baʿl- "husband, master, owner"
      Semantically it is close, 'ruler' is also among the meanings in IE, like Tocharian and Germanic.

  61. PIE-Dravidian 37.
    Dravidian: Tamil vaḷai ‘to surround, to hover around, to walk around, to
    move about (as fetus in the womb)’, veḷaivu ‘circle, circumference’,
    vaḷaiyam ‘ring, circle, bracelet, ambit’, vaḷāvu (vaḷāvi-) ‘to surround’,
    vaḷākam ‘enclosing, surrounding’; Malayalam vaḷayuka ‘to surround’,
    vaḷekka ‘to enclose’, vaḷaccal ‘enclosing’, vaḷayal ‘surrounding’, vaḷa
    ‘ring, bracelet’; Kota vaḷc- (vaḷc-) ‘to walk in a circle, to make round’, vaḷ
    ‘bangle’, vaḷ ca·rym ‘all around’; Kannaḍa baḷasu ‘(vb.) to go in a circle or
    round, to walk or wander about, to be surrounded, to surround; (n.) act of
    surrounding or encompassing, what surrounds, state of being circuitous,
    one round or turn (as of a rope, etc.)’, baḷe ‘ring, armlet, bracelet’; Telugu
    balayu ‘to surround’, valayu ‘to turn around (intr.)’. Burrow—Emeneau
    1984:480, no. 5313.
    Proto-Indo-European *wel-/*wol-/*wl̥- ‘to turn, to roll, to revolve’:
    Sanskrit válati, válate ‘to turn, to turn around, to turn to’;Armenian gelum
    ‘to twist, to press’, glem ‘to roll’, glor ‘round’; Greek εἰλέω (< *+ελ-ν-έω)
    ‘to roll up, to pack close, to wind, to turn around, to revolve’, εἰλύω ‘to
    enfold, to enwrap’; Latin volvō ‘to roll, to wind, to turn around, to twist
    around’; Old Irish fillid ‘to fold, to bend’; Gothic af-walwjan ‘to roll
    away’, at-walwjan ‘to roll to’; Old Icelandic valr ‘round’, velta ‘to roll’,
    válka ‘to toss to and fro, to drag with oneself’, válk ‘tossing to and fro
    (especially at sea)’; Old English wielwan ‘to roll’, wealwian ‘to roll’,
    wealte ‘a ring’, wealcan ‘to roll, to fluctuate (intr.); to roll, to whirl, to turn,
    to twist (tr.)’, wealcian ‘to roll (intr.)’, gewealc ‘rolling’, welung
    ‘revolution (of a wheel)’; Middle English walken ‘to walk, to roll, to toss’,
    walkien ‘to walk’; Middle Dutch welteren ‘to roll’, walken ‘to knead, to
    press’; Old High German walzan ‘to roll, to rotate, to turn about’ (New
    High German wälzen), walken, walchen ‘to knead, to roll paste’; Tocharian
    B wäl- ‘to curl’. Rix 1998a:616 *u̯el- ‘to turn, to twist, to revolve, to
    rotate’; Pokorny 1959:1140—1144 *u̯el-, *u̯elə-, *u̯lē- ‘to turn, to roll’;
    Walde 1927—1932.I:298—304 *u̯el-; Mann 1984—1987:1508—1509
    *u̯el- ‘(vb.) to turn, to bend, to twist, to revolve, to deceive; (n.) turn,
    bending, deceit’, 1150 *u̯ē̆lənos, -ā (*u̯elen-) ‘roller, cylinder’, 1510
    *u̯elər- (*u̯eli̯ər-) ‘twisted, bent; twist, bend, curved’, 1511 *u̯elu̯el-,
    1511—1512 *u̯elu̯mn- ‘turn, twist, curve, bend’, 1512 *u̯elu̯ō, -i̯ō ‘to twist,
    to turn, to bend, to roll’, 1555 *u̯l̥u̯n̥t- (?) ‘roll, ball, round, twist, bend’,
    1555—1556 *u̯l̥u̯ō, -i̯ō ‘to roll’, 1556 *u̯l̥u̯os, -ā, -i̯ə ‘twist, turn, wrap,
    twisted’, 1556 *u̯l̥u̯tā, -is (*u̯l̥utā, -is) ‘roll, scroll, wind’, 1569 *u̯ol-
    (*u̯olos) ‘turn, roll, cylinder’, 1569—1570 *u̯ōl- (*u̯ōlos) ‘turn’, 1571—
    1572 *u̯ōli̯ō, *u̯olei̯ō ‘to roll, to overturn, to ruin’; Mallory—Adams 1997:607 *u̯el- ‘to turn, to wind, to roll’; Watkins 1985:75—76 *wel- and
    2000:98 *wel- ‘to turn, to roll’; Boisacq 1950:224—225 *u̯elu-; Frisk
    1970—1973.I:457—458 and I:461—462 *u̯l̥-ne-u-(ti); Chantraine 1968—
    1980.I:319—320 *+ελ- ‘to turn’ and I:320—321 *welu-; Hofmann
    1966:72—73 *u̯elu-, extended form of *u̯el-; Walde—Hofmann 1965—
    1972.II:832—834; Ernout—Meillet 1979:752; De Vaan 2008:689—690;
    Mayrhofer 1956—1980.III:161; Orël 2003:443 Proto-Germanic *walaz I,
    444 *walkanan, 444 *walkōjanan, 444 *waltjanan, 444 *waltō, 445
    *walwjanan, 453 *wellanan I; Kroonen 2013:570 Proto-Germanic
    *walkan- ‘to roll’ and 570 *walk/gōn- ‘to roll’; Lehmann 1986:9 *wel"-,
    *welw-, etc.; Feist 1939:13 *u̯el-; De Vries 1977:641, 642, and 653 *u̯el-;
    Klein 1971:820 *walg-; Onions 1966:989 Germanic *walk-, of unknown
    origin; Kluge—Mitzka 1967:836 *u̯el-; Kluge—Seebold 1989:776 *wel-;
    Van Windekens 1976—1982.I:555 *u̯el-; Adams 1999:596 *wel- ‘to wind,
    to twist, to bend’.

  62. PIE-Dravidian no. 38 .
    794. Proto-Nostratic root *wam- (~ *wəm-):
    (vb.) *wam- ‘to eject, to spit out, to spit up’;
    (n.) *wam-a ‘spittle, vomit’
    A. Dravidian: Tamil umi ‘to spit, to gargle’, uminīr ‘spittle, saliva’, umivu
    ‘spitting’, umir̤ ‘to spit, to gargle, to emit, to vomit’; Malayalam umiyuka,
    umikka ‘to spit out’, umi, umir̤u ‘spittle’, umir̤ka ‘to spit, to emit’; Koraga
    umi ‘saliva’; Kannaḍa ummalu, ummulu ‘phlegm, mucus’; Telugu umiyu
    ‘to spit, to spit out’, ummi ‘spittle, saliva’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:61, no.
    B. Proto-Indo-European *wem-/*wom-/*wm̥ - ‘to vomit, to spit up’: Sanskrit
    vámiti, vamati ‘to vomit, to spit up, to eject, to emit’; Avestan vam- ‘to
    vomit’; Greek ἐμέω ‘to vomit, to throw up’; Latin vomō ‘to vomit, to throw
    up’; Old Icelandic váma ‘qualm, ailment’, vámr ‘a loathsome person’,
    vKma ‘nausea, sea sickness’; Lithuanian vemiù, vémti ‘to vomit, to throw
    up’. Rix 1998a:621 *u̯emh÷- ‘to vomit’; Pokorny 1959:1146 *u̯em-,
    *u̯emə- ‘to vomit’; Walde 1927—1932.I:262—263 *u̯em-, *u̯emē-; Mann
    1984—1987:1512 *u̯emō, -i̯ō ‘to vomit’; Watkins 1985:76 *wem- and
    2000:98 *wemə- ‘to vomit’ (oldest form *wem™-); Mallory—Adams
    1997:536 *u̯émhxmi ‘to spew, to vomit’; Boisacq 1950:247 *u̯emē-; Frisk 1970—1973.I:504—505; Chantraine 1968—1980.I:343; Sihler 1995:41,
    §42, *wemH÷-; Hofmann 1966:80—81 *u̯emə-; Walde—Hofmann 1965—
    1972.II:835 *u̯emō; Ernout—Meillet 1979:752—753; De Vaan 2008:690;
    Orël 2003:445 Proto-Germanic *wamman, 445 *wammaz; De Vries 1977:
    642; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.III:146; Smoczyński 2007.1:734; Fraenkel
    Buck 1949:4.56 spit (vb.); 4.57 vomit (vb.). Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 2492,
    *wûmHó (or *hûmhó ?) ‘to spit out, to vomit’; Bomhard—Kerns 1994:612, no.

  63. PIE-Dravidian no. 39.
    806. Proto-Nostratic root *war- (~ *wər-) and/or *wir- (~ *wer-):
    (vb.) *war- and/or *wir- ‘to say, to speak, to tell, to point out, to make
    (n.) *war-a and/or *wir-a ‘news, report, gossip, speech’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *war- ‘to say, to speak, to tell, to point out, to make
    known’: Proto-Semitic *war-ay- ‘to say, to speak, to tell, to point out, to
    make known’ > Arabic warā (base wry [ ورى ]) ‘to show’; Sabaean wry ‘to
    make known, to announce’; Geez / Ethiopic waraya [ወረየ] ‘to tell news, to
    narrate’, ware [ወሬ] ‘news’; Tigrinya wäre ‘notice, fame’; Tigre wära ‘to
    announce’, wäre ‘communication’; Amharic wäre ‘news’. Leslau
    1987:618. Arabic (reduplicated) warwara ‘to sharpen one’s look, to look
    sharply at; to speak fast’. D. Cohen 1970— :623—624. Egyptian
    (Demotic) w&ḥ ‘message, matter, news’; Coptic wō [ouw] ‘news, report’.
    Vycichl 1983:230; Černý 1976:210. Proto-East Cushitic *war- ‘to make
    known, to tell news’ > Burji waar-iy- ‘to tell’; Saho-Afar war-e ‘news’;
    Somali war ‘news’; Sidamo waar- ‘to gossip, to tell (news), to talk, to
    speak’, wor-e ‘noteworthy thing’; Hadiyya wor-e ‘fame’; Galla / Oromo
    war-ee ‘fame’. Sasse 1979:42 and 1982:187; Hudson 1989:225 and 399.
    Proto-East Cushitic (caus. mid.) *war-s-t- ‘to inquire about news’ > Burji
    wors-aɗ- ‘to ask’; Afar war-is-, war-s-it- ‘to tell news’; Somali war-s-ad ‘to get news’; Rendille war-s-ad-, wor-s-ad- ‘to ask’. Hudson 1989:22;
    Sasse 1979:42 and 1982:181. Chadic: Ngizim wǝ̀r͂dú ‘to cry out’. Omotic:
    Mocha wóro ‘news’. Ehret 1995:462, no. 972, *war-/*wir- ‘to call out’.
    B. Proto-Dravidian *verr- ‘to say, to speak, to tell’: Gondi vehānā ‘to tell’;
    Konḍa veʀ- ‘to speak, to tell’; Pengo vec- (vecc-) ‘to speak’; Manḍa veh-
    ‘to tell, to say’; Kui vespa (vest-) ‘to say, to speak, to tell’; Kuṛux bārnā ‘to
    be called, termed; to have a title’; Malto báce ‘to relate, to tell’. Burrow—
    Emeneau 1984:502, no. 5514.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *wer- ‘to say, to speak, to tell’: Greek εἴρω (<
    *+ερɩ̯ω) ‘to say, to speak, to tell’; Hittite (3rd sg. pres.) ú-e-ri-ya-zi ‘to
    invite, to summon, to name’; Palaic (3rd sg. pres.) ú-e-er-ti ‘to say, to call’;
    Latin verbum ‘word’; Gothic waurd ‘word’; Old Icelandic orð ‘word’,

    1. orðigr ‘wordy’, yrða ‘to speak’; Old English word ‘word’, ge-wyrd(e)
      ‘conversation’, wordig ‘talkative’; Old Frisian word ‘word’; Old Saxon
      word ‘word’; Dutch woord ‘word’; Old High German wort ‘word’ (New
      High German Wort); Old Prussian (nom. sg. m.) wīrds, wirds ‘word’ (acc.
      sg. m. wirdan); Lithuanian var͂das ‘name’. Pokorny 1959:1162—1163
      *u̯er- ‘to speak’; Walde 1927—1932.I:283—284 *u̯er-; Mann 1984—
      1987:1516 *u̯er- (*u̯erō, -i̯ō) ‘to speak’; Watkins 1985:77 *wer- (also
      *werə-) and 2000:100 *werə- (also *wer-) ‘to speak’ (oldest form *wer™-,
      with variant [metathesized] form *wre™-, contracted to *wrē-);
      Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.I:231 *u̯er- and 1995.I:200 *wer-, *wr-eH- ‘to
      call, to talk’; Rix 1998a:630—631 *u̯erh÷- ‘to say’; Mallory—Adams
      1997:535 *(s)u̯er- ‘to say, to speak’; Chantraine 1968—1980.I:325—326
      *wre™-/*wrē-; Frisk 1970—1973.I:469—471; Hofmann 1966:74 *u̯er-;
      Boisacq 1950:229—230 *u̯er-; Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.II:756—
      757 *u̯ere-, *u̯erē(i)-; Ernout—Meillet 1979:723; De Vaan 2008:664—
      665; Orël 2003:475 Proto-Germanic *wurđan, 475 *wurđiᵹaz, 475
      *wurđjan, 475 *wurđjanan, 475—476 *wurđōjanan; Kroonen 2013:600
      Proto-Germanic *wurda- ‘word’; Feist 1939:554 *u̯erdh-, extended form
      of *u̯er-; Lehmann 1986:396 *wer- ‘to speak’; De Vries 1977:419 *u̯erand
      679; Onions 1966:1012 *wr̥dho-, *werdh-, based on *wer-; Klein
      1971:831 *werdh-, extended form of *wer-, *were-, *werē-; Boutkan—
      Siebinga 2005:430—431; Kluge—Mitzka 1967:868 *u̯r̥dho-; Kluge—
      Seebold 1989:799 *werdho-; Kloekhorst 2008b:1002—1003; Smoczyński
      2007.1:721; Fraenkel 1962—1965.II:1198. Note: Hittite (1st sg. pres. act.)
      ḫu-u-wa-ar-taḫ-ḫi ‘to curse’, (nom. sg.) ḫur-ta-iš, ḫur-ta-aš, ḫur-da-a-iš,
      ḫu-u-ur-ta-iš ‘curse’ do not belong here.
      Buck 1949:18.21 speak, talk; 18.22 say. Bomhard—Kerns 1994:613—614, no.
      492, and 1996a:233—234; Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 2513, *weró ‘to speak;

  64. Continuing the IE - Sumerian comparisons, I have this proposal today (a rather bold one) concerning also the root *kwel.

    We have this significant Greek word τέλος telos ( < *kwel), I was talking about at the first post, which has the following meanings: completion, accomplishment, fulfillment, perfection, consummation; result, product; end, end of life: death; boundary, border, extremity; supreme power, the highest government office: magistrate; that which is ordered to be done: task, duty; money paid to the government: tax, toll; a person's property, according to which he was classed, thus, generally: rank, class; unit of soldiers: legion, company, initiation (especially into mystery religions), mystery religion, any religious ceremony. The verb is τελέω.

    The proposal is about this last meaning "religious ceremony". Here, from τέλος telos there is also the word τελετή telete, meaning "rites", "pl., theological doctrines", "a festival accompanied by mystic rites, mostly in pl." "a priesthood or sacred office".

    The comparison is to this Sum. word:

    biluda, wr. biluda; bi3-lu5-da; bi-lu-da10; pi-lu8-da "rituals, rites" Akk. parşu "office; (cultic) ordinance"; pilludû "cult(ic rites)".

    This Sum. word has not an etymology and must be a loanword; also Akk. pilludû is clearly a loan from Sumerian. It has been proposed that Sumerians took an Akkadian word belutu, meaning "rule, dominion, rulership, position of owner / master, position of supreme power" turned it to biluda altering the meaning, and then the Akkadians loaned it back as "pilludu".

    The proposal is that billuda could be from *kwel, only that, instead turning the "kw" to "t" like in telete, it turned it into "p" (kwel- > pel-). A feature perhaps more common (the aeolian Greek dialect turns all the proto IE kw- into p).
    The root kwel- is also the root of Latin "cultus" ("cult" etc) from colo ( *kwel)

    1. The other Sum. word for "rites" is the following one:

      ĝarza, wr. ĝarza; mar-za; ĝarza2 "rites; cultic or cosmic ordinance", Akk. parşu "office; (cultic) ordinance".

      Here one can note a) that the initial [ĝ] is a "nasal labiovelar" (n)kw- (or nq-) and b) the Akkadian parşu must be the same word with ĝarza, and so its initial letter p could be an evolvement of kw > p too. So, if we can say that ĝarza is from (n)kwar-, and assuming the r/l equation, we can have again the same root *kwal, though this time nasalized and with an r instead of l. Apart from the nasalization, the rest looks familiar. A couple of months ago (on November 6th) Giacomo has said:

      "The connection ghal/har/ar is intriguing, although of course it risks to be too free.
      Now, in Skt. the verb 'to plow' is kṛṣ-, meaning also 'to draw'. I have already been tempted to see a connection with Semitic ḥrš, although we should find other correspondences of Semitic ḥ- Skt. k-, and the possible IE root is *kwals-, giving also Greek telson 'land where the plough turned' and Hittite guls- 'to incise'. Possibly it is an extension of *kwal- 'to move (around)', giving also Lat. colere 'to till, cultivate'."

      Giacomo said. So, I thought that this ĝarza could be connected with this Sanskrit verb. Pokorny gives this for Indo-Iranian:

      "s-Erweiterung in ai. karṣū́- f. `Furche', kárṣati, kr̥ṣáti `drehen, wenden, pflügen', av. karša- m. n. `Furche', karšaiti `Furchen ziehen'.

      Of course, these are words for ploughing and not about rites. But it seems that these "rites" have to do with agriculture (that is obvious in the "cultus" word - also telete is connected with telson, and as I said at the first post the "Telesterion" in Eleusis where the famous Mysteries were held, was the sacred temple of the godess Demeter, the godess of agriculture.

      A last thing, I remember that this conversation was about Nirjhar's proposal to connect Sum. alal "cultivation" etc to a root ghal (?)/har for "ploughing". I'm not sure, but I thought that some "gh" maybe could fit the nasalized "g" of "ĝarza". Also, alal means "a part of a temple" according to ePSD.

    2. Thank you for the 'ipse dixit' ;) I have taken the root 'kwals' from Mayrhofer who gives *kuels for Skt. kṛṣ and compares the Greek and Hittite words.

      About ĝarza, I suspect that it comes from ĝar 'to place', that also becomes mar in Emesal like ĝarza is also written marza, with the same cuneiform sign for mar-.
      Moreover, the verb ĝar is identified with Akk. šakānu, that is also used for 'set in place' ritual equipment and 'to appoint, assign' to office (meaning of Akk. parṣu, equivalent of ĝarza). parṣu comes from the verb parāṣu 'to carry out ritual'. Can this be connected with a root kwars/kwals? I don't know, but it is an interesting idea.

      I am fascinated by the hypothesis of biluda, I don't exclude a connection with kwal/kwil- although the difference in evolution with til in the list creates a problem.

    3. I'm glad you appreciated that, next time I'll write "autos epha" (since we are talking now about cult and doctrines) :D.

      About ĝarza / parṣu, this etymology from ĝar is mentioned also by Halloran, but the other part of the word (-za) remains unexplained in the frames of Sumerian, and the suggestion about zu = "to know" seems odd. Also, about the verb parāṣu, it has a different meaning according to CAD, so this particular type must be an ad hoc verb from parṣu; also, if I'm not wrong it must be from the neo-assyrian period:
      The pronounciation of parṣu in some later period might have been like the Gr. φαρ- (CAD make a reference about a Greek translitaration). This is like Gr. φάρσος pharsos "piece cut" (that reminded me also our conversation about Skt. kalpa) and of course pharos (φάρος) for "plough". I thought that it could be an intersting idea if *bhar(s) / bher(s) came from the kwel/r / kwal/r, too, maybe we could study the glottalic theory, I don't know... (btw the verb for "cut, divide" in Akkadian is parāsu). So, I think that parṣu came from ĝarza, but what is the etymology of ĝarza is unclear. My idea was to approach the kwars/kwals, because of the meaning of cultus, and telos definetely connected to rites, but using the Indo-Iranian types of this root instead, which look close to ĝarza. Also, one of the meanings of parṣu (though uncertain, according to CAD) is the paying of a tax, which reminds one of the meanings of the telos "tax, toll".
      About the pronounciation "marza", I remembered a conversation about a year before (again about alal and similar Sumerian words), when I mentioned a publication about the Gr. god Ares and agriculture (that was on 31 October 2015); well, that's what this marza reminded to me:

    4. Another idea that occured to me is that, if Dziebel is right about *pel- "dust; flour" coming from *kwel (I don't see a reason why he's not right), and thinking about a possible nasalization of the same root, then we could have also *mel- (flour etc) from *kwel too.

    5. We can establish a new Pythagoric circle ;)
      About Sum. ĝarza, Sum. za can be a compound verbal element, and I would be very cautious in identifying z (the pronunciation should be ts) with IE s, that usually corresponds to Sum. š.

      As to Akk. parāṣu, the meaning I gave is of the entry II of course, it is common that words have more meanings in Akkadian, it would be interesting to find a Semitic root but I have not found yet.

      About Dziebel's theory, I wonder why the same language should have adopted a form of kwel and a derived pel with a specialized meaning (with a not very strong connection, I must say). I don't know similar phenomena, normally languages have regular phonetic modifications of the same sound. Of course we cannot be too rigid, but to suppose the co-existence of two different roots with different sound evolution from the same root is quite difficult to accept.

    6. I think we have already established the new circle ;)
      About *kwel, I think it may be the most significant root in IE (for example, look all the conversation about the word for circle). About a possible *pel < *kwel, Gr. πάλη pale "fine flour, dust" has also a reduplicated form "παιπάλη" paipale (which reminds the reduplication of *kwel in kyklos). Sanskrit has also a word for "flour, dust" from *kwer(u), the following one:
      Greek also has a set of archaic words from this same root, like pyrnos πύρνος an old word for bread.
      My idea about a nasalization of the labiovelar comes from the assumption that Sumerian and IE coexisted for a long time (maybe somewhere north of Mesopotamia), influencieng one each other. A *mel, coming from a nasalized *kwel could fit because of the main meaning "mill" and "grind" (from "mill turning"). By the way mel ("malt flour") in ePSD has as an Akkadian equivalent the word kukkušu "a low-quality flour" (perhaps opposed to *pel as "fine flour"?).
      Mars also seems to be an agricultural god; also a god of war, like Sumerian Ninurta / Nigirsu who fights the gigantic bird anzud, like a farmer who fights to protect his field / crops from his enemies. I think that Mars has also a reduplicated form "Mamars"; for example in this inscription (mMamartei):

      About ĝarza / marza again, Halloran (Sumerian Lexicon, edition 2006) says also that it "can describe an institutional witness of a court decision"; if this is correct it reminds this Gr. word:
      μάρτυς martys (Gen. μάρτυρος martyros) which Frisk hypothesis was that it might come from a word *martu-. Latin memoria comes from the same root:
      which is of a reduplicated form too (me-moria) and it could be from a notion "turn (back)".

    7. About biluda, I think it could be from *kwel, like telete (probably pronounced *pelota, with p<kw). Another similar Gr. word with a similar meaning is ἑορτή (*FεFορτά̄ *weworta, red. type) "feast, festival, (religious) holiday; aoelic type ἔροτις erotis (< *werotis).

      This must be from a root *wer(t), meaning again "turning"; it looks very similar to the following forms (maybe also Skt. vavarta):

      Also, maybe latin Mavors < Mawort- for "Mars" is connected too.

  65. Due to a busy schedule . I only give 1 for today.
    PIE-Dravidian no. 40.
    818. Proto-Nostratic root *wel¨-:
    (vb.) *wel¨- ‘to well up, to surge, to flow forth, to flood’;
    (n.) *wel¨-a ‘deluge, flood, inundation; surge, wave’
    A. Dravidian: Tamil veḷḷam ‘flood, deluge, sea, wave’; Malayalam veḷḷam
    ‘water’; Kannaḍa beḷḷa ‘flood’; Tuḷu boḷḷa ‘flood, inundation’; Telugu velli, vellika ‘flow, flood, stream’, velluva ‘flood, inundation’; (?) Brahui
    bēl ‘large hill-torrent’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:501, no. 5503.
    B. Proto-Indo-European *welH-/*wl̥H- (secondary o-grade form: *wolH-)
    ‘(vb.) to well up, to surge, to flow forth, to boil up; (n.) surge, wave’:
    Sanskrit ūrmí-ḥ ‘wave, billow’; Avestan varəmi- ‘wave’; Gothic *wulan
    ‘to seethe’; Old Icelandic vella ‘to boil; to well up, to swarm’; Old English
    weallan ‘to be agitated, to rage, to toss, to well, to bubble, to seethe, to
    foam, to be hot, to boil; to flow, to swarm; to rise (of a river)’, wiell
    ‘fountain, spring’, wielm ‘boiling, surging, raging; flowing, bursting forth’;
    Old Saxon wallan ‘to surge, to well up, to boil up’; Old High German
    wella ‘wave’ (New High German Welle), wallan ‘to bubble, to simmer, to
    boil, to seethe; to undulate, to float, to flow, to wave’ (New High German
    wallen); Lithuanian vilnìs ‘wave’; Old Church Slavic vlъna ‘wave’; Czech
    vlna ‘wave’; Polish wełna ‘wave’; Bulgarian vəlná ‘wave’. Rix 1998a:618
    *u̯elH- ‘to roll; to well up, to surge’; Pokorny 1959:1140—1144 *u̯el-,
    *u̯elə-, *u̯lē- ‘to turn, to roll’; Walde 1927—1932.I:298—304 *u̯el-; Mann
    1984—1987:1553 *u̯l̥m- ‘surge, billow; wide mouth, gulf’, 1554 *u̯l̥n-
    (*u̯l̥nis, -ā) ‘surge, wave’; Watkins 1985:75—76 *wel- and 2000:98 *wel-
    ‘to turn, to roll’; Mallory—Adams 1997:637 (?) *u̯l̥hxmi- ‘wave’;
    Mayrhofer 1956—1980.I:117; Feist 1939:575—576 *u̯el-; Lehmann
    1986:411 etymology difficult; probably based on Proto-Indo-European
    *wel-, *wel-"- ‘to turn, to roll’; Orël 2003:444 Proto-Germanic *walljōn ~
    *walljaz, 444 *walljanan, 444 *walmiz, 453 *wellanan II, 453 *wellōn;
    Kroonen 2013:571 Proto-Germanic *wallan- ‘to well up, to boil, to
    seethe’; De Vries 1977:653; Onions 1966:999 West Germanic *wallan,
    beside *wellan; Klein 1971:824 *wel- ‘to turn, to roll’; Skeat 1898:702;
    Kluge—Mitzka 1967:835 *u̯el- and 851 *u̯el-; Kluge—Seebold 1989:775
    *wel- and 786; Derksen 2008:547; Fraenkel 1962—1965.II:1254;
    Smoczyński 2007.1:754 *u̯elH-C. Note: The Germanic forms are both
    phonologically and semantically ambiguous. Some of them may belong
    with Proto-Nostratic (vb.) *wal- ‘to set fire to, to burn, to heat up, to
    warm’; (n.) *wal-a ‘heat, warmth, boiling’ instead.
    C. Uralic: Finnish vello- ‘to surge, to heave, to swell’.
    Buck 1949:1.35 wave. Bomhard—Kerns 1994:627—628, no. 505; Illič-Svityč
    1965:333 *wiłʌ ‘moist’ (‘влажный’); Hakola 2000:212—213, no. 951.

  66. PIE-Dravidian no. 41.
    819. Proto-Nostratic root *wet’-:
    (vb.) *wet’- ‘to wet, to moisten’;
    (n.) *wet’-a ‘water’
    A. (?) Afrasian: Semitic: Arabic waṭafa ‘to pour abundantly’, waṭfā" ‘raining
    abundantly (cloud)’. D. Cohen 1970— :530. Berber: Ahaggar ūḍūf ‘ritual
    ablution’. Orël—Stolbova 1995:534, no. 2563, *wVṭVf- ‘to rain, to pour’
    (Orël—Stolbova derive *wVṭVf- from *ṭif- ‘drop, rain’). Perhaps also Egyptian wdḥ (later written wdḥ) ‘to pour out, to pour off’, wdḥw (later
    written wdḥw) ‘offering, offering-table’; Coptic wōth [ouwtx] ‘to pour, to
    melt’. Hannig 1995:229; Faulkner 1962:73; Erman—Grapow 1921:43 and
    1926—1963.1:393; Gardiner 1957:563; Vycichl 1983:239; Černý
    1976:220. Ehret (1995:455, no. 955) derives the Egyptian form from
    Proto-Afrasian *wadl- ‘to flow’.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil ōtam ‘moisture, dampness, flood, sea, wave’; Malayalam
    ōtam ‘dampness in rainy season’; Kannaḍa odde ‘wetness, dampness,
    moisture’; Tuḷu odde ‘wetness, dampness, moisture; wet’, veddè ‘moist,
    wet’; Naiki (of Chanda) vad, vod ‘dew’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:100, no.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *wet’-/*ut’- (secondary o-grade form: *wot’-) ‘(vb.)
    to wet, to moisten; (n.) water’: Luwian (dat. sg.) ú-i-ti ‘water’; Hittite
    (nom.-acc. sg.) wa-a-tar ‘water’ (gen. sg. ú-i-te-na-aš, nom.-acc. pl. ú-ida-
    a-ar); Sanskrit udán ‘water’, ud-, und- (unátti, undati) ‘to flow, to wet,
    to bathe’; Greek ὕδωρ ‘water’ (gen. sg. ὕδατος [< Pre-Greek *udn̥tos]);
    Armenian get ‘river’; Umbrian utur ‘water’; Gothic watō ‘water’ (gen. sg.
    watins); Old Icelandic vatn ‘water’, vátr ‘wet’; Old Swedish vKtur ‘water’
    (Modern Swedish vatten); Norwegian vatn ‘water’; Old English wbt ‘wet,
    moist, rainy’, wbtan ‘to wet, to moisten, to water’, wKter ‘water’; Old
    Frisian water, weter ‘water’; Old Saxon watar ‘water’; Old High German
    wazzar ‘water’ (New High German Wasser); Latvian ûdens ‘water’; Old
    Church Slavic voda ‘water’; Russian vodá [вода] ‘water’; Czech voda

    1. ‘water’; Polish woda ‘water’; Albanian ujë ‘water’. Rix 1998a:599 *u̯ed-
      ‘to flow forth’; Pokorny 1959:78—81 *au̯ed-, *aud-, *ū̆d- ‘to wet, to
      sprinkle’, *u̯édōr, *u̯ódōr ‘water’; Walde 1927—1932.I:252—254 *u̯ed-;
      Mann 1984—1987:1474 *ū̆dōr (*udər, obl. *udn-) ‘water’, 1497 *u̯ēd-
      ‘wet, damp’, 1558 *u̯oden-, *u̯odn- oblique stem of type *u̯odōr (*u̯odər),
      1558 *u̯odōr (*u̯odər), (obl.) *u̯oden-, *u̯odn- (*u̯odn̥t-) ‘water’; Watkins
      1985:73 *wed- and 2000:95 *wed- ‘water; wet’ (suffixed o-grade form
      *wod-ōr); Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.I:188, II:942 *u̯et’- and 1995.I:216
      *wet’- ‘water’, I:579 *wet’-/*ut’- ‘water’, I:583, fn. 13, *wot’- ‘water’,
      I:835 *wet’- ‘water’; Mallory—Adams 1997:636 *u̯ódr̥ ‘water’; Boisacq
      1950:998—999 *u̯ed-, *ud-; Frisk 1970—1973.II:957—959; Chantraine
      1968—1980.II:1152—1153; Hofmann 1966:382 *u̯édōr (*u̯ódōr), (gen.)
      *udnés; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.I:103; Huld 1984:121; Orël 1998:483—
      484 *u̯ed- and 2003:451 Proto-Germanic *watnan ~ *watar; Kroonen
      2013:575—576 Proto-Germanic *watar- ~ *watan- ‘water’ (< *u̯od-r/n-);
      Feist 1939:553—554 *u̯ed-; Lehmann 1986:395—396 *wed-; De Vries
      1977:648 *u̯od-, *ud-; Onions 1966:994 *wod-; *wēd-; *ud- and 1000;
      Klein 1971:822 and 825; Kluge—Mitzka 1967:840 *wēd-: *wod-: *ū̆d-;
      Kluge—Seebold 1989:778 *wedōr; Kloekhorst 2008b:987—988.
      D. Proto-Uralic *wete ‘water’: Finnish vesi/vete- ‘water’; Estonian vesi
      ‘water’; Mordvin vedʹ ‘water’; Cheremis / Mari wət, wüt ‘water’; Votyak /
      Udmurt vu ‘water’; Zyrian / Komi va ‘water’; Vogul / Mansi wit ‘water’; Hungarian víz/vize- ‘water’; Forest Yurak Samoyed / Forest Nenets wit
      ‘water’; Tavgi Samoyed / Nganasan bee"/beda- ‘water’; Yenisei Samoyed
      / Enets bi"/bido- ‘water’; Selkup Samoyed üt, öt ‘water’; Kamassian büü
      ‘water; river; lake’. Collinder 1955:77, 1965:32, 147 *wete, and 1977:83;
      Joki 1973:344 *vete; Rédei 1986—1988:670 *wete; Décsy 1990:220 *vetä
      ‘water’; Sammallahti 1988:541 *weti ‘water’.
      Buck 1949:1.31 water. Bomhard—Kerns 1994:607—608, no.483; Illič-Svityč
      1965:334 *wetʌ ‘water’ (‘вода’); Hakola 2000:214, no. 957; Dolgopolsky to
      appear, no. 2544, *‛wetê ‘(flowing) water’; Greenberg 2002:181, no. 416.

  67. PIE-Dravidian no. 42.
    822. Proto-Nostratic root *win- (~ *wen-) or *wiŋ- (~ *weŋ-):
    (vb.) *win- or *wiŋ- ‘to strive for, to wish for, to desire’;
    (n.) *win-a or *wiŋ-a ‘wish, desire’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *win- ~ *wan- ‘to be pleasant, joyful’: Egyptian wnf ‘to be
    joyful, to rejoice’; Coptic unof [ounof] ‘to rejoice’. Hannig 1995:198;
    Faulkner 1962:61—62; Erman—Grapow 1921:36 and 1926—1963.1:319;
    Černý 1976:214; Vycichl 1983:235. Proto-Southern Cushitic *win- or
    *wan- ‘nice, pleasant, comfortable’ > Iraqw wanana ‘soft, gentle’, wan"es-
    ‘to soften’, wanana"ut- ‘to be loose’; Dahalo wíne ‘good, clean’. Ehret
    1980:314. Semantic development as in Old High German wunna ‘great
    joy, bliss’, Old English wynn ‘joy, rapture, pleasure, delight, gladness’,
    wynsum ‘pleasant, delightful, joyful, merry’, etc. cited below.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil vēṇṭu (vēṇṭi-) ‘to want, to desire, to beg, to entreat, to
    request’, vēṇṭum, vēṇum ‘it will be required, necessary, indispensable; it
    must’, vēṇṭām ‘it will not be required, necessary, indispensable; it must
    not’, vēṇṭal ‘desiring, petition’, vēṇṭāmai ‘aversion, dislike, absence of
    desire, contentment’, vēṇṭār ‘those who have no desires; enemies’, vēṇṭiya ‘indispensable, required, sufficient, many’, vēṇṭiyavan ‘friend, wellwisher’,
    vēṇṭunar ‘those who wish for or desire a thing’, vēṇ ‘desire’;
    Malayalam vēṇam, vēṇṭum ‘it must, ought, is desired’, vēṇ ‘necessary’,
    vēṇṭa ‘useful, required’, vēṇṭu ‘must’, vēṇṭa ‘must not, need not’, vēṇṭuka
    ‘being necessary, friendship’, vēṇṭikka ‘to make necessary, to procure, to
    acquire’; Kannaḍa bēṭa, bēṇṭa ‘longings, sexual passion, amorous
    pleasure’; Telugu vēḍu ‘to pray, to beg, to ask for, to wish, to desire’,
    vēḍuka ‘pleasure, joy, desire, wish, fun’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:504—
    505, no. 5528; Krishnamurti 2003:278 *wēṇ-ṭu ‘wish’.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *wen(H)-/*wn̥(H)- (secondary o-grade form:
    *won(H)-) ‘to strive for, to wish for, to desire’: Sanskrit vánati, vanóti ‘to

    1. like, to love, to wish, to desire; to gain, to acquire, to procure; to conquer,
      to win, to become master of, to possess’, vánas- ‘longing, desire’, vaní-ḥ
      ‘wish, desire’, vanita-ḥ ‘solicited, asked, wished for, desired, loved’, vanú-ḥ,
      vanús- ‘zealous, eager’; Avestan vanaiti ‘to win, to strive for, to conquer’;
      Latin venus ‘charm, loveliness, attractiveness; sexual love’, vēnor ‘a hunt’,
      venia ‘grace, indulgence, favor’, veneror ‘to ask reverently, to beseech
      with awe; to revere, to respect, to worship, to honor’; Old Irish fine ‘a
      family’; Gothic wēns ‘hope’, winnan ‘to suffer’, winna ‘passion’; Old
      Icelandic una ‘to enjoy, to be happy in, to be content with a thing’, unað
      ‘delight, happiness’, vinr ‘friend’, yndi ‘delight, happiness’, voena ‘to give
      one hope’, ván ‘hope, expectation’, voenn ‘fine, beautiful’, vinna ‘to work,
      to labor, to do work’, vinna ‘work, labor’, vinningr ‘gain, profit’, ýskja,
      oeskja ‘to wish’; Old English wynn ‘joy, rapture, pleasure, delight,
      gladness’, wynsum ‘pleasant, delightful, joyful, merry’, wine ‘friend’,
      wēnan ‘to hope, to expect’, wēn, wēnung ‘hope, expectation’, winnan ‘to
      toil, to endure hardship, to suffer’, gewinnan ‘to gain, to acquire, to
      conquer, to take’, winn ‘labor, effort, hardship’, wÙscan ‘to wish’; Old
      Frisian wēna ‘to hope, to expect’, wēn ‘opinion’, winna ‘to obtain’; Old
      Saxon wān ‘hope’, winnan ‘to suffer, to win’; Old High German wān
      ‘opinion, hope’, giwinnan ‘to gain by labor’ (New High German
      gewinnen), wunna ‘great joy, bliss’, wunsken ‘to wish’ (New High German
      wünschen). Rix 1998a:623—624 *u̯enH- ‘to grow fond of’; Pokorny
      1959:1146—1147 *u̯en-, *u̯enə- ‘to desire, to strive for’; Walde 1927—
      1932.I:258—260 *u̯en-; Mann 1984—1987:1511—1512 *u̯ē̆n- ‘desire,
      hope, favor, outlook, charm’, 1514 *u̯enos, -es- ‘desire’, 1515 *u̯ē̆ns$ō ‘to
      desire’; Watkins 1985:76 *wen- and 2000:98 *wen- ‘to desire, to strive
      for’; Mallory—Adams 1997:158 *u̯enhx- ‘to desire, to strive to obtain’; De
      Vaan 2008:661 and 663; Ernout—Meillet 1979:719, 720—721, and 721—
      722 *wen- ‘to desire, to wish for’; Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.II:747,
      II:749—750, and II:752—753 *u̯en-; Feist 1939:561 *u̯en- and 566 *u̯en-;
      Lehmann 1986:401 Gothic wēns possibly from *wen- ‘to strive, to wish’
      and 404 *wen-, *wenH- ‘to strive, to wish, to gain’; Orël 2003:455 Proto-
      Germanic *weniz, 455 *wennanan, 455 *wennō(n); Kroonen 2013:579
      Proto-Germanic *wēni- ‘expectation’ and 599 *wunskjan- ‘to wish’; De Vries 1977:634 Proto-Norse *wunēn, 666, and 678 Old Icelandic yndi <
      *wuneþia; Onions 1966:998 Common Germanic *wen-, 1007, and 1009
      Common Germanic *wunska-, -ō; Klein 1971:828 *wen- and 829 *wen-;
      Boutkan—Siebinga 2005:451; Kluge—Mitzka 1967:256 and 869 *u̯en-;
      Kluge—Seebold 1989:265 *wenə- and 800 *wenə-; Mayrhofer 1956—
      D. Yukaghir (Northern / Tundra) wenke ‘passion, inspiration, enthusiasm’,
      wenkeń- ‘not meant to live long’, wenkendʹe-rukun ‘promising’. Nikolaeva
      Buck 1949:16.22 joy; 16.61 will, wish (vb.); 16.62 desire (vb.); 20.41 victory.
      Bomhard 1996a:216, no. 619. Different etymology in Dolgopolsky to appear,
      no. 2495, *w[o]ǹó ‘wish, love; luck’.

  68. PIE-Dravidian no. 43.
    829. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *wur-a (~ *wor-a) ‘squirrel’:
    A. Dravidian: Tamil uruttai ‘squirrel’; Telugu uruta ‘squirrel’. Burrow—
    Emeneau 1984:70, no. 713.
    B. Proto-Indo-European *wer- ‘squirrel’ also ‘polecat, ferret’ (reduplicated
    forms: *we-wer-, *wer-wer-, *wi-wer-, *way-wer-, etc.): Farsi varvarah
    ‘squirrel’; Latin vīverra ‘ferret’; Welsh gwiwer ‘squirrel’; Breton gwiber
    ‘squirrel’; Scots Gaelic feorag ‘squirrel’; Old Icelandic íkorni ‘squirrel’;
    Norwegian ikorn, ikorna ‘squirrel’; Danish egern ‘squirrel’; Swedish
    ekorre ‘squirrel’; Old English ācweorna ‘squirrel’ (āc- = ‘oak’); Middle
    Low German ēkeren, ēkhorn ‘squirrel’; Dutch eekhoorn ‘squirrel’; Old
    High German eihhurno, eihhorno ‘squirrel’ (New High German Eichhorn);
    Lithuanian vėverìs, vaiverė͂, voverė͂ ‘squirrel’, vaiverìs ‘male polecat’;
    Latvian vãvere ‘squirrel’; Old Prussian weware ‘squirrel’; Czech veverka
    ‘squirrel’; Old Russian věverica ‘squirrel’ (Russian véverica [веверица]).
    Walde 1927—1932.I:287—288 *u̯er- ‘squirrel’ (reduplicated *u̯er-u̯er-,
    *u̯e-u̯er-, *u̯ai-u̯er-, *u̯i-u̯er-, *u̯ā-u̯er-); Pokorny 1959:1166 *u̯er-
    (reduplicated *u̯er-u̯er-, *u̯e-u̯er-, *u̯ai-u̯er-, *u̯i-u̯er-, *u̯ā-u̯er-) ‘squirrel’
    also ‘polecat, ferret’; Mann 1984—1987:1550 *u̯ī̆u̯erā, -is ‘squirrel’;
    Watkins 1985:77 *wer- reduplicated expressive form *wī-wer(r)-) and
    2000:100 *wer- ‘squirrel’ (reduplicated expressive form *wī-wer(r)-);
    Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.II:522 *u̯e(i)-u̯er- and 1995.I:441 *we(i)wer-
    ‘squirrel’ or ‘polecat’; Mallory—Adams 1997:540 *u̯eru̯er- ‘squirrel’ and
    2006:137 *werwer-; Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.II:808 *u̯er-; De Vaan 2008:685 *u̯e(r)-u̯er-; Ernout—Meillet 1979:742—743 *wer-; Huld 2009
    *A÷u̯er- ‘to raise up, to lift, to suspend, to become vertical’; Orël 2003:7
    Proto-Germanic *aikwernōn ~ *īkwernōn; Kroonen 2013:10—11 Proto-
    Germanic *aikwernan- ~ *īkurnan- ‘squirrel’; De Vries 1977:284; Falk—
    Torp 1903—1906.I:134; Kluge—Mitzka 1967:154—155 *aik-wernan;
    Kluge—Seebold 1989:167—168; Preobrazhensky 1951:106; Fraenkel
    1962—1965.II:1233—1234; Smoczyński 2007.1:768. Note: The usual
    Modern Russian word for ‘squirrel’ is bélka [белка].
    C. Uralic: Proto-Finno-Permian *ora ‘squirrel’ > Finnish orava ‘squirrel’;
    Estonian orav, oravas ‘squirrel’; Lapp / Saami (Norwegian) oarʹre
    ‘squirrel’; Mordvin uro, ur ‘squirrel’; Cheremis / Mari ur ‘squirrel’; Zyrian
    / Komi ur ‘squirrel’. Collinder 1955:44 and 1977:63; Rédei 1986—
    1988:343 *ora; Décsy 1990:105 *ora ‘squirrel’; Sammallahti 1988:552
    *ora ‘squirrel’.
    (?) Sumerian ur-a ‘beaver, otter’.
    Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 70, *ʔUró (ba) ‘squirrel’; Hakola 2000:124, no.
    537; Pudas-Marlow 1974:73, no. 225.

  69. PIE-Dravidian no. 44.
    830. Proto-Nostratic root *wur¨- (~ *wor¨-):
    (vb.) *wur¨- ‘to scratch, to incise, to dig up’;
    (n.) *wur¨-a ‘pit, ditch’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *wur- ‘(vb.) to scratch, to incise, to dig up; (n.) ditch, pit,
    hole’: Semitic: Arabic warr-at- ‘ditch’. D. Cohen 1970— :636. West
    Chadic *wur- ‘pit’ > Ngizim wúríyà ‘borrow pit; any open pit where water
    can collect’. Central Chadic *wur- ‘hole’ > Higi Nkafa wure ‘hole’. Orël—
    Stolbova 1995:531, no. 2548, *wur- ‘pit, hole’.
    B. Proto-Dravidian (*wur̤u >) *ur̤u ‘to plow, to dig up’: Tamil ur̤u ‘to plow,
    to dig up, to root up (as pigs), to scratch, to incise (as bees in a flower)’,
    ur̤avan, ur̤avōn, ur̤ āvan ‘plowman, agriculturalist’, (f.) ur̤atti, ur̤avu
    ‘plowing, agriculture’, ur̤ āl ‘plowing, scratching, probing (as bees the
    flowers)’, ur̤unar ‘plowmen’, ur̤akku (ur̤ akki-) ‘to plow’; Malayalam
    ur̤uka, ur̤ukuka, ur̤ utuka ‘to plow’, ur̤ama ‘tillage’, ur̤avan ‘plowman,
    farmer’; Kota ug- (uṛt-) ‘to plow, to be plowed’, ukl ‘the act of plowing’;
    Toda uṣf- (uṣt-) ‘to plow’; Kannaḍa ur̤ - (ur̤ t-, utt-) ‘to plow’, ur̤ ata, ur̤ uta,
    ur̤ame, ur̤ime, ur̤ume, ur̤ al ur̤ uvike, ur̤ ike, ur̤uke, ur̤ ke, ukke ‘plowing’;
    Telugu dunnu, dunu ‘to plow, to till’, dukki ‘plowing, tillage’; Kolami ur-
    (urt-) ‘to harrow, to plow’; Naikṛi ur- ‘to plow, to harrow’; Parji uṛ- ‘to
    plow’; Gadba (Salur) ūḍ- ‘to plow’; Gondi uṛānā, uṛ-, uḍ- (written ud-),
    urānā, uṛdānā ‘to plow’; Konḍa ṛū- ‘to plow, to till soil’; Pengo ṛū- ‘to
    plow’; Kui ṛūva (ṛūt-) ‘(vb.) to plow; (n.) plowing’, ūṛa (ūṛi-) ‘to dig with
    snout, to root up’; Kuwi ṛū- ‘to plow’, ṛuki ‘plowing, bullock’; Kuṛux
    uinā/uynā (ussas) ‘to plow’, ugtā ‘a plow, plowshare’; Malto use ‘to turn up the soil (as pigs do)’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:67, no. 688;
    Krishnamurti 2003:152 *uẓ-u ‘to plow, to dig up’.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *wor-/*wr̥ - ‘(vb.) to plow; (n.) furrow, ditch’: Latin
    urvum ‘the curved part of a plow, plow-tail’, urvō ‘to plow round, to mark
    out with a plow’; Oscan uruvú ‘boundary-ditch’; Mycenaean wo-wo
    (+ορ+οι) ‘boundary-ditch, boundary’; Greek ὅρος (Ionic οὖρος)
    ‘boundary’. Mann 1984—1987:1480 *uru̯os (*u̯r̥u̯os) ‘boundary-ridge,
    ditch’, 1581—1582 *u̯oru̯os ‘boundary, moat, boundary-ditch’, 1606
    **u̯r̥u̯- (*u̯r̥u̯os) ‘boundary-ditch, moat’; Mallory—Adams 1997:215 (?)
    *u̯oru̯os ‘furrow’; Ernout—Meillet 1979:755; Walde—Hofmann 1965—
    1972.II:843 and II:843—844 *u̯ßr̥u̯o-; De Vaan 2008:645; Frisk 1970—
    1973.II:425—426 (Latin urvus < *u̯r̥u̯os, as opposed to *u̯oru̯os); Boisacq
    1960:716 (Italic *urvo- < *u̯ur̥u̯o-); Prellwitz 1905:837—838 *+όρ+ος;
    Chantraine 1968—1980.II:825—826 *worwo-.
    Sumerian uruú, ur÷÷(-ru) ‘to plow’.
    Buck 1949:8.21 plow (vb., sb.); 8.212 furrow; 8.22 dig; 19.17 boundary.
    Bomhard—Kerns 1994:611—612, no. 489; Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 2532,
    *‛wûŕû ‘to scratch’ ([in descendant languages] → ‘to plow’).

    We had : Sumerian uru 'to sow, cultivate, plow', Latin urvare 'to plow round, mark out with a plough', urvum 'the plough-tail', verv-agere 'to plow land', Skt. urvarā 'fertile soil , field yielding crop'.

  70. PIE-Dravidian no. 45. We all know this one :) .
    Dravidian: Tamil maṭṭam ‘measure, evenness, flatness, rule, line, gauging
    rod, limit, extent, bound, degree, guess, conjecture; equality in height, size,
    measure; whole quantity leaving no surplus; moderation’, maṭṭu ‘measure,
    quantity, standard, degree, size, proportion, amount, limit, extent, scope,
    range, estimate, conjecture, moderateness, that which is middling, that
    which is commonplace, a standard of measurement’, maṭṭāy ‘moderately,
    temperately’, maṭaṅku ‘measure, quantity, degree’; Malayalam maṭṭa ‘a
    certain measure of length’, maṭṭam ‘the rule, level of a bricklayer,
    carpenter’s square’, maṭṭu ‘measure, limit’; Kota maṭm ‘level place; all’;
    Kannaḍa maṭṭa, maṭa, maṭṭasa ‘measure, extent, height, bound, limit,
    proper limit, levelness, evenness, equality, regularity, exactness,
    carpenter’s level or square’, maṭṭu ‘measure, extent, height, limit’, maṭṭa
    ‘exactness’; Tuḷu maṭṭa ‘carpenter’s or bricklayer’s square, level, height,
    measure’, maṭṭu ‘measure, extent, limit, capacity, ability’; Telugu maṭṭamu
    ‘level, a leveling instrument, a level’, maṭṭugā ‘moderately, limitedly’,
    maṭṭu ‘limit, bound, restriction, measure, extent, degree; limited,
    moderate’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:412, no. 4660.

    PIE : *mā- 'to measure', Skt. māna- 'measure, dimension, size, weight; a particular measure of weight', mātra- 'measure of any kind', Greek metron, Latin mensura 'measure'.

    1. And of course Sumerian mana 'weight measure', manatur 'unit of area, of volume, of weight'.

    2. This Drav. maṭṭa- can be a 'recent' loan from Indo-Aryan mātrā, though. In Pāli it becomes mattā 'measure, quantity, right measure, moderation'.

  71. PIE-Dravidian no.46. Giacomo , is there any Sanskrit parallels?.
    840. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *mag-a ‘young person, child’; (adj.) ‘young’:
    A. Dravidian: Tamil maka ‘child, infant, young of animal, son or daughter,
    young age’, makaṭu, makaṭū ‘female, woman, wife’, makavu ‘infant, son,
    young of animals living in trees (as of monkeys)’, makaḷ ‘daughter,
    woman, female, wife, damsel’, makaṇmai ‘sonship, manliness’, makār
    ‘sons, children’, makkaḷ ‘human beings’, mākkaḷ ‘men, people, mankind,
    children’, makiṇan ‘husband, chief of an agricultural tract, lord’;
    Malayalam makan ‘son’, makkaḷ ‘children (especially sons), the young of
    animals’; Kota mog ‘child, wife’; Toda mox ‘child, son, daughter; male;
    woman’; Kannaḍa maga ‘son, male person’, makan ‘son’, magu, magavu,
    maguvu, moga, mogu, moguvu ‘child of any sex’, magaḷ ‘daughter’
    makkaḷ, markaḷ, makkaḷir ‘children’, magaḷmā ‘a wife who is faithful to
    her husband’; Koḍagu makka ‘children’; Tuḷu mage ‘son’, magaḷu
    ‘daughter’, makkaḷ ‘children’; Telugu maga, moga ‘male’, magãṭimi
    ‘manliness, bravery, prowess’, magãḍu ‘husband, man, male, king, hero’,
    maganru ‘son’, magatanamu ‘virility, manliness, courage, bravery,
    boldness, spirit’, magadi ‘male of any animal, beast, or bird’, maganālu
    ‘wife, married woman’, magapāḍi ‘manliness, honor, bravery’, magalāgu
    ‘manliness’, magavaḍu ‘man, male, hero’, magavu ‘woman’,
    maguvatanamu ‘womanhood’; Kolami magvan ‘husband’; Gadba (Ollari)
    maginḍ sinḍ ‘man, husband’, (Salur) maga sinḍu ‘boy child’, magginḍ
    ‘husband’; Konḍa moga koṛo ‘boy child; husband, young man’; Kuwi
    maka (voc.) used to daughters and sisters in affection; Malto maqe ‘boy’,
    maqi ‘girl’, maqo ‘small, little one (animal)’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:407—408, no. 4616; Krishnamurti 2003:10 and 163 *mak-antu ‘son,
    male’, *mak-aḷ ‘daughter’.
    B. Proto-Indo-European *magº- ‘young’, *magºu- ‘young person, child’:
    Avestan ma¦ava- ‘unmarried’; Old Irish macc ‘son’; Gothic magus ‘boy,
    servant’, magaþs ‘maiden, girl’; Runic magoz ‘son’; Old Icelandic mögr
    ‘son, boy, youth’; Old English magu ‘child, son; man, warrior; attendant,
    servant’, mKg(e)þ ‘maiden, girl; virgin’ (Modern English maid(en)); Old
    Frisian maged, megith ‘maiden, girl’; Old Saxon magu ‘servant’, magađ
    ‘maiden, girl’; Old High German magad ‘maiden, girl’ (New High German
    Magd ‘maid[servant]’, diminutive Mädchen ‘girl’), maga- in: magaczogo
    ‘trainer’; Latvian mač (gen. sg. maǵa) ‘small’. Pokorny 1959:696
    *maghos, -ā ‘young’, *maghu- ‘boy, child’; Walde 1927—1932.II:228
    *maghu-; Mann 1984—1987:785 *mogu̯hilā ‘woman, maid’, 785
    *mogu̯hi̯ə (*măgu̯hi̯ə ?) ‘girl, maiden’, 785 *mogu̯hos (*măgu̯hos) ‘boy,
    youth, man’; Watkins 1985:38 *maghu- and 2000:50 *maghu- ‘young
    person of either sex’; Mallory—Adams 1997:656 *maghus ‘young man’;
    Orël 2003:253 Proto-Germanic *maᵹaþiz, 253—254 *maᵹuz, 254
    *maᵹwilō(n), 254 *maᵹwjō; Kroonen 2013:346—347 Proto-Germanic
    *magaþi- ‘girl, maiden’ and 347 *magu- ‘boy, relative’; Feist 1939:339
    Germanic stem *maᵹa- beside *maᵹu-; Lehmann 1986:240; De Vries
    1977:400; Onions 1966:546 *moghus ‘boy, young man’; Klein 1971:439;
    Boutkan—Siebinga 2005:251—253 and 253; Kluge—Mitzka 1967:453
    *maghu-; Kluge—Seebold 1989:454.
    Buck 1949:2.25 boy; 2.41 son; 12.56 small, little. Bomhard—Kerns 1994:667,
    no. 545; Caldwell 1913:601.

    1. Apparently no trace in Sanskrit, it is one of those cases where Iranian preserves words found only in European languages. If we can add Dravidian, it could be the law of preservation in peripheral areas...

  72. PIE-Dravidian no. 47.
    857. Proto-Nostratic root *man- (~ *mən-):
    (vb.) *man- ‘to stay, to remain, to abide, to dwell; to be firm, steadfast,
    established, enduring’;
    (n.) *man-a ‘dwelling, house, home’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *man- ‘to stay, to remain, to abide, to dwell; to be firm,
    steadfast, established, enduring’, *man-/*min- ‘dwelling, house, home’:
    Proto-Semitic *ʔa-man- ‘to make firm, or secure, to safeguard, to assure’ >
    Amorite "mn ‘to be true’; Hebrew "āman [/m^a*] ‘to confirm, to support, to
    verify, to approve; to be strong, enduring, reliable, steady; to stay faithful to, to have stability, to remain, to continue’, "ōmēn [/m@a)] ‘faith, trust,
    confidence, fidelity’ (a hapax legomenon in the Bible), "āmēn [/m@a*] ‘(n.)
    faithfulness, truth; (adv.) Amen!, true!, so be it!’; Aramaic "əman ‘to
    believe, to trust’; Syriac "amīn ‘true, lasting’, "eθ"emen ‘to be steadfast, to
    persevere’; Phoenician "mn ‘support’; Arabic "amina ‘to be safe, to feel
    safe; to reassure, to set someone’s mind to rest; to assure, to ensure, to
    safeguard, to guarantee, to warrant, to bear out, to confirm’, "amuna ‘to be
    faithful, reliable, trustworthy’, "amān ‘security, safety, protection,
    safeguard, escort’, "amn ‘safety, peace, security, protection’, ma"man
    ‘place of safety, safe place’, "amīn ‘reliable, trustworthy, loyal, faithful,
    upright, honest, safe, secure; superintendent, curator, custodian, guardian,
    keeper’, "īmān ‘faith, belief’; Sabaean "mn ‘(vb.) to give assurance, to
    assure; (n.) security, protection’; Ḥarsūsi "āmōn ‘to believe, to believe in,
    to trust’, "amān ‘safe conduct’; Śḥeri / Jibbāli "ūn (base "mn) ‘to trust in,
    to believe in’; Mehri hāmōn ‘to trust in someone or something’; Geez /
    Ethiopic "amna [አምነ] ‘to believe, to trust, to have faith in, to have
    confidence, to be true, to profess the faith, to confess (sins), to admit’,
    "amān [አማን] ‘truth; true, right, faithful, valid; verily’; Tigrinya "amänä
    ‘to believe’; Tigre "amna ‘to believe, to trust’; Amharic ammänä ‘to
    believe, to testify’; Gurage amänä ‘to believe, to trust, to confess, to
    admit’, əmnät ‘confidence, reliance, belief’; Harari amäna ‘to believe’.
    Murtonen 1989:93; Klein 1987:35; Leslau 1963:26, 1979:49, and 1987:24;
    Zammit 2002:79—80. Egyptian mn ‘to remain, to abide, to dwell; to be
    firm, established, enduring’; Coptic mun [moun] ‘to remain, to continue’.
    Hannig 1995:333; Faulkner 1962:106; Erman—Grapow 1921:63 and
    1926—1963.2:60—62; Gardiner 1957:568; Vycichl 1983:114; Černý
    1976:83. Proto-East Cushitic *man-/*min- ‘house’ > Somali min ‘bridal
    house’; Rendille min ‘house’; Boni miŋ ‘house’; Bayso min ‘house’;
    Elmolo min ‘house’; Galla / Oromo man-a ‘house’; Konso man-a ‘house’;
    Burji mín-a ‘house’; Hadiyya min-e ‘house’; Kambata min-e ‘house’, min-
    ‘to build (a house)’; Gedeo / Darasa min-e ‘house’; Sidamo min-e ‘house’,
    min- ‘to build (a house)’; Alaba min-o ‘house’; Gawwada man-o ‘house’;
    Gidole man-a ‘house’; Gollango man-o ‘house’. Hudson 1989:81; Sasse
    1979:24 and 1982:145. Proto-Southern Cushitic *min- ‘house’ > Dahalo
    mìni ‘house’; Ma’a mi, mínda ‘house’. Ehret 1980:158. West Chadic
    *man-/*min- ‘house, place’ > Tangale man ‘house’; Dera məna ‘house’;
    Pero mina ‘house’; Sha mun ‘place’ (secondary -u-). West Chadic: Ngizim
    mànú ‘to spend a year’, (verbal noun) mánù ‘spending a year’, mànànú ‘to
    spend several years’. East Chadic *man- ‘place’ > Somray mana ‘place’;
    Ndam maan ‘place’; Tumak man ‘place’. Orël—Stolbova 1995:374, no
    1723, *man-/*min- ‘house’ and 389, no. 1795, *mun- ‘to be, to remain’.

    1. B. Dravidian: Tamil mannu (manni-) ‘to be permanent, to endure, to stay, to
      remain long, to persevere, to be steady’, mannal ‘permanence, stability,
      steadiness’; Malayalam mannuka ‘to stand fast, to persevere’; Telugu
      manu ‘to live, to exist, to behave, to act, to conduct oneself’, man(i)ki ‘existence, living, life, residing, livelihood, abode, dwelling, home, place,
      locality’, manukuva ‘abode, dwelling, place’, manugaḍa ‘life, living,
      livelihood, subsistence’, manucu, manupu ‘to protect, to maintain, to
      preserve, to revive’, manupu ‘protection, maintenance’, manuvu ‘conduct’,
      manni ‘life’, mannu ‘to last, to be durable’; Naiki (of Chanda) man- ‘to
      be’; Gadba (Ollari) man- (may-, maṭ-) ‘to be, to stay’, (Salur) man- (manḍ-,
      manj-, mey-) ‘to be’; Gondi mandānā (matt-), man- ‘to remain, to abide, to
      be’; Parji men- (mend-, mett-) ‘to be, to stay’; Konḍa man- (maʀ-) ‘to be, to
      stay, to dwell’; Pengo man- (mac-) ‘to be’; Kui manba (mas-) ‘to be, to
      exist, to remain, to abide’; Kuwi man- (macc-) ‘to be’, manjali (mac-) ‘to
      remain’, man- (mac-) ‘to remain, to exist, to stay’, mannai (macc-) ‘to be’;
      Kuṛux mannā (mańjas) ‘to become, to come off, to result, to be, to turn out
      to be, to be in appearance, to act as if, to behave as though, to be abundant,
      to amount to’; Malto mene ‘to be or become’; Brahui manning ‘to become,
      to be’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:424—425, no. 4778. Tamil manai ‘house,
      dwelling, mansion, house-site, a land measure, wife, family, household,
      domestic life’, manaiyāḷ, manaiyōḷ ‘wife’, manaivi ‘wife, heroine of a
      pastoral or agricultural tract, female owner or resident of a house’;
      Malayalam mana ‘house’; Kota mantanm ‘affairs of a household’, man
      devr ‘household god’; Toda man ‘family, household’; Kannaḍa mane
      ‘habitation, abode, house, apartment, room’, manetana, mantana
      ‘household, household life’, manetanasta ‘householder; a worthy,
      honorable man’; Koḍagu mane ‘house’, maneka·rë ‘man of the house’;
      Tuḷu manetana ‘household’, manè ‘house, home’. Burrow—Emeneau
      1984:424, no. 4776; Krishnamurti 2003:90, 117—118, 279, 496, and
      498—499 *man- (*man-t-) ‘to be, to live, to stay’, 8 *man-ay ‘house, place
      to stay in’.

    2. C. Proto-Indo-European *men-/*mon-/*mn̥- ‘to stay, to remain, to abide, to
      dwell; to be firm, steadfast, established, enduring’: Sanskrit man- ‘to wait,
      to stay, to hesitate’; Avestan man- ‘to remain’; Old Persian man- ‘to
      remain’; Armenian mnam ‘to remain’; Greek μένω ‘to stand fast; to stay at
      home, to stay where one is at; (of things) to be lasting, to remain, to stand,
      to be stable, to be permanent; to abide’, μί-μν-ω ‘to stay, to stand fast; to
      tarry; (of things) to remain; to await’, μόνη ‘a staying, abiding;
      permanence; stopping place, station, apartment, quarters, billets;
      monastery’, μόνιμος ‘staying in one’s place, stable; (of persons) steady,
      steadfast; (of things) lasting, enduring’; Latin maneō ‘to stay, to remain; to
      endure, to last; to abide; to wait for, to await’. Probably also Tocharian
      A/B mäsk- (< *mn̥-skº-e/o-) ‘to be’ (cf. Adams 1999:458—459). Rix
      1998a:393—394 *men- ‘to stay, to remain, to abide’; Pokorny 1959:729
      *men- ‘to remain’; Walde 1927—1932.II:267 *men-; Mann 1984—
      1987:756—757 *menō (*mĭmĕnō) ‘to remain, to be, to rest’, *mn̥ō, -i̯ō
      (*mən-) ‘to remain’, 796 *monos, -us (*monu̯os) ‘remaining, alone, single,
      individual’; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.II:573; Mallory—Adams 1997:482
      *men- ‘to remain, to stay’; Watkins 1985:41 *men- and 2000:54 *men- ‘to remain’; Boisacq 1950:627 *men-; Chantraine 1968—1980.II:686; Frisk
      1970—1973.II:208—209 *men-; Hofmann 1966:197 *men-; Walde—
      Hofmann 1965—1972.II:26 *men-; Ernout—Meillet 1979:383; De Vaan
      D. (?) Yukaghir (Northern / Tundra) medʹuo- (< *menčʹ-) ‘to enter upon’.
      Nikolaeva 2006:264.
      E. Altaic: Proto-Tungus *mēne- ‘to settle down, to stay’ > Evenki mēnē- ‘to
      settle down’, mēnē ‘settled down’; Lamut / Even mene ‘settled down’;
      Negidal meneǯe- ‘to stay’; Orok meneǯi- ‘to stay’; Udihe menǯe- ‘to stay’.
      Semantically, the Tungus forms are a perfect match with those from the
      other Nostratic languages cited here. However, the root vowel is a
      problem. Perhaps, we are dealing with secondary developments within
      Tungus itself. In any case, the Altaic etymology proposed by Starostin—
      Dybo—Mudrak (2003:913) is not convincing.
      Buck 1949:7.12 house; 9.91 be; 12.16 remain, stay, wait’. Caldwell 1913:601;
      Möller 1911:165; Illič-Svityč 1971—1984.II:51—52, no. 287, *mAnʌ ‘to
      remain in place, to stand firmly’; Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 1419, *man̄ó
      ‘house, dwelling’ and, no. 1420, *män̄a ‘to remain, to stay’; Bomhard—Kerns
      1994:641—643, no. 520.

    3. About the Dravidian meaning 'to be', it is remarkable that in Hurrian the verb 'man-' has the same meaning.

  73. PIE-Dravidian no.48.
    866. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *mar-a ‘(young) man, male (human or animal)’:
    A. Proto-Afrasian *mar- ‘man, male’: Proto-Semitic *marʔ-/*mərʔ- ‘man,
    male’ > Arabic mar", mir", mur" ‘man’, maru"a ‘to be manly’, "imra" ‘a
    man, person, human being’; Himyaritic marī ‘lord’; Sabaean mr" ‘man,
    person, lord’; Syriac mārē" ‘lord’; Akkadian māru, mer"u, mar"u ‘son,
    descendant, offspring; young, offspring of an animal; darling, lover’.
    Diakonoff 1992:85 mr̥ ʔ-; Zammit 2002:380. [Orël—Stolbova 1995:377—
    378, no. 1740, *mar-/*maraʔ- ‘man’.]
    B. Proto-Dravidian *mar-i ‘male child, the young of an animal’: Tamil mari
    ‘young of sheep, horse, deer, etc.; female of sheep, horse, deer, etc.; sheep,
    deer’; Malayalam mari ‘offspring, the young of animals, a young deer’;
    Kannaḍa mari ‘the young of any animal (except cattle and buffaloes), a
    young child; a shoot, sapling’; Telugu maraka ‘a kid’; Tuḷu mari ‘a young
    animal’; Kota mayr ‘young of animals (except cattle)’; Toda mary ‘young
    of animals (except buffaloes) and birds’; Gondi mari, marri/marr, maṛi,
    marrī ‘son’; Pengo mazi ‘son’; Konḍa marin ‘son’, marisi ‘son’, mē-mari
    ‘husband, man’; Kui mrienji, mrīenju ‘son’; Kuwi miresi ‘son’, mrīesi
    ‘son, nephew’, mir"esi ‘son’; Brahui mār ‘son, boy, lad’. Burrow—
    Emeneau 1984:423, no. 4764; Krishnamurti 2003:7 and 10 *mat-i(ntu)
    ‘male child, the young of an animal’.
    C. Kartvelian: Svan māre ‘man (male)’.
    D. Proto-Indo-European *mer-yo- ‘(young) man’: Greek (m.) μειράκιον ‘a
    boy, lad, stripling’, (f.) μεῖραξ ‘a young girl, lass’; Sanskrit márya-ḥ ‘man,
    (especially) young man, lover, suitor’, maryaká-ḥ ‘young stud (said of a
    bull among cows)’; Avestan mairya- ‘young man’; Old Persian marīka-
    (contracted from *mariyaka-) ‘person of lower rank, subject’. Pokorny
    1959:738—739 *meri̯o- ‘young man’; Walde 1927—1932.II:284 *meri̯o-;
    Mann 1984—1987:760 *meri̯ək- ‘child, youngster’; Mallory—Adams
    1997:656 *méri̯os ‘young man’; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.II:596—597;
    Boisacq 1950:621 (Sanskrit márya-ḥ < *mér-i̯o-s); Hofmann 1966:194;
    Kent 1953:202 *mer-; Frisk 1970—1973.II:195—196; Chantraine 1968—
    1980.II:678; Benveniste 1969.I:246—247 and 1973:199—200.
    E. Proto-Altaic *mi̯ara (~ -r¨-) ‘male, mature’: Proto-Tungus *miare- ‘to
    marry’ > Evenki mirē- ‘to marry’; Lamut / Even mierъn- ‘to marry’;
    Negidal miyēn- ‘to marry’; Ulch miren- ‘to marry’; Orok mīren- ‘to
    marry’; Nanay / Gold (dial.) marin- ‘to marry’. Starostin—Dybo—Mudrak
    2003:923 *mi̯ara (~ -ŕ-) ‘male, mature’.
    Buck 1949:2.25 boy. Möller 1911:167; Illič-Svityč 1965:373 *marʌ ‘youth’
    [‘юноша’] and 1971—1984.II:39—41, no. 277, *majrʌ ‘young male’;
    Bomhard—Kerns 1994:643—644, no. 522; Greenberg 2002:36, no. 63; Brunner 1969:21, no. 20; Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 1469, *mariʔó ‘young
    man, young male’.

  74. PIE-Dravidian no. 49 .
    890. Proto-Nostratic root *mun- (~ *mon-):
    (vb.) *mun- ‘to protrude, to stand out; to jut out; to be first, foremost, in front
    (n.) *mun-a ‘topmost or most prominent part, highest or farthest point’
    A. Afrasian: Egyptian mnw ‘mountain chain, mountain range’, mnw
    ‘monument, obelisk’, mn-ty ‘the two mountains (that is, the two mountain
    ranges on the east and west sides of the Nile)’. Hannig 1995:338; Faulkner
    1962:108; Erman—Grapow 1921:64 and 1926—1963.2:69, 2:71; Gardiner
    B. Dravidian: Tamil mun ‘in front, previous, prior; antiquity, eminence’,
    munnam ‘in front’, munpu ‘former time, front, antiquity; bodily strength,
    greatness; before, in front of, formerly’, munpan ‘powerful man, leader,
    master’, munr-il ‘front of a house, space’, munnar ‘before, in advance, in
    front of, in former times’, munnu (munni-) ‘to meet, to reach, to join, to
    precede’, munai ‘front, face, superiority, eminence, point, sharpened end,
    edge, cape, headland’, munnōr ‘predecessors, ancestors, the ancients, chief
    ministers’, munātu ‘that which is in front, that which is earlier’, munaiñar
    ‘commander of an army’, munti ‘front, outer edge of cloth, some time
    before’, muntu (munti-) ‘(vb.) to come in front, to advance, to meet, to be
    prior in time or place, to take precedence, to take the lead, to be first, to
    surpass, to excel, to be old, to be long lasting; (n.) antiquity, priority,
    beginning’, muntai ‘antiquity, the past, former time; ancestor; in front of’;
    Malayalam mun, munnam ‘priority in space and time, first, former; before’,
    munnamē ‘before’, munnar ‘forepart of animals’, munnal ‘presence’,
    munnil, munnē ‘before’, munni ‘cape, headland’, munnēyavan, munnēvan
    ‘the former’, munti ‘the edge, skirt of cloth’, muntuka ‘to overtake’,
    mumpu ‘the front, presence’, mumpan ‘the foremost, principal’, mumpināl
    ‘formerly’, mumpil ‘in front’, mumpē ‘before’, muna ‘a sharp point,
    sharpness, promontory’, munakka ‘to go before’, munampu ‘headland, tip’;
    Kota mun-, mu- ‘front, fore’, mon ‘point’, mund, mind ‘previous time, state
    of being before in space’, mund- (mundy-), mind- (mindy-) ‘to go in front,
    to act first’, muŋga·r ‘forward, in front, early’; Toda mun ‘in front; former’,
    mïn ‘sharp point, top of hill’, mïnp ‘sharp end of horn’; Kannaḍa mun
    (muṃ), munnu ‘that which is before, in front of, preceding in space; that
    which is preceding in time; that which is towards a place’, muñcu ‘(vb.) to
    be or go before or first, to precede, to outgo, to go beyond, to exceed, to
    outdo, to surpass, to excel; (n.) state of preceding or being before in time or

  75. position, state of being previous or prior, former time’, muñcita ‘state of
    being before in time, previous or prior, beforehand’, muñca ‘a man in the
    front, chief, leader’, muñce ‘in advance, in the first place, previously,
    formerly, first, beforehand, before, earlier than’, muntu, munda, mundu
    ‘the front part or side, front, state of being in front of anything that is
    behind, state of being advanced in position, that of being first, state of
    being before or previous, state of being future’, mundu ‘to precede’, mone
    ‘point, extremity, end; sharpness; state of being before’, munna, munnam,
    munnal ‘the front; in front, before, formerly, previously; first, prior to,
    preceding; following, henceforth’, munne ‘even the front, etc.’, mumbu
    ‘forepart, front, the direction of the front, state of being previous’; Tuḷu
    mundaṇa ‘priority; first, prior; future’, munderiyuni, munderuni,
    mundersuni ‘to advance, to march, to continue, to carry on’, mundè
    ‘before, in front’, munni ‘tip, lappet’, munè, munnè, moṇè, monè ‘point,
    end, extremity’; Koḍagu miñña ‘in front, further’, mumba·ra ‘the fore’,
    mumbï ‘predominance’, mone ‘sharp point’, mund- (mundi-) ‘to go ahead’;
    Telugu muni ‘first, former, previous, front’, munimuṅgali ‘the very front’,
    munucu ‘to go or appear before’, muncu ‘to increase, to excel’, muṅgali
    ‘front, foremost’, munupaṭi ‘former, previous’, munupu ‘the past, a former
    period in time; formerly, of old, previously’, munumu ‘the front or
    vanguard of an army’, munumunu, munumunnu ‘first of all, in the very
    beginning’, munnu ‘former period of time; formerly, first’, mundaṭa(n) ‘in
    front, before’, mundaṭi ‘first, former, prior; front’, mundara ‘the front,
    former or past time; in front, before, first; in the last instance, previously,
    formerly; hereafter, in the future’, mundu ‘the front, state of being first or
    early; priority, past time, the past; first, front, earlier, prior, previous; (adv.)
    first, early, to begin with, in former times’, mona ‘point, extremity, tip, in
    front’; Naikṛi mund ‘before’; Parji munni ‘before’, mundi ‘in front’,
    munnited ‘first, the one in front’, mundel ‘in front, before’, mona ‘tip,
    point’; Gadba (Salur) mundēl, mundel ‘the front’; Gondi munnē ‘before, in
    front, next year’, munne ‘in front of, previously’, munnē, mune ‘before, in
    front of’, mūne ‘ahead’, munnevāl ‘leader’; Konḍa muŋgal, mundala ‘in
    front’; Kuwi munu ‘point (of needle, etc.)’; Kuṛux munddh, mund ‘first,
    ahead of, previous to, before that time, ago’, muńjā ‘the extremity,
    beginning, head point, end’; Brahui mōn ‘front’, mōni ‘being in front’;
    Malto mundi ‘formerly, in ancient times’, mundoti ‘ancient’. Burrow—
    Emeneau 1984:452—453, no. 5020(a); Krishnamurti 2003:392 *mun
    ‘prior, before, front’.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *mon-/*mn̥- (secondary e-grade form: *men-) ‘(vb.)
    to protrude, to stand out, to jut out; (n.) highest or farthest point, topmost or
    most protuberant part’: Avestan mati- ‘mountain top’; Latin mentum
    ‘chin’, ēmineō ‘to project, to stand out’, minae ‘the battlements, parapets of
    a wall’, minor ‘to jut out, to project’, prōmineō ‘to stand out, to jut out, to
    project’, mōns, -tis ‘mountain’; Welsh mynydd ‘mountain’, mant ‘jaw’;
    Cornish meneth ‘mountain’; Breton menez ‘mountain’; Old Icelandic

  76. moena ‘to tower’. Pokorny 1959:726 *men- ‘to project’; Walde 1927—
    1932.II:263 *men-; Mann 1984—1987:781—782 *mn̥tos ‘mouth, chin,
    jaw’; Watkins 1985:41 *men- and 2000:54 *men- ‘to project’; Mallory—
    Adams 1997:270 (?) men- ‘mountain’, *men- ‘to project, to stick out’;
    Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.II:666 *m(e)n-t[º]-, also fn. 1 *m(e)n-, and
    1995.I:574 *m(e)n-tº- ‘mountain, heights’, also fn. 2 *m(e)n- ‘mountain’;
    Ernout—Meillet 1979:398, 403—404, and 412—413; Walde—Hofmann
    1965—1972.II:72—73 *men-, II:90, and II:108—109 *men-; De Vaan
    2008:373, 380, and 388; De Vries 1977:400.
    Buck 1949:1.22 mountain, hill; 4.209 chin; 12.33 top; 12.35 end; 12.352 point.
    Bomhard—Kerns 1994:655—656, no. 533; Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 1431,
    *mu|on̄ó (or *mu|on̄[ ó]Tó ?) ‘mountain, hill’.

  77. PIE-Dravidian no 50 . I stop for today :) . My next target is to list further 25.
    961. Proto-Nostratic root *rom-:
    (vb.) *rom- ‘to stop, to rest, to relax’;
    (n.) *rom-a ‘rest, quietude, calmness, tranquility, relaxation’; (adj.) ‘quiet,
    tranquil, still, gentle, silent, relaxed’
    A. Afrasian: Proto-Semitic *ram-aʔ- ‘to stop, to rest, to relax; to become
    relaxed, slack’ > Akkadian ramū ‘to become slack, loose’; Hebrew
    rəmīyyāh [hY`m!r+] ‘laxness, slackness’; Arabic rama"a ‘to stop, to stay, to
    remain, to abide’. Proto-Semitic *ram-am- ‘to be quiet, to be at rest’ >
    Arabic ("a)ramma ‘to be quiet’; Geez / Ethiopic "armama [አርመመ] ‘to
    keep silence, to keep silent, to be tranquil, to be quiet, to remain quiet, to
    be at rest, to make silent, to reduce to silence, to astound’, rəmum [ርሙም]
    ‘silent, quiet; one who keeps silence’, marməm ‘silent’; Tigrinya
    ("a)rmämä ‘to be silent, to be taciturn’; Amharic (a)rämmämä ‘to be
    silent’. Leslau 1987:471. Proto-Semitic *ram-ak- ‘to stop, to remain, to
    abide’ > Arabic ramaka ‘to stop, to remain, to abide’.
    B. Dravidian: Gondi romānā, rom- ‘to rest’, rōmānā ‘to rest after labor’,
    roma ‘rest, repose’; Konḍa rōmb- ‘to rest, to take rest’; Pengo jōm- ‘to
    stop, to rest, to cease’; Kui jāmba (jāmbi-) ‘to rest, to cease, to subside’;
    Kuwi jōmali, jōminai, jōm- ‘to rest’, (?) rēmb- ‘to rest’. Burrow—
    Emeneau 1984:469, no. 5178.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *rom-/*rm̥ - (secondary e-grade form: *rem-) ‘to
    stop, to rest, to relax’: Greek (with prefixed ἠ-) ἤρεμος, ἠρεμαῖος ‘still,
    quiet, gentle’, ἠρεμέω ‘to keep quiet, to be at rest’, ἠρέμησις ‘quietude’,
    ἐρεμίζω ‘to make still or quiet’; Sanskrit rámate ‘to stop, to stay, to rest, to
    abide’; Avestan rāman- ‘quiet’; Gothic rimis ‘rest, quiet, tranquility,
    calm’; Lithuanian rãmas (n.) ‘quiet’, ramùs (adj.) ‘quiet, calm’, (inf.) rìmti
    ‘to be calm’. Rix 1998a:224—225 *h1rem- ‘to be still, quiet’; Pokorny
    1959:864 *rem-, *remə- ‘to rest’; Walde 1927—1932.II:371—372 *rem-;
    Mann 1984—1987:1062 *rāmei̯ō ‘to quieten, to appease, to pacify; to
    acquiesce, to subside, to rest’ (radical: *ram-), 1062 *rāmos, -ā (*ram-)
    ‘restful, quiet, tame, alone; rest, quietude, solitude’, 1083 *rm̥ tos, -is
    ‘restful, resting, quiet; rest’; Boisacq 1950:328—329 *rem-; Hofmann
    1966:109; Frisk 1970—1973.I:642—643; Chantraine 1968—1980.I:416;
    Kroonen 2013:409 Proto-Germanic *rēmiz- ‘quiet, tranquility’; Orël
    2003:302 Proto-Germanic *remez; Feist 1939:398; Lehmann 1986:285
    *rem- ‘to rest, to support’; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.III:43—44; Fraenkel
    Buck 1949:12.16 remain, stay, wait; 12.19 quiet (adj.). Möller 1911:210;
    Brunner 1969:20, no. 16; Bomhard—Kerns 1994:711, no. 598; Dolgopolsky to
    appear, no. 1988, *[‛]rômó ‘quiet; to rest’.

  78. PIE-Dravidian no. 51.
    22. Proto-Nostratic root *ban- (~ *bǝn-):
    (vb.) *ban- ‘to pour, to sprinkle, to drip’;
    (n.) *ban-a ‘a drop (of water, rain, dew, etc.)’
    A. Dravidian: Tamil pani ‘to be bedewed, to flow out, to be shed, to rain
    incessantly, to become cool, to shiver with cold, to tremble, to fear, to
    spring forth (as tears)’, pani ‘dew, chill, cold, tears, rain, mist, fog, haze,
    trembling, fear’, panittal ‘incessant rain’, panukku (panukki-) ‘to sprinkle,
    to moisten by sprinkling’; Malayalam pani ‘dew, fever’; panekka ‘to
    ooze’; Toda pony ‘dew’; Kannaḍa pani, hani ‘(vb.) to drop; (n.) a drop (of
    water, dew, etc.)’, haniku ‘to fall in drops’, hanisu, haṇisu ‘to pour (as
    water)’; Koḍagu pann- (panni-) ‘to drizzle’; Tuḷu pani ‘drizzling rain’,
    paṇi ‘dew, fog, mist, snow’, panipuni, paṇipuni ‘to drizzle, to shower’.
    Burrow—Emeneau 1984:360, no. 4035; Krishnamurti 2003:13 *pan-i-(kil)
    ‘dew, cold, chill’.
    B. Proto-Kartvelian *ban- ‘to wash, to wash oneself’: Georgian a-ban-o
    ‘bath’, ban- ‘to wash, to wash oneself; to bathe’; Mingrelian bon- ‘to
    wash’; Laz (m)bon- ‘to wash’. Fähnrich 1994:230 and 2007:46—47 *ban-;
    Fähnrich—Sardshweladse 1995:43 *ban-; Klimov 1964:48 *ban- and
    1998:7 *ban- ‘to wash, to wash oneself’; Schmidt 1962:95. Proto Kartvelian (past participle) *ban-il- ‘washed’: Georgian banil- ‘washed’;
    Laz boner-‘washed’; Mingrelian bonil-, bonir- ‘washed’. Klimov 1998:8
    *ban-il- ‘washed’.
    C. Indo-European: Middle Cornish banne, banna ‘a drop’; Breton banne
    (Tréguier bannec’h) ‘a drop’. Not related to Sanskrit bindú-ḥ (vindú-ḥ) ‘a
    drop, globule, spot’ (cf. Mayrhofer 1956—1980.II:430—431).

  79. PIE-Dravidian no. 52.
    Dravidian: Tamil paru ‘to become large, bulky, plump; to swell’, paruppu
    ‘thickness, largeness’, pariya ‘thick, large, big’; Malayalam paru ‘gross,
    big’ Kannaḍa hari, hariba ‘a mass, multitude’, Tuḷu pariya
    ‘plenty, exceeding, much’; Telugu prabbu ‘to increase, to extend, to
    flourish, to thrive’; Compare with -

    1. Add also Dravidian :
      Tamil pala ‘many, several, diverse’, palar ‘many or several
      persons, assembly, society’, pal ‘many’; Malayalam pala ‘many, several,
      various’; Kannaḍa pala, palavu ‘much, many, several, various’, palar,
      palambar, palavar ‘several persons’; Telugu palu ‘many, several, various,
      different’; Malto palware ‘to be multiplied, to be bred’, palwatre ‘to breed, to rear’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:355, no. 3987; Krishnamurti 2003:266
      *pal-V- ‘many’.

  80. PIE-Dravidian no. 53.
    33. Proto-Nostratic root *bar- (~ *bǝr-):
    (vb.) *bar- ‘to shine, to be bright, to sparkle, to flash’;
    (n.) *bar-a ‘light, brightness; lightning’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *bar-/*bir- ‘to shine, to be bright, to sparkle, to flash’,
    *bar-ak’-, *bar-ik’-, *bir-ik’- ‘(vb.) to flash; (n.) lightning’: Proto-Semitic
    *barak’- ‘to shine, to glitter, to sparkle, to flash’, *bark’-/*birk’-
    ‘lightning’ >.
    B. Dravidian: Kota par par in- ‘to become a little light before dawn’;
    Kannaḍa pare ‘to dawn’; Telugu parãgu ‘to shine’; Malto parce ‘to shine
    brightly, to be seen clearly’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:354, no. 3980.
    C. Proto-Kartvelian *bar- ‘to glow, to burn, to flame, to blaze’, (reduplicated)
    *bar-bar-: Georgian bar-bar-i/bal-bal-i ‘to glow, to burn, to flame, to
    blaze’; Mingrelian bor-bonǯ-ia ‘glowing, burning, flaming, blazing’.
    Fähnrich 2007:49 *bar-. Proto-Kartvelian *berc’q’-/*brc’q’- ‘to shine’:
    Georgian brc’q’-in-v-a ‘to shine; brightness’, brc’k’iali ‘to light, to
    illuminate’, brc’q’invale ‘white’; Mingrelian rc’k’- (the initial labial has
    been lost) ‘to shine’; Laz pinc’k’-/pic’k’- ‘to shine’; Svan [berc’q’-]
    (Georgian loan). Fähnrich 1994:230 and 2007:60—61 *berc̣"
    -/*brc̣" -; Fähnrich—Sardshweladse 1995:51—52 *berc̣"
    -/*brc̣" -; Klimov 1964:50 *berc̣"
    -/*brc̣" -; Schmidt 1962:99.
    D. Proto-Indo-European *bºerEk’-, *bºreEk’- > *bºrēk’- ‘to shine, to gleam,
    to be bright’: Sanskrit bhrā́jate ‘to shine, to gleam, to glitter’; Avestan
    brāzaiti ‘to beam’, brāza- ‘shimmering; radiance’; Welsh berth ‘beautiful’;
    Gothic bairhts ‘bright, manifest’, bairhtei ‘brightness’; Old Icelandic
    bjartr ‘bright, shining’, birti ‘brightness’; Old English beorht ‘bright’; Old
    Saxon berht, beraht ‘bright’; Old High German beraht ‘bright’; Lithuanian
    brjkšti ‘to dawn’; Palaic Palaic (3rd sg. pres.) pa-ar-ku-i-ti ‘to clean, to purify’; Hittite pár-ku-uš ‘pure, clean’. Rix 1998a:76—77 *bºreh÷ĝ- ‘to glitter, to shine’.
    Sumerian bar ‘(vb.) to shine, to light, to illuminate, to sparkle, to glitter, to
    glisten; (adj.) bright, shining; (n.) light, brightness’, barü-barü ‘(adj.) light,
    white; (vb.) to whiten, to make white’.

  81. PIE-Dravidian no. 54.
    47. Proto-Nostratic root *bin- (~ *ben-):
    (vb.) *bin- ‘to tie (together), to fasten, to twist together, to bind (together)’;
    (n.) *bin-a ‘tie, bond’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *ben- ‘to tie’: Berber: Ghadames aβən ‘to tie’; Ahaggar
    ahən ‘to tie’. Central Chadic *byan- ‘to tie’ > Logone ɓən, bən ‘to tie’;
    Buduma peenai, fanai ‘to tie’. Orël—Stolbova 1995:66, no. 262, *ben- ‘to
    B. Dravidian: Tamil piṇai (-v-, -nt-) ‘to entwine (intr.), to unite, to copulate;
    to tie, to fasten, to clasp each other’s hands as in dancing’, piṇai (-pp-, -tt-)
    ‘(vb.) to link, to unite, to tie, to fasten, to clasp hands; (n.) being knit
    together, joint in planks, tie, flower garland, bail, security, pledge,
    consent’, piṇaiyali ‘joining together, flower garland, hinge, copulation’,
    piṇi ‘(vb.) to tie, to fetter, to link, to win over; (n.) fastening, bond,
    attachment, plait’, piṇippu ‘binding, tie, attachment’, piṇaṅku (piṇaṅki-)
    ‘to be linked together, to be intertwined, to be at variance’, piṇakku
    (piṇakki-) ‘to fasten, to intertwine’; Malayalam piṇa ‘tying, yoke, being
    involved, bail, surety, coupling’, piṇekka ‘to tie together, to yoke, to
    ensnare’; Toda pïṇ ‘surety’; Kannaḍa peṇe ‘(vb.) to unite or tie different
    things together, to intertwine, to twist, to plait, to braid; to be jointed, to
    unite, to be intertwined, to get entangled; (n.) an entwined state, union,
    company’; Telugu peṇa ‘a twist of ropes, tie, bond’, penãcu ‘to twist, to
    twist together’, penãgonu ‘to be twisted, to be mingled, to join, to unite’,
    penapu ‘(vb.) to join, to unite, to twist; (n.) dispute’, p²nu ‘to twist, to
    entwine, to twist two or three single threads into a thick thread’; Naikṛi
    p²nḍ- ‘to twist, to twine’; Parji pinna ‘bund of field’; Brahui pinning ‘to be
    twisted’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:368, no. 4159. Tamil pinnu (pinni-) ‘to
    plait, to braid, to lace, to knit, to weave, to entwine, to bind, to embrace; to
    become united’, pinnal ‘braiding, web, entanglement, matted hair’,
    pinnakam ‘braided hair’, pinnu (pinni-) ‘to weave’; Gadba (Salur) pannap-
    ‘to weave’; Kuṛux pandnā ‘to roll and twist together filaments into
    threads’; Malayalam pinnuka ‘to plait, to twist’, pinnal ‘embroilment’;
    Toda pïn- (pïny-) ‘to be matted (of hair); to weave (basket), to plait (hair)’.
    Burrow—Emeneau 1984:373, no. 4207.
    Buck 1949:9.16 bind; 9.75 plait (vb.).

    Compare :

  82. PIE-Dravidian no. 55.
    67. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *bul-a ‘that which is dark, dark-colored; that which has
    mixed colors, that which is spotted’:
    Derivative of:
    (vb.) *bul- ‘to mix, to mix up, to confuse’;
    (n.) *bul-a ‘mixture, confusion, turbidity, blur’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *bul- ‘dark colored; having mixed colors, spotted’:
    Semitic: Amharic bulla ‘yellow, brown’; Tigrinya bulla ‘light brown,
    white reddish’; Gurage bula ‘white horse’, balbula ‘reddish brown, brown
    (horse)’. (According to Leslau [1979:139], the Ethiopian Semitic forms are
    loans from Cushitic.) East Cushitic: Burji bull-ánc-i ‘gray; all mixed colors; spotted’; Hadiyya bula ‘(horse) spotted: black and white’; Konso
    pull-a ‘gray’. Sasse 1982:43.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil pul ‘tawny color’, pullai ‘dull, yellowish color’;
    Malayalam pulla ‘a yellowish color of cattle’; Kota bul ‘liver-colored’;
    Telugu pula ‘yellowish’, pulla ‘brown, tawny’; Gadba (Salur) pula ‘light
    brown color’ (loan from Telugu). Burrow—Emeneau 1984:381, no. 4310.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *bhºl-en-dhº-/*bhºl-on-dhº-/*bhºl-n̥-dhº- ‘mixed or dark
    colored’: Proto-Germanic *blundaz ‘mixed colored, gray’ > Old English
    blonden-feax, blandan-feax ‘having mixed colored or gray hair’. Germanic
    loans in: Medieval Latin blundus, blondos ‘yellow’; French blond(e) ‘fairhaired,
    blond’; Italian biondo ‘fair-haired, blond’; Spanish blondo ‘blond’;
    Old Provençal blon ‘blond’. Pokorny 1959:157—158 *bhlendh- ‘dim,
    reddish’; Orël 2003:47 Proto-Germanic *ƀlanđanan.
    Buck 1949:15.63 dark (in color).

  83. PIE-Dravidian no. 56.
    69. Proto-Nostratic root *bun- (~ *bon-):
    (vb.) *bun- ‘to puff up, to inflate, to expand, to swell’;
    (n.) *bun-a ‘rounded protuberance, swelling, lump, hump, growth’
    Extended form:
    (vb.) *bun-V-g- ‘to swell, to increase, to expand’; (n.) *bun-g-a ‘swelling’; (adj.) ‘swollen, fat, thick’
    (vb.) *bun- ‘to flow, to overflow’;
    (n.) *bun-a ‘flow, flood’
    A. Proto-Afrasian *b[u]n- ‘to puff up, to inflate, to expand, to swell, to grow,
    to abound’: Semitic: Akkadian banū ‘to grow; to be pleasant, friendly (said
    of the face)’, bunnū ‘to make grow’, bunnannū ‘general region of the face
    (especially the eyes and nose); outer appearance, figure, likeness, features’,
    bunnu ‘favor’, bunnū ‘beautiful’. D. Cohen 1970— :71. Semantic
    development probably as follows: ‘(friendly) face’ < ‘puffed up (said of
    cheeks, from smiling)’. Egyptian bnn ‘bead, pellet’, bnnt ‘pellet’ bng ‘to
    have plenty, to abound in (food)’. Hannig 1995:254 and 255; Erman—
    Grapow 1926—1963.1:460 and 1:464; Faulkner 1962:83.
    B. Proto-Dravidian *poṅk- ‘to increase, to swell, to expand’: Tamil poṅku
    (poṅki-) ‘to boil up; to bubble up by heat, to foam and rage (as the sea); to
    increase; to swell; to shoot up; to be elated; to burst with anger; to be
    swollen; to rise; to grow high; to abound, to flourish; to be fruitful; to
    cook’, poṅkam ‘increase, abundance, joy, splendor’; Malayalam poṅṅuka
    ‘to boil over, to bubble up, to spread’; Kota poŋg- (poŋgy-) ‘to increase
    magically in number’; Kannaḍa poṅgu ‘to boil over, to burst open, to
    expand, to open, to blossom, to swell, to be elated, to exult, to be
    overjoyed’; Koḍagu poŋŋ- (poŋŋi-) ‘to swell’; Tuḷu boṅguni ‘to be
    distended’, boṅku̥, boṅku ‘protuberance’; Telugu poṅgu ‘to bubble up, to
    boil, to effervesce, to rejoice, to be elated, to be puffed up, to be proud’;
    Kolami poŋg- (poŋkt-) ‘to boil over’; Naikṛi poŋg- ‘to expand’. Burrow—
    Emeneau 1984:395—396, no. 4469.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *bhºonghº-/*bhºn̥ghº- (secondary full-grade form:
    *bhºenghº-) ‘to swell, to fatten, to grow, to increase’, *bºn̥gºu- ‘swollen, fat,
    thick’: Sanskrit baṁhate ‘to grow, to increase’, bahú-ḥ ‘much, abundant,
    great, large’; Greek παχύς ‘thick, stout, fat, massive’; Old Icelandic bingr
    ‘bed, bolster’, bunga ‘elevation’, bunki ‘heap, pile’; Old High German
    bungo ‘clod, lump’; Latvian bìezs ‘thick’; (?) Hittite pa-an-ku-uš ‘all,
    whole’ (for an alternative etymology, cf. Polomé 1968:98—101). Pokorny
    1959:127—128 *bhenĝh-, *bhn̥ĝh- (adj. *bhn̥ĝhú-s) ‘thick, dense’; Rix
    1998a:61 *bºenĝº- ‘to make thick, solid, firm, dense’; Walde 1927—
    1932.II:151 *bhenĝh-, *bhn̥ĝh- (adj. *bhn̥ĝhú-s); Mann 1984—1987:87
    *bhn̥gh- ‘big, mass, lump’, 124 *bhunghos, -ā ‘hump, bulge, growth’;
    Watkins 1985:7 *bhengh- (zero-grade form *bhn̥ghu-) and 2000:10
    *bhengh- ‘thick, fat’; Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.I:174 and II:782
    *b[º]enĝ[º]-, *b[º]n̥ĝ[º]- and 1995.I:140 and I:684 *bhºenĝhº-, *-
    ‘thick, solid’; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.II:400 and II:424—425; Mallory—
    Adams 1997:3 *bhénĝhus ‘thick, abundant’; Boisacq 1950:753 *bhOE“hú-s;
    Hofmann 1966:256 *bhn̥“hús; Chantraine 1968—1980.II:866 *bhn̥ĝh-;
    Frisk 1970—1973.II:484—485 *bhn̥ĝh-; Orël 2003:62 Proto-Germanic *ƀunᵹōn, 62 *ƀunkōn; De Vries 1977:37 and 65; Kloekhorst 2008b:624—
    625; Sturtevant 1951:40, §62d, Indo-Hittite *bªьngªéws.
    Sumerian bun ‘breath’, bún ‘(vb.) to blow, to inflate; (n.) breath’, bún ‘nose’.
    Buck 1949:4.204 face; 12.63 thick (in dimension); 12.83 sphere; 13.13 whole;
    13.15 much, many. Bomhard—Kerns 1994:223—224; Illič-Svityč 1971—
    1984.I:182—183, no. 17, *bongä ‘(adj.) fat; (vb.) to swell’; Dolgopolsky to
    appear, no. 217, *buŋgä ‘(adj.) thick; (vb.) to swell’; Hakola 2000:148, no.
    651; Takács 2004:198, no. 126; Fortescue 1998:157.

  84. PIE-Dravidian no. 57.
    78. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *bur-a ‘eyelash, eyebrow’:
    A. Dravidian: Kota kam bu· (kam- < kaṇ ‘eye’) ‘eyebrow’; Kolami bu·r
    ‘eyelash, eyebrow’; Gadba (pl.) burgul ‘eyebrows’; Kuwi kanu būru
    ‘eyebrow’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:385, no. 4358
    B. Proto-Indo-European *bhºr-uH- (> *bhºrū-) ‘eyelash, eyebrow’: Sanskrit
    bhrū́-ḥ ‘an eyebrow, the brow’; Pāḷi bhamu-, bhamuka-, bhamukha- (<
    *bhramu- < *bhrūmu- [cf. Gray 1902:29, §57) ‘eyebrow’; Khowār brū
    ‘eyebrow’; Avestan (f. dual) brvat- ‘eyebrows’; Greek “-φρῦς ‘the brow,
    eyebrow’; Middle Irish (gen. dual) brúad ‘eyebrow’; Old Icelandic brún (<
    *bºruwōn-) (pl. brynn) ‘eyebrow’; Faroese brún ‘eyebrow’; Norwegian
    brūn ‘eyebrow’; Swedish (properly a plural form) bryn ‘eyebrow’; Danish
    (properly a plural form) bryn ‘eyebrow’; Old English brū ‘eyebrow;
    eyelid, eyelash’ (Modern English brow); Lithuanian bruvìs ‘eyebrow’; Old
    Church Slavic brъvь ‘eyebrow’; Serbo-Croatian ȍbrva ‘eyebrow’; Polish
    brwi ‘eyebrow’; Russian brovʹ [бровь] ‘eyebrow’; Tocharian A pärwān-,
    B (dual) pärwāne ‘eyebrows’. Pokorny 1959:172—173 *bhrū- ‘eyebrow’;
    Walde 1927—1932.II:206—207 *bhrū- ‘eyebrow’; Mann 1984—
    1987:108 *bhrūn- (*bhreun-, *bhrun-) ‘edge, top, crest, brow’ and 108—
    109 *bhrūs ‘brow’; Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.II:786, fn. 1, *bh[º]ruH-,
    II:812 *bh[º]ruH- and 1995.I:688, fn. 11, *bhºruH- ‘eyebrow(s)’, I:712
    *bhºruH-; Watkins 1985:9 *bhrū- (contracted from *bhru˜-) and 2000:13
    *bhrū- (contracted from *bhru˜-) ‘eyebrow’; Mallory—Adams 1997:188
    *bhrúhxs ‘eyebrow’ and 2006:41, 175 *bhrúhxs ‘eyebrow’; Mayrhofer
    1956—1980.II:534—536; Boisacq 1950:733—734 *obhrū- (*obhrēu-) :
    *bhrū-, *bhrēu̯ā in Old Icelandic brá ‘eyelash’ (see below); Frisk 1970—
    1973.II:454—455 bhrū́-s; Chantraine 1968—1980.II:842—843; Hofmann
    1966:246 *bhr-ēus, *bhrū-es (*bhruu̯és); Orël 2003:60......''.

  85. PIE-Dravidian no. 58.
    85. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *pºal-a (metathesized variant *lapº-a in Uralic, Altaic, and
    part of Afrasian) ‘spleen’:
    A. Proto-Afrasian *pal- ~ *lap- (metathesis from *pal-) ‘spleen’: Proto-
    Highland East Cushitic *hifella ‘spleen’ (prefix *hi-, secondary *-e-) >
    Hadiyya hilleffa ‘spleen’; Kambata efeella ‘spleen’; Sidamo efelekk’o
    ‘spleen’. Hudson 1989:140. East Cushitic: Afar aleefu ‘spleen’ (prefix
    *ʔa-, secondary *-e-). West Chadic *lap- ‘spleen’ > Sura llap ‘spleen’;
    Angas lap ‘spleen’; Kulere ma-laf ‘liver’. Orël—Stolbova 1995:358, no.
    1651, *lap- ‘spleen’.
    B. Dravidian: Tuḷu pallè ‘spleen’; Telugu balla ‘enlargement of the spleen’;
    Parji bella ‘spleen’; Kuwi balla, bella, bela ‘spleen’. Burrow—Emeneau
    1984:355, no. 3995.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *(s)phºel-, *(s)phºl̥- ‘spleen’ (plus extensions: *(s)phºelgh
    º-, *(s)phºel-ghº-en-, *(s)phºel-ghº-eA, *(s)phºl-eH-ghº-, *(s)phºl̥-n-ghº-, etc.):
    Sanskrit plīhán- ‘spleen’; Bengali pilihā, pilā ‘spleen’; Hindi pīlha, pilaī
    ‘spleen’; Punjabi lipph ‘enlarged spleen’; Avestan spǝrǝzan- ‘spleen’;
    Armenian pºaycałn ‘spleen’; Greek σπλήν ‘spleen’, (pl.) σπλάγχνα ‘the
    inward parts’; Latin liēn ‘spleen’; Old Irish selg ‘spleen’; Breton felc’h
    ‘spleen’; Old Church Slavic slězena ‘spleen’; Russian selezenka [селезëнка] ‘spleen’. Pokorny 1959:987 *sp(h)elĝh(en, -ā), *splenĝh-,
    *splē̆ĝh- ‘spleen’; Walde 1927—1932.II:680 *sp(h)elĝh(en, -ā), *splenĝh-,
    *splē̆ĝh-; Mann 1984—1987:1253 *spelēĝhnos, -ā (*spelǝĝhnos, -ā;
    *splī̆ĝhēn-) ‘spleen’; Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.II:815 *sp[º]elĝ[º]- and
    1995.I:715 *spºelĝº- ‘spleen’; Mallory—Adams 1997:538 *spelĝh-
    ‘spleen’; Watkins 1985:63 *spelgh- and 2000:82 *spelgh- ‘spleen, milt’;
    Mayrhofer 1956—1980.II:385—386 *sphl-ǵh-, *sphl-i-ǵh-, *sphl-i-ǝ-ǵh-,
    *sphl-n̥-ǵh-; Burrow 1973:134, fn. 1; Boisacq 1950:899; Frisk 1970—
    1973.II:769—770; Hofmann 1966:329—330 *sp(h)elĝh(en), *splenĝh-,
    *splē̆ĝh-; Chantraine 1968—1980.II:1039—1040; De Vaan 2008:340;
    Ernout—Meillet 1979:357—358; Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.I:799.

  86. PIE-Dravidian no. 59. I remember, we talked about this.
    91. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *pºal-a ‘settlement, settled place’:
    A. Dravidian: Tamil paḷḷi ‘hamlet, herdsman’s village, hermitage, temple
    (especially of Buddhists and Jains), palace, workshop, sleeping place,
    school room’; Malayalam paḷḷi ‘hut, small settlement of jungle tribes,
    public building, place of worship for Buddhists or foreigners, mosque,
    royal couch’; Kannaḍa paḷḷi, haḷḷi ‘settlement, abode, hamlet, village’,
    paḷḷiru ‘to rest, to inhabit’; Telugu palli ‘hut’, palliya, palle ‘small village’.
    Krishnamurti 2003:8 *paḷḷ-i ‘hamlet’; Burrow—Emeneau 1984:358, no.
    B. Proto-Indo-European *pºl̥H- ‘fortified settlement’: Sanskrit pū́r (gen. sg.
    puráḥ) ‘rampart, wall, stronghold, fortress, castle, city, town’; Greek πόλις
    (Homeric πτόλις) ‘city, citadel’; Lithuanian pilìs ‘castle’; Latvian pils
    ‘castle’. Pokorny 1959:799 *pel- ‘citadel, fortified high place’; Walde
    1927—1932.II:51 (*pel-), *pelǝ-; Mann 1984—1987:1008 *pul- (*pulos,
    *puls) ‘stronghold, gateway’; Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.II:744 *p[º]eland
    1995.I:648 *pºel- ‘fortress, fortified city’; Watkins 1985:49 *pelǝ- and
    2000:64 *pelǝ- ‘citadel, fortified high place’; Mallory—Adams 1997:210
    *pelhx- ‘fort, fortified place’; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.II:327; Boisacq
    1950:802; Hofmann 1966:279; Chantraine 1968—1980.II:926—927; Frisk
    1970—1973.II:576—577; Prellwitz 1905:378—379; Fraenkel 1962—
    1965.I:590—591; Smoczyński 2007.1:458.
    C. Uralic: Proto-Finno-Ugrian *pal¦з ‘village, dwelling place’ > (?) Finnish
    palva- in some place-names; (?) Karelian palvi ‘dwelling-place,
    habitation’; Hungarian falu/falva- ‘village, hamlet’; Ostyak / Xanty pugǝl
    (< *-l¦-), pugǝt ‘village’; Vogul / Mansi põõwl ‘village’. Collinder
    1955:77 and 1977:94; Joki 1973:359—360; Rédei 1986—1988:351
    *pal¦з; Sammallahti 1988:548 *pålwå ‘village; idol’.
    D. (?) Proto-Altaic *pi̯ălagV ‘fortress, group of houses’: Proto-Tungus
    *palVga ‘a group of houses’ > Manchu falɢa ‘clan, tribe; all the people
    living on one street, quarter of a town’. Proto-Mongolian *balaga-sun
    ‘city, fortress’ > Written Mongolian bal¦asu(n) ‘city, town’; Khalkha
    balgas ‘city, town; ruins of the site of an ancient town’; Buriat balgāha(n),
    balgān ‘hovel’; Kalmyk bal¦əsṇ ‘city, fortress’; Ordos balɢasu, balɢus
    ‘city, fortress’; Monguor ba(r)ɢāsə, warɢāsə ‘city fortress’; Dagur balga,
    balag ‘house, dwelling place’. Proto-Turkic *bialïk ‘city, fortress’ > Old
    Turkic (Orkhon, Old Uighur) balïq ‘city, fortress’; Karakhanide Turkic
    balïq ‘city, fortress’; Sary-Uighur balïq, paluq ‘city, fortress’; Chuvash
    püler ‘city, fortress’. Starostin—Dybo—Mudrak 2003:1092 *pi̯ălagV ‘fortress, group of houses’. At least some (possibly all) of these forms may
    be loanwords (from Uralic ?) (cf. Sinor 1981).
    Buck 1949:19.15 city, town. Illič-Svityč 1971—1984.III:89—93, no. 368,
    *p‘algʌ ‘fortified settlement’; Bomhard—Kerns 1994:249, no. 55; Hakola
    2000:131, no. 572; Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 1700, *pala[ɡ]a ‘settlement,
    home, wall’.

    Not sure if this can be added: