Sunday, 13 March 2016

Sumerian and Indo-European: a multifarious connection

In my first post on this topic, I focused on an exploration of the connections between Sumerian and Indo-European roots and words, neglecting the possible connections with other linguistic families except some citations of Akkadian or Kartvelian parallels.

But checking these other connections is important in order to ascertain if an apparent Sumerian/Indo-European parallel is not a loan or a specific relation, but only the appearance of two results of a root which is spread in a much wider area.
Sumerian, in its apparent isolation, has been compared with very different linguistic families. One is even Austric, which seems especially strong in grammatical morphology (see here).
A more lexical comparison has been made with Dravidian, by Boisson and Sathasivam (see here).
This comparison has also been widened to Afro-Asiatic (see here).
And finally to the so called 'Nostratic', involving all these families except Austric (see here).

Some Sumerian words that we have compared with Indo-European are traced also in other linguistic families, like tab 'to burn' or zalag 'to shine' in Austric, tag 'to touch' in Afro-Asiatic and Dravidian, kur 'mountain' in Austric and Afro-Asiatic, and so on.

This can suggest that both Sumerian and Indo-European belong to a broad (Southern) Asian linguistic area, and impose caution about direct connections. But if we discover that a parallel is found only between Sumerian and Indo-European, there are more probabilities that the direct connection is there.

Another point to be considered is the possibility that different Indo-European languages lent words to Sumerian, kentum and satem for instance, in different periods.


  1. This can suggest that both Sumerian and Indo-European belong to a broad (Southern) Asian linguistic area, and impose caution about direct connections. But if we discover that a parallel is found only between Sumerian and Indo-European, there are more probabilities that the direct connection is there.


    Another point to consider is the possibility that different Indo-European languages lent words to Sumerian, kentum and satem for instance, in different periods.


    But as far I have seen, Sumerian share the largest amount of loan words with IE.

    Perhaps, we can also suggest, sometimes that, there were borrowings from IE just not in Sum. but also in other West Asian Languages.

    Its of course a bit difficult to distinguish between borrowing and common ancestry, like Turkic show some good word sharing with IE , but we know its most likely a result of clear borrowing from IE.

    Linguistics is of course not physics , there are several underlying possibilities which can make things rather vague. The best we can do is establish a pattern , a pattern which is technically clear...

    Ah yes, for those who are interested , connections between IE and other languages are also there, for example with Basque:

    There are also some affinity between Hurro-Urartian and IE.

    So saying that notable connection only exist between IE and Uralic is pure nonsense.

  2. About Sum. zalag "bright", I've seen also a comparison with the Hungarian word for "star", csillag:

  3. In a paper about satem in Anatolian, I encountered this comparison:
    Hittite šuppi = pure and Skt. śubh- = bright

    I think it is comparable with this Sumerian word:
    šuba "(to be) multicoloured; (to be) manly; young man; (to be) pure; (to be) clear; (to be) bathed" Akk. bitrāmu; ellu; eţlu; ramku

    There is also a Greek word σάφα sapha “clearly” adj. of saphēs σαφής = clear, plain. Chantraine mentions it has been compared to the Hittite word šuppi- pure by Szemerenyi.

    Hittite šuppi- is found at the name of the Hittite king Supiluliumas (“Pure Spring”)’ perhaps also at the name of the poetess Σαπφώ Sappho of Lesbos island.
    Look here:

    I guess that Skt. śubh- should be from a kentum form (ś < k). Any ideas about possible candidates?
    We have already discussed about a similar Sum. word (sud) at a previous post.

    1. Giacomo,
      I find it quite convincing.

      There is also a related Arabic word-

    2. Sorry Its of Persian origin.

    3. I suppose Skt. śubhra “bright, clear, spotless, radiant etc” is of this root.

      Searching at Hesychius’ lexicon I found the word σώφρων sōphrōn; its normal meaning is “of sound mind: sane, moderate, sensible, prudent". But the lemma of Hesychius states: · φρόνιμος phronimos [ “prudent”] . καθαρός katharos [clean], ἁγνός hagnos [pure].

    4. Yes, śubhra is from that root, with -ra suffix, but about σώφρων, I see no reason to doubt the etymology from sao- 'sound' and phron- 'mind'.
      About the connection of śubh- with šuppi/suppi- 'pure', it seems good, and would suggest that the root was not kubh- in this case. Pokorny did not find parallels in kentum languages, although he supposed that kubh- was an extension of the same k'u- found in k'uk- (Greek kyknos). There is also German sauber 'clean, pure', with many Germanic cognates like OHG sūbar and OE sȳfre: it has been connected with Latin sobrius 'sober', but it seems really strange semantically, and OE f does not fit...

      So, what is the root? It seems *śubh- in Skt., sup- (or śup-?) in Anatolian and Germanic.

      saf is of Persian origin in Hindi, but it is Arabic. Here is the Semitic root *ṣVpVʔ-/*ṣVpVw-:

      It has also AfroAs. (Chadic) cognates with cap/cuf-. Arabic ṣafā 'to be clear, pure', is very close to Greek σάφα sapha “clearly” adj. of saphēs σαφής = clear, plain.
      In Akkadic, ṣapū means 'to soak, drench' and also 'dyed'. Not clean, but the relation with bathing in a liquid suggests that it is the same root.

      So, is this a Semitic or an IE root? The sound ṣ- (ts) in Semitic is significant, and can explain maybe Skt. ś. But it can also be a parallel evolution of *k'- like Luwian z-.

      About Sum. šuba, it can be related to śubha, but the meaning multicoloured reminds also śabala/śabara 'variegated, spotted' of unclear etymology.

    5. Isn't this the same (or a similar) word, which has been suggested as a cognate of Kerberos?

    6. Yes, it is an interesting case because we have also in Skt. karvara/karbara/karbura/karbu 'variegated, spotted', and śarvara with the same meaning. It shows kentum forms in Skt. beside the more common satem ones.
      Pokorny adds this:

      " slav. sobolь`Zobel' scheint aus dem Arischen zu stammen.
      Die Wz. kerb- sucht Lidén Stud. 50 f. in air. corbaim `besudle, beflecke' und lit. kìrba (> lett. ḱirba) `Sumpf, Morast' und betrachtet *kerb- als Erweiterung der Farbwz. ker- (s. S. 583 kers-)"

      Since the root is apparently k'rv/b-, very far from šuba, I think it is more probable that the Sum. meaning multicoloured has to do with the concept of dye, bathing in colour (like Akk. ṣap/ṣup-), or of beautiful and shining (śubha).

    7. Maybe ker- is connected somehow to the root k^eu-, there is also an armenian word surb, meaning “holy, bright” from the same root of Skt. *śubh-.

      Another thing I found curious is tha, taccording to dnghu, the root k^uon / k^un for “dog” is supposed to be a “derivative from the color root k̂eu-2” (k^uon / k^un gines Skt. śvā́ and ś(u)vā́ for "dog").

    8. I think that a root *kerb- looks (almost) like an inverted form of *perk, prek- = “spotted, speckled”. Also śub- śup (if not from keu-b) could be related (as a satemized inverted form of it) to the root *peig, peik- “colored, speckled”. Maybe there is a root *p(r)ek- *p(r)eik *p(r)euk (a root sprei-, spreu- is already thought to be connected).

      Pokorny’s roots here:

    9. I'v noticed also this root from Starostin:
      Eurasiatic: *ṗVšV
      Meaning: to rub, crumble
      Borean: Borean

      Indo-European: Hitt. pes- 'rub, scrub'
      Altaic: *p`ísi(KV)
      Kartvelian: *pšw-en- / pšwn-
      Dravidian: *pū[c]-

      Comments: Cf. *pV[z]V
      References: ND 1816 *P_ušV 'to rub, smear' (+ Akk.).; 1819 *ṗ[äy]ŝ[i] ~ *ṗiŝ[i] 'to crush, break to pieces' (+IE *peis-, see *pi(u)č̣V).

      Maybe also connected to Sum. peš [SLICE] wr. peš6 "to slice" (Akk. paşādu)?

    10. Searching about Hittite pes- "rub, scrub", I found this interesting study about this word (also about wen-) and male virility.

  4. Another proposal, concerning also Sumerian-IE-Akkadian connection:

    From ePSD: Sum. peš, wr. peš5 "to anoint", Akk. pašāšu.
    Halloran: peš 5,6, v., “to make an incision”

    and IE root 1. peig-, and peik- 'colored, speckled'

    Also, from dnghu: (Root / lemma: peig-1 and peik-)
    English meaning: coloured, speckled, German meaning: `Kennzeichnen durch einritzen or förben; bunt, farbig' (besides words for `stechen'
    Material: A. Old Indian piŋktē (unbel.) `malt', piŋga-, piŋgalá- `reddish, brown', pinjára- `reddish, golden'; gr. πίγγαλος (Hes.) `Eidechse', πίγγαν `Köcken' Hes.; lat. pingō, -ere, pinxī, pictum `malen; with the needle prick', pictor `Maler'; abg. pěgъ `varicolored'; toch. A pik-, pek- `schreiben, malen' (pekant- `Maler'), В pink-, pai(y)k- `schreiben'.
    Maybe alb. pikë `dot, stain', pis `dirty, stained'
    B. Old Indian piṃśáti `haut from (esp. Fleisch), cuts, slices zurecht, gestaltet, schmökt', pḗśaḥ- n., pēśa- m. `shape, form, paint, color', pēśalá- `verziert; mellifluous; skilful' (compare ποικίλος); piśáŋga- `reddish, reddish brown', piśa- m. `Dammhirsch' etc.; perhaps śilpá- `varicolored', whether from*piślá- (Tedesco, Lang. 23, 383 ff.);
    Maybe alb. pis `dirty, stained'
    av. paēs- `farbig make, adorn', paēsa- m. paēsah- n. `jewellery, Zierat', Old pers. ni-pištā `niedergeschrieben', av. fra-pixšta- `verziert';
    gr. ποικίλος `varicolored'; πικρός `sharp (of Pfeil), bitter, shrilly, screaming, feindselig' (formal = abg. pьstrъ `varicolored'); lat. pignus, -oris `pledge' (if `festgestecktes'ö); got. filu-faihs `very mannigfaltig' (compare Old Indian puru-pēśa- `mannigfaltig'), ahd. as. fēh `varicolored', ags. fāh, fāg `varicolored', whereof aisl. fā (*faihōn) `förben, adorn', fā rūnar `Runen ritzen' (originally `red förben'), fāinn `bunt dappled', ags. fāgian, ahd. fēhen `adorn';
    lit. piẽšti `malen, schreiben', paĩšas, piẽšas `Rußfleck', piešà `smut', paĩšinas, puišinas, puišus `rußig, dirty, filthy', išpaišãu `adumbrō'; Old Prussian peisāi `sie schreiben'; Old Church Slavic pišǫ pьsati `schreiben', pьstrъ (= πικρός) `varicolored', pьstrǫgъ `Forelle' (also рьsъ `dog' from the Farbe genannt.

    Satem forms are very near, I think.

    1. The afro-asiatic root is this one:

    2. Thanks! So, I think that Sum. peš (with only one attestation, btw) is here rather related to Akkadian, but the link between Afro-As. and IE seems good here. If Starostin is right that the root is *pVĉ-, we can suppose that the original consonant was ć/ḱ, which became š in Semitic and in satem languages, but not in kentum ones.

      It reminds the case of Akk. šrh 'to take pride, to make splendid, to glorify' and ḱriH- 'glory', although there apparently involved only Akkadian (, unless there is a relation with this:
      Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *čir-
      Meaning: shine, light
      Egyptian: šsr (gr) 'shine'
      Western Chadic: *čyar- 'light' (n.)
      So, a way of explaining these parallels can be that there are common roots between Afro-Asiatic and IE. It is also interesting that besides Semitic appears Chadic, because Chadic people have a high concentration of R1b1c-V88, a branch of R1b, a haplogroup very common in IEs.

    3. Interesting remark about Chadic, it seems that this population emigrated from the Levant back to Africa 7000 years ago, according to this:

    4. Btw isn't proto Afro-asiatic *pVĉ- 'distribute, divide' close to IE *bhag- 'to divide, apportion'?

    5. There is also this AA root:

      Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *paĉ-
      Meaning: card, comb
      Semitic: *nVpuŝ- 'separate wool with fingers, card'
      Western Chadic: *paĉ- 'comb hair' 1, 'untie' 2
      Notes: Related to *pVĉ- 'distribute, divide'?

      Halloran’s Sumerian Lexicon: peš5,6: n., deep breathing; scent; spider; combed wool, fluff (cf., aš(5), 'spider'). v., to breathe deeply; to make an incision; to pluck apart; to comb and clean wool.
      (btw, Halloran gives also “to anoint (redupl.)” at his 2006 edition.)

    6. Pokorny's root (from dnghu)
      Root / lemma: pek̂-2

      English meaning: to fleece; cattle

      German meaning: `Wolle or Haare rupfen, zausen'

      Material: Old Indian páśu-, paśú- n., Gen. paśváḥ; paśú- m. `Vieh'; av. pasu- m. `Vieh' (mostly still `small cattle'), in compound fśū̆-, -fśū̆-, wherewith Old Indian kšu-mā́n- `nahrungsreich', puru-kšú ds. (twice also basic kśu) as Diss.-forms for pśu- identical; = lat. pecū, -ūs n. `a head of cattle, beast, brute, animal, one of a herd', next to which pecus, -oris n. (formal = gr. τὸ πέκος), pecus, -ŭdis f. ds.; derivatives pecūnia `property, riches, wealth', pecūlium `property'; umbr. pequo Pl. n. `pecua'; = got. faíhu `possession, fortune', aisl. fē, ags. feoh, as. fehu, ahd. fihu `Vieh'; = lit. pekus, Old Prussian pecku `Vieh' (westidg. Gutt.); got. bi-, ga-faíhon `öbervorteilen' are after W. Wissmann (The öltesten Postverbalia 79 ff.) Denominativa from faíhu, and bi-faíh `deceit' is noun post-verbal;

      arm. asr, Gen. asu `Schafwolle, Fließ', asveɫ `fleecy' (*pok̂u + r, with а from о in offenerAnlautsilbe); gr. πέκω (= lit. pešù), πέκτω (= lat. pectō, ahd. fehtan), πεκτέω `comb, schere', πέκος n. `Fließ, wool', πόκος m.; `Fließ', κτείς, κτενός `comb' (from zero grade *πκτεν-; lat. pecten);

      alb. pilë `tool zum Flachskömmen, -hecheln' (*pek̂lā); lat. pectō, -ere, pexī `comb', pecten, -inis `comb', umbr. petenata `pectinatam'; ahd. as. fehtan, ags. feohtan `fechten'; ahd. as. fahs, ags. feax `(head)-haar', aisl. fax `Möhne' (*-pok̂-s-o-, compare den es-stem πέκος), aisl. fǣr, aschwed. fār `sheep' (*fahaz = πόκος), aschwed. fǣt (*fahti-) `wool, Fließ', ags. feht `Fließ', ndl. vacht f. `wool, Schur', ags. fihl `a piece of cloth, garment of cloth'; lit. pešù, pèšti `pluck, an den Haaren zausen', Iter. pašýti, susipẽšti `to tear, rend'.

      Here probably Old Indian pakṣ-man- n. `eyelashes, hair', pakṣ-malá- `with starken eyelashes, dichthaarig', av. pašna- n. `eyelid', compare in not so spezialisierter meaning np. pašm `wool'. common Old Indian -ĝh- > -kṣ- : Avestan -ĝh- > -xš-, -š- phonetic mutation

    7. This Sum. word exists also in Foxvog's "Elementary Sumerian Glossary" as peš5 "to card wool":

    8. Looks good-

    9. Yes, if Sum. peš means 'to card wool' it looks comparable to IE *paḱ/peḱ- 'to fleece, to comb'.
      The Sum. word seems to be connected with Akk. napāšu 'to comb, to pluck apart' (, which has also the meaning 'to breathe, to become wide', corresponding to the Sumerogram peš5:
      Also ePSD gives napāšu as one of the equivalents of Sum. peš 'thick'.
      There is also peš6 'tuft' corresponding to Akk. nipšu, from the same root, that clearly corresponds to the Semitic root cited above, although Starostin does not cite Akkadian. The presence of na- is maybe a prefix, from the root *paĉ-.
      However, the connection of breathing or becoming wide and combing or plucking wool is not evident, in Semitic we have apparently two identical roots with two meanings. For breathing in AfroAs. the reconstruction is *naPVs-, however is possible that loanwords from Ar. nafs create a wrong picture:

      On the other hand, also IE *peḱ- 'to fleece, comb' and 'fee, cattle' are often distinguished out of Pokorny, like here:

      There is another Akk. verb that looks comparable: bašū 'to be, be available, be owned', sometimes written napšu (CDA). It gives bīšu and būšum 'possessions, property', which reminds Latin pecunia 'property':

    10. There is also root *bhes "blow", surely connected to the meaning of "brathing".

      Pokorny's lemma: bhes-2
      English meaning: to blow
      German meaning: `hauchen, blasen'
      Note: probably onomatopoeic words

      Material: Old Indian bábhasti `blows', bhástrā f. `bellows, hose', bhasát f. `rump', bháṁsas n. `abdominal part';
      gr. ψύ̄-χω psykhō` blow' (to suffix s. Hirt Idg. Gr. 3, 256), ψῡχή psykhē` breath, breeze, soul'.
      Here probably ψύ̄-χω psychō` cools off' (originally through blast), ψῦχος psykhos `coldness', ψῡχρόs psykhros`cold' etc in spite of Benveniste BSL. 33, 165 ff.; after Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 329 onomatopoeic, as also ψίθυρος psithyros` lisping'.

    11. I'm not sure about this, bat the ePSD has also peš "a bird". Pokorny gives a Root / lemma: bhāso- or bhēso-

      English meaning: a kind of a large bird of prey

      German meaning: `größere Raubvogelart'

      Material: Old Indian bhāsa-ḥ `a certain bird of prey'; gr. hom. att. φήνη phēnē `an eagle kind, probably Vultur monachus', was possible from *bhās-nā or *bhēs-nā; also *bhānā (to bhā-1).

    12. Difficult to judge since we don't know which bird is peš, which has only one old attestation.
      Comparison of Sum. peš 'to breathe' with Greek psy-che is worth considering. The existence of IE *bhes- is not sure, Skt. words with bhas- are not clearly related. Instead, in RV we have a word -psu, according to Mayrhofer meaning '(vital) breath'
      (Lebenshauch, Atemhauch). So, the root would be rather *psu-.
      It is interesting that in Akkadian there is also pašū 'to exhale'...

      Starostin connects it with this root *pVt_Vʔ/w/y- ~ *pVwVt_-

      But there is also this Sem. root *pšu/psu-, somewhat less metaphysical than psyche ;) but not so far in meaning:
      Proto-Semitic: *pšw {} *psw
      Meaning: to break wind silently
      Akkadian: pašû 'leise furzen' OA, OB on [AHw 846]
      Arabic: fsw 'lâcher un vent (qu'on n'entend pas)' [BK 2 595]; fissat- 'pet' [ibid. 591]
      Geʕez (Ethiopian): fasawa 'to break wind' [LGz 168]

    13. Thanks for these valuable remarks ;) There is also the root peis-, speis- 'to blow, fizz' with spiro, spiritus etc.

      And of course pezd and perd for "fart":

      Maybe all these are connected somehow to the root odf psyche (psu-).

    14. The root *(s)pis- apparently has a similar fate as *psu-: on one side the soul (spiritus), on the other the fart:
      It is also the closest to Sum. peš.
      But it is interesting that Greek and Vedic psu- are close to Semitic, while other IE languages don't have this form.

    15. These roots *psu and *(s)pis seem to be satem. I was wondering if peš is a satem like version of Sum. paĝ “breathe” (Akk. napīšu) we were discussing about at the previous posts.
      A possible root like "pankh" resembles to egyptian ankh and some similar Nostratic comparisons:

    16. Also look at this:

    17. About the name of the bird, I remembered also Gr. φάσσα phassa, which looks similar to the Sanskrit word, but it's not a bird of prey, it's the wild pigeon.

  5. About Sum. peš "fig; fig tree" Akk. tittu (481 instances), I guess that we can imagine also a root similar to *pVĉ; then it could be msaybe connected to the root of "fig"” certainly not of IE, perhaps of Semitic origin, though more probably related to some unknown language (maybe proto-Sumerian?).

    fig from Latin fīcus (“fig tree”), from a pre-Indo European language, perhaps Phoenician[script needed] (pagh, “ripe fig”) (compare Classical Hebrew פַּגָּה paggâ, “early fallenfig”, Classical Syriac paggāʾ, dialectal Arabic faġġ, fiġġ).
    Another Semitic root (compare Akkadian [script needed] (tīʾu, “fig”)) was borrowedinto Ancient Greek as σῦκον (sûkon) (Boeotian τῦκον (tûkon)) and Armenian asթուզ (tʿuz); whence English sycophant.

    1. This is not IE, and it is speculative and dubious, but it may be interesting (if you think otherwise, you can delete this message).
      I was thinking about the possibility of the initial labial in Sum peš = fig, fig tree, (also peš “palm frond” according to Halloran) beeing evolved from some older labiovelar “kʷ”; one could notice for example that a nasal labiovelar is found in Sum. “ĝeš = "wood, tree". I had also in mind our conversation about the gourd (Lat. cucurbita and Gr. kolokynthe, but also sikya/ sekoua/ kikyiza / pepon in Greek) at the 3rd post; I remembered then the “hapax legomenon” Hebrew kikayon, the plant mentioned in the book of Jonas in Old Testament, translated usually as gourd (kolokynthe – cucurbita) but more precisely as palm tree, ivy (Gr. κισσός kissos) or rather as the “castor oil plant” (ricinus); in Egyptian this word is given usually as κίκι kiki; in shape this plant looks like a vine or a fig tree; at Hesychius one can find also the word κικίρδης kikirdes συκῆ syke, “fig-tree”). So I thought that maybe Syriac paggâ ( < pa(n)gâ?) / Sumerian peš ( k in kiki, kʷ > t, in Akkadian ti’ittu and kʷ > p as the initial word of paggâ and peš), the possible root maybe been similar to kʷekʷ- or rather (n)kʷe(n)kʷ- and then borrowed into Ancient Greek as σῦκον sykon in Boeotian τῦκον (tykon) and Armenian asթուզ (t’uz). Another curious Greek word for “fig” νικύλεον nikyleon, maybe comes from a similar root, indicating an initial nasal labiovelar (n)kʷ (like in Sum. ĝeš = “tree”).

      About Akkadian ti’ittu < tintu, and all these doubtful connections see here:

  6. About Sum. peš = (to be) thick, I am posting Nirjhar's proposal (I think IT WAS at the second post), Daniel put it again later (at the third post), but let's have it (once more) (with all of Pokorny's words, from dnghu).

    Root / lemma: bhenĝh-, bhn̥ĝh- (Adj. bhn̥ĝhú-s)
    English meaning: thick, fat
    German meaning: `dick, dicht, feist'
    Material: Old Indian bahú- `dense, rich, much, a lot of' `compounds Sup. baṁhīyas-, baṁhišṭha- (= gr. παχύς);
    bahulá- `thick, dense, vast, spacious, big, large, rich, much, a lot of' (= gr. παχυλῶς pakhylōs Adv. by Aristot., if these not newer formation); báṁhatē (uncovered) `increase, multiply', bháṁhayatē `clamps, fastens, strengthens';
    av. bązah- n. `height, depth', bąšnu- m. ds., bal. bāz `much, a lot of', baz `dense';
    gr. παχύς pakhys `thick, dense, fat, obese' (compounds πᾰσσων passōn), πάχος n. pakhos `thickness, fatness' (occurs after παχύς pakhys for *πέγχος penkhos = av. bązah-), πάχετος pakhetos `thick; thickness, fatness';
    aisl. bingr `heap', aschwed. binge ds., ahd. bungo `tuber, bulb', nhd. Bachbunge; in addition with intens. consonant-sharpening aisl. bunki `stowed away shipload', norw.bunka (and bunga) `small heap, swelling, blister', ndl. bonk `clump, lump' under likewise;
    Alb. bungë `kind of edible oak fruit' : with -u- grade alb. (*beuka) buka `bread' : phryg. βεκός `bread', actually `crumb' prove that from an extended Root / lemma:b(e)u-1, bh(e)u- : `expr. sound of hitting' derived Root / lemma: bheg-, bheng- : `to break', Root / lemma: bhenĝh-, bhn̥ĝh- (Adj. bhn̥ĝhú-s) : `thick, fat', Root / lemma: bheug-1 : `to flee, *be frightened', Root / lemma: bheug-2, bheugh- : `to clear away, free', Root / lemma: bheug-3, bheugh- : `to bow', Root / lemma:bheug-4 : `to enjoy, *consume, bite' as taboo words.
    lett. bìezs `dense, thick', bìezums `thickness, fatness';
    lat. pinguis `fat; oily; rich, fertile; n. as subst. fatness, fat. Transf. thick, dense; heavy, stupid; easy, quiet' has perhaps originated through hybridization of *fingu-is = παχύς, bahú- with that to opīmus, πίων respective words;
    toch. В pkante, pkatte `greatness, bulk, extent' (Van Windekens Lexique 96);
    hitt. pa-an-ku- (panku-) `all, in general'.
    References: WP. II 151, Couvreur H̯ 177.
    Page(s): 127-128

  7. Sum. peš "three; to do something three times" (Akk. šalašti) is maybe connected to peš = (to be) thick; also the Sumerian ternary system is based on this number peš = 3 (the "normal" word for "three" is "eš").
    This is an interesting draft about the Sumerian ternary system:

    One could also tell that peš reminds the IE root for "five" (penkwe). For example, in Albanian, "five" is pes; also in Tocharian B it is piś.

  8. An interesting article about hitt. pa-an-ku-š, Latin conctus and indoeuropean reconstructions signifying "whole, total".$002fj$002findo.1993.98.issue-1$002f9783110243390.40$002f9783110243390.40.pdf?t:ac=j$002findo.1993.98.issue-1$002f9783110243390.40$002f9783110243390.40.xml

    We have also met an old Sum. word kiš "totality", also "world"; one could imagine also a possible kw > p (kiš > peš ?).

    1. Thanks, the correspondence of cunctus and panku seems good, only I would reverse, I think that kw- must be normally antecedent to p and never a product of evolution from p. I find quite absurd that they derive quinque from penkwe, for instance. An original evolution happened in Sardinia, where in a dialect quinque became kimbe.

      kiš theoretically can come from kwis-, so you mean that peš 'three' meant also 'total'? But why these two different evolutions of kw-? Maybe one before i, the other before e? It would be close to what happened in that Sardinian dialect...

    2. I also was thinking about an archaic initial kw- for the root of IE "five"; do you think that such a reconstruction *kwenkwe fits to all these reflexes, like in Sanskrit for example? In Greek I think it fits, pe < kwe it's normal, but one would expect also some type with an initial t- (like tel- < kwel-, for example) which does not exist.
      About peš = 3, I thought about a same root meaning "all" or "total" used in both IE quinary and Sumerian ternary systems (5 is half or 10 and 3 half of 6). I remembered also kišib = hand; another word kišib means "a rodent" and there is another peš meaning also "a rodent"; all that lead me to think about a possibility of some archaic labiovelar kw-, evolving sometimes in k- sometimes in p-, giving these words of similar meaning. I don't have a theory why they may have evolved like this; your answer is giving a clue.
      In Greek there are some words with no satisfactory etymology, like πάγχυ pankhy and πάνυ pany meaning "wholly" or even πάν pan meaning "everything"; another word is κόσμος kosmos "order, world" which I don't understand why they compare it with Latin censeo. Sum. kiš seems to be closer in meaning, I think.

    3. About kosmos, it does not mean originally 'world' but 'order, ornament', I also find difficult the connection with *ḱans- 'to praise', maybe rather from *ḱas- 'to cut', giving also Lat. castus 'pure'. 'Cutting' (e.g. wood, trees, beards) could be associated with form and order.

      About IE *penkwe, my idea of the root is *kwan-kwǝ. The first kw- became p- very early in most IE dialects, except proto-Italic and Celtic, so Greek pente evolved from *penkwe, Sanskrit pañca (pronounced pañcǝ) from *pankwǝ. The final -kwǝ is possibly the same as the common conjunction 'and' of Latin -que, Greek -te, Skt. ca, Hittite -ku. So, Greek pan 'all' is a normal evolution of *kwan 'all' that we find also in Lat. cunctus (cf. Old Latin quinctus).
      In Toch. A 'five' is simply päñ, but it is supposed from *p'äñś giving piś in Toch. B:

    4. Kosmos means “an ordered, harmonious whole” and hence “world, universe” (“ornament” is also a secondary meaning), I think the same as in Sumerian kiš (whole > world).
      As for the IE root of 5, I think that it is a very interesting opinion of yours; we can assume then that *kwan-kwǝ came from an expression like kwan kwan-kwǝ (like “all and all”, meaning 5 and 5), perhaps due to a shift from a quinary to a bi-quinary system? But then, in a new decimal system *kwan should be “half”, maybe that’s why keš in Armenian (from kwen-s? like the Tocharian B *p'äñś > piś, only with k?) means “half” - one could say the same for the *kes/kas root for cut”; maybe also the same for the root *tam/tem for “cut” (like Gr. τέμνω); it may have evolved from a similar root *kwam /*kwem, which may have given also the *km part in *de-km (2 fives, for ten).
      BTW, the discussion about the meanings of “whole”, “order”, “cutting”, “half” etc reminds me the discussion about Sum. kilib at the first post.

    5. (Parenthesis: about the possibility of a root *tam/tem from *kwam/kwem, there is also another dubious Gr. verb τέμνω temno, a gloss in Hesychius, meaning "to milk", sometimes connected to Skt. cā́mati and Pokorny's root *kwem = "to sip, to swallow").

    6. About a possible *kwan root, one is tempted to make a comparison with Sumerian "gu" words, like gu2 "entirety, sum, total" (Akk. nagbu; napharu), gudirig "total", gukin "villages, settlements; the inhabited world; totality, world" (Akk. dadmū; kiššatu) and especially gu'anše "total".
      Also, from Foxvog, gú-en(-na) throne room, audience hall, lit. 'assembly or totality of lords' (Marchesi, MC 14, 232 n. 13); in Halloran is given gu-en "assembly, entire assemblage, assembly chamber, throne room".

    7. From what I see on Liddell-Scott (, the meaning of kosmos as world is philosophical and late, and the sense of ornament does not have a connection with totality.
      About the -kwe suffix in *penkwe, I remember having seen it in some article, it's not my invention. Maybe it is due to the fact that in enumerations in a quinary system the last number was followed by -kwǝ to conclude the series 'and all (the hand)'. But maybe that suffix had also other meanings, in Latin que is used also to create indefinite pronouns and adverbs, like quisque 'everyone' and ubique 'everywhere'.

      About kw>t, in Greek it is admissible only in front of e/i, isn't it? Otherwise it becomes p or k.

    8. First, I wish to all western Christians a Happy Easter for today. About kw > t, well, yes, if we are talking about Greek, though I'm not quite sure about a pre-Greek situation; also, the stem of τέμνω temno "cut" fluctuates between tem- and tam-; there are also some types with zero grade tm-.
      I was thinking something about the -km (k'm) in dek'm - if we can assume a possible connection to a *quem root; that maybe we can also connect it with the root *sem (for "one", "as one") and *semi (for "half"), due to an ancient satemization perhaps (I remember Nirjhar's proposal about Sum. ku at the second post; also about Sumerian sa and Skt. sa; then Daniel's talking about a dialects' continuum and an ancient satem/kentum co-existance; also about the derivation of new roots from the older ones).
      But then, is it valid a quem > kem / k'm? I was thinking about a semitic influence, I remembered the Akkadian kima (in Hebrew is ki "if, when, such as"); more precisely, the meaning of "such as, like"; in Sumerian is kim / gin, I think, "the equative suffix". Maybe there is some deeper connection here, perhaps some common root.

    9. Also a possible root *kwan for "all" and "five (fingers)" looks like the chinese word quán "fist" (like in korean "tae-kwon-do", where kwon means fist).
      But the ancient reconstruction of quán seems to be different.

    10. The similarity of Middle Chinese kwan/kwon is quite impressive, but Old Chinese is reconstructed as ghwren:

      It is interesting that in Modern Chinese there is palatalization (quan I think is pronounced as chwen).

      About *daḱṃ- 'ten', the connection with *kwam- sounds cool, although not very rigorous. We can imagine that it comes from dwa-kwam- 'two fists or whole hands',
      with double fall of w, palatalization and a sort of contraction. Phonetically without parallels, I fear, but semantically good.

    11. I saw also this rho in the reconstructed root, but I thought that it could be like prāṇa and Sum. paĝ “breathe”.
      Btw this ghwren looks like γρόνθος gronthos “fist” (the -thos suffix removed)

  9. I just noticed this blog post now! That paper from Bomhard is really old, nealy 30 years old!. His new views are contained in new papers. It's all freely available on his page on

  10. In this recent book, you can find like >100 words connecting PIE, pro Afroa Asiatic and Sumerian.

    1. This one, for example:

  11. Thanks for this, Daniel. I have found meanwhile this blog, I think that the views of the author are remarkable:

    1. Yes bro, we knew about him. He is a unique man with a unique theory of Anatomically Modern Humans originating in the Americas ;)..

      But obviously, there are some useful stuff on linguistics also!.

    2. An interesting remark he does: Lith kumste ‘fist’ (in my dictionary kumštis), OPrus kuntis ‘fist’.

      There is also this Afro-Asiatic root kund- 'hand, fist':

    3. I wonder if we could explain Sum. tibir = "hand, fist", using a labiovelar too (tibir < kwe-kwe(r) perhaps, meaning t < *kw and b = p from *kw). A possible alternative root *gwhen (>*dhen) could give Greek θέναρ thenar = palm of the hand (there is also a type τέναρ tenar). Maybe Latin teneo = "to hold" could be connected too (from *kwen?). Also greek σθένος sthenos = "strength, might, power" (an initial s- assumed here).

    4. I know that in Latin labiovelars are kept intact, but here I'm talking about a proto-IE situation.

    5. It becomes very speculative. The t from kw apparently is attested among IE languages only in Greek before e and i ( It must be due to a palatalization, that gave t as final result, like -tt- in Attic from -kj-. Maybe it happened also in Sum., because also Sum. did not have palatal affricates or stops, but unlikely in PIE where we can reconstruct labiovelars and palatovelars.
      Lat. teneo is derived from *tan/ten- 'to stretch (the hand)':

    6. I just used the pattern of Speirs, who's giving a root *kʷekʷ (instead of *pekʷ-) "to cook", connected by him to the root *tep "to heat" (of Skt. tapati etc), obviously having an initial dental t < kʷ. Maybe it is speculative, or a heretical view, if you like, yet I'm not sure why it's unlikely to have ever happened in the case of some IE labiovelar. A possible root *kʷekʷ reminded me the conversation about cucurbita - sikya "gourd" last month at the previous post.

  12. I’ve noticed something else: at this trinary numeric system, where peš “3” is the base number, number one “1” is called me-er-ga. From O. Edzard’s Grammar, page 66:

    That looks like the murgu words we have discussed at the previous post. From ePSD: merga [FIRST] (1x: Old Babylonian) wr. me-er-ga "first one" (one attestation, about 2000).

    I think that merga is comparable with this Greek word:
    ἄρχων arkhon = ruler, “archon” : one of the nine chief magistrates of ancient Athens, 1650s, from Greek arkhon "ruler," noun use of present participle of arkhein "to rule," from PIE *arkhein- "to begin, rule, command," a "Gk. verb of unknown origin, but showing archaic Indo-European features ... with derivatives arkhe, 'rule, beginning,' and arkhos, 'ruler'.

    The verb is ἄρχω ‎(árkhō) “I am first, I begin, I lead, rule, govern, command. (English has words as monarchy, oligarchy, anarchy etc.)
    Etymology given by wiki: From *h₂ergʰ- ‎(“to begin, rule, command”)[1]. Compare Old Armenian արքայ ‎(arkʿay).

    But there is also another etymology of ἄρχω ‎árkhō (given also by the Greek lexicon I have): from a root m̥rgho:

    About anglosaxon “brego”, here:

    1. I remember that, when we were discussing Sum. barag = "throne, dais, king" at the first post, we could't find a IE parallel for "king"; maybe brego (and archon) could fit.

    2. Dear Kyriakos ,

      I would like to restart the discussion and will also look for correspondence s in Afro Asiatic etc . Would you like to help us again? :) .

    3. Hello Nirjhar,
      sure, I'd like to participate in this discussion again. ;)

    4. welcome back! :) . Yes, its going to be very interesting again .

      We will look to add first some PAA roots and cognates with the Sumerian-IE list which is already quite big . It will be also very nice to find roots which are exclusive to the ''PAA-IE-Sumerian sprachbound'. After the sprachbound will get good amount of weight , we will proceed to add Kartvelian etc :) . Meanwhile we will also think of new cognates of Sum. and IE . I would need your fb or mail to send Bomhards approved PAA list which I am also using as reference :) .

    5. This comment has been removed by the author.

  13. This comment has been removed by the author.


  14. COMMON

  15. Regarding this etymology :

    Sum. amaru 'flood', aĝar 'rainshower, downpour', im, meer (Emesal) 'rain, rainstorm', muru 'rainstorm; mist', Akk. imbaru 'fog, mist, drizzle', murū 'rainstorm'; Sum. ambar 'marsh', PIE *ambh-, ṃbh-, nabh- 'wet, cloud, rain, fog', Greek ombros 'storm of rain, water, inundation', Latin imber 'rain', Skt. ambhas 'water', abhra 'rain cloud', nabhas 'fog, mist, cloud', Old High German nebul 'fog', Latin nebula 'mist, vapour, fog'.
    I propose to add Armenian amp /amb ''cloud'',also with the suggested case that In some derivatives the word perhaps also means “sky” and “thunder”. :

    Also Adding to this ( perhaps discussed before?) Sanskrit also has ambu ''water'' and also ambara ''sky'' , but there are also other interesting meanings for ambara like ''circumference , compass , neighbourhood(MW), atmosphere ,ether Naigh. MBh. &c. ; (hence) a cipher Su1ryas. ; N. of the tenth astrological mansion VarBr2. (MW)''

    Why interesting? Because of a word ampar as discussed here . But IMO connecting ampar and ambara is not very suggestive?.

    1. Giacomo , Thanks for adding the Armenian words which were conclusive . However, don't you think it will be also nice to add a Slavic cognate too?.

    2. Halloran gives a word nab = "ocean" (not in ePSD, which states only a meaning "musician"), maybe there is a connection to this root? (like Neptunus - Neptun, god of the sea).

  16. I am now first Proposing some words from Proto-Afro-Asiatic as per Bomhards 1986 list. With of course Sumerian and IE correspondence -

    1. PAA *den-/*dam- "to become dark": PEC *dum- "to become dark" -+ Oromo dum-esa ''cloud, fog"; Koyra dUma "cloud"; Somali dum- "cloud, fog" connect this with Sum. dungu 'cloud' and PIE root *dhangh/dhn̥gh- 'to cover' discussed about dingir.

    In this case Sumerian looks like has taken from IE . P.238

    2. PAA *dal-/*dal- "to cut, prick, pierce, gash, notch": ECush. Somali dillo'- "to be cracked". PSC *daloS- "to gash, notch" + Burunge dela'-; Kw'adza dala'"
    to shoot (with an arrow)" connect this with Sum. dala 'thorn, pin, needle', IE *dhal(g)- 'to stick; needle', Old Irish delg 'thorn, needle', Welsh dal, dala 'bite, prick, sting', Lat. dolo 'pike, sword-stick, sting', Greek dolon 'dagger', Skt. dhalaṇḍa 'small thorny tree'. Same page .

    3. PAA *t'ar-/*t'ar- "to handle, grasp": PSC *dar- "to
    handle, make with the hands" 238 + Kw'adza dal- "to make, do, prepare"; Ma'a -dara "to grip, hold", -darati "to make fast"; Dahalo dar- "to put a lot of things''.

    This is extremely close to Sum. dari 'to support', PIE *dhar- 'to hold, support'. Again its not possible to suggest the source , so perhaps common ancestry . P.238 again.

    4. PAA *kWal-/*kWel- "to end, bring to an end, complete, finish": PS *kal- (*kal-al-, *kal-ay-) "to complete, be completed", *kull- "all, whole, entire".

    This fits perfectly with Sum. til '(to be) complete(d); to end', PIE *kwal- 'completion of a circle'. Page 242 . Again source is not suggestive , common ancestry possible .

    5. PAA *k'war "highest point, top, peak, summit, hill, mountain, horn" , This we well know to which ones :) . But in this one I sense IE cognates are closer . P.243

  17. 6. PAA * *har- "falcon, hawk": Eg. Hr, Hrw Horus, one of the two
    brother hawk-gods; Copt. hor the god Horus with of course Sum. hurin, urin 'eagle', aru 'eagle'' Akk. urinnu 'eagle', PIE *hara(n)/harn(i/a)- . p.246 . Not enough to suggest the source , very close .

    7. PAA *k'Wer-/*k'war- "to be heavy, weighty": PS *wa-k'ar~ Ar. wakara "to load, burden, overload; to oppress, weigh heavily upon", wikr "heavy load,
    burden"; Hebr. yakar "to be precious, prized, costly", yakar "precious, rare, splendid, weighty"; Aram. yekar "to be heavy, precious";Cush. Burji
    k'urk'-a "heavy", k'Ur>k'-e "weight", k'urk'-ed "to become heavy; to conceive,
    become pregnant" with PIE Sum. gur '(to be) thick; (to be) big, to feel big', PIE *gwr/gwar- 'heavy' . I bet on IE on this one ;) but again its not clear , so perhaps common ancestry . p. 249 .

  18. 8 . PAA *lak'-/*lak'- "to gather, collect": PS *lak'-at'- + Hebr. lakat "to gather up, pick up"; Akk. • lakiitu "to collect, gather"; Ar. la~ata "to gather, pick up, collect". PS *lak'-an- + Ar. lakina "to gather, infer, teach". Ps· *lak' -am- + Eth. lakama "to pick"; Gurage lakama "to pick, pick up"; Tna. lakama "to pick, pluck, glean"; Tigre lakma "to gather, pluck"; Harari lakama "to pick up"· Amh. lakkama "to collect, gather (wood); pick (fruit), pick up", compare with Sum. lagaš 'storehouse' (name of a city), PIE *lag- 'to collect, gather', Greek lego 'I gather, I reckon, enumerate', kata-lego 'I list, enumerate', katalogos 'list', Lat. legere 'to collect, gather, choose, read', collectio 'collection' and PIE *lagh- 'to lie', *laghas 'bed, resting place', Hittite lagari 'is laid low', Toch. A lake, Toch. B leke, Greek lechos 'bed', Old Norse lag 'lay, order, disposition', German Lager 'place for lying, bed, lair, camp; storehouse'. P.254

    Now on no. 3 in the list there is also another fine parallel as PAA *dYar- "hand, arm" PS *dYir?i'i:- -> Ar. dira' "arm, forearm"; Aram. dara.'a
    "arm"; Ug. dr' "upper arm";Soqotri dePCi' "forearm11 ; Harsusi ·dera "forearm"; Sheri dera'-"forearm"; Eth. mazra' et "arm". Eg. dr-t "palm of the hand", dri-t "hand"; Copt. tore, tore "(hand); handle, spade, pick, oar". p. 250

    1. Very impressive PAA lak', although I would not compare PIE lagh 'to lie'.

    2. Yes I suspected . So I think in that 1986 research , perhaps with more reads and re-thinking another 5 maybe added . But its still quite low compared to the list of IE and Sum. , I think I will have to look into his books and other references . Do you have any specific suggestions for now?.

    3. Since a good PAA dictionary is hard to come . I for now will work using this well known one -\data\semham\afaset and Will compare with Bomhards approved root list taken from Christopher Ehret (1995) to make it more conclusive .

  19. 9 PAA aq- Meaning: field Semitic: *ʔaḫ- 'meadow' Egyptian: ꜣḥ.t 'fertile land' (NK) - Cf. Central Chadic: *xaxa- 'ground' 1, 'clay' 2 East Chadic: *ʔak- 'field' , Bomhard ¬aag- ''Grain'' with Sum. agar ‘meadow, field’, PIE *ag’ra- ‘field’ .

  20. 10 . Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ḳur-
    Meaning: go around, follow Semitic: *ḳiraʔ- Western Chadic: *ḳur- Central Chadic: *kur- 'accompany' East Chadic: *kwar- 'go away' 1, 'follow, turn' 2 Low East Cushitic: *ḳor- 'run back and forth' Bomhard Kar- ''To go round , turn round'' with Sum. gur ‘circle, loop, hoop, ring; to turn’, gurum 'to bend, curve, wrap around', PIE *gur- 'round', *ghurdh- 'to enclose, gird . Looks ancestral .

    11. Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *san-aw-
    Meaning: shine, day Semitic: *šanaw- 'shine' Western Chadic: *(wa-)san- 'morning' 1, 'bright, clear' 2 East Chadic: *san-H- 'morning' with Sum. šun 'to shine', PIE *sun/swan- 'sun' . Old Norse, OHG sunna 'sun', Avestan xᵛə̄ṇg 'sun (genitive)', Welsh huan 'sun'. Looks ancestral . In Bomhard its zan and zin ''To shine'' .

    12 . Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *biʕar-
    Meaning: burn Borean etymology: Borean etymology
    Semitic: *bVʕVr- 'burn' (tr. and intr.) Western Chadic: *biHar- 'heat' Central Chadic: *ḅVr- < *bVHVr- 'hot' 1, 'warm ' (tr.) 2, warm' adj. 3 East Chadic: *bVHVr- 'warm up' Central Cushitic (Agaw): *bVr- 'be hot' 1,'flame' (v.) 2 . In Bomhard its *bir- and *birk- ''to burn brightly'' and ''to flash'' .

    13. PAA birk- ''to flash '' with Sum. pirig 'bright', PIE *bhṛg- 'to gleam, shine; white' . Looks ancestral .

    1. on No. 12 obviously I suggest Sumerian bar [BURN] (20x: Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. bar7 "to burn; to fire (pottery)" To which IE *bhar/bher- 'to cook, bake, fry, roast' or *bhar/bher- 'to boil' is comparable .

  21. 14. PAA k’wam- ''To curve'' (Bomhard) / *gVn-
    Meaning: bend Semitic: *ḥVgin- 'become curved' Western Chadic: *nV-gun- 'bend'
    Notes: Related to *ganaḥ- 'bend'? with Sum. gam/kab 'shepherd's crook, bent stick', Akk. gamlu 'bent stick', Sum. gab 'left (hand)', PIE *kap/kamp/kamb- 'to bend, crook', Latvian kampis, kamplis, kaplis 'crook, staff, hoe', Lith. kablys 'hook, rod bent into a curved shape, peg', kampas 'corner', kumpas 'crooked', Greek kampsos 'crooked, bent', kampylos 'bent, curved', skambos 'crooked, bent', Skt. kumpa 'crooked-armed', OHG hamf 'mutilated', Persian čap, Kurmanji çep 'left' (in many languages the left hand is defined as 'crooked'). I favor IE in this case.

  22. 15. PAA sar- ''To cut'' (Bomhard) / Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ĉar-
    Meaning: cut, saw Semitic: *wVŝVr- 'saw' Western Chadic: *ĉar- 'cut (trees)' 1, 'cut (strips)' 2 Central Chadic: *ŝar- 'to saw'1, 'scrape' 2 'be sharp 3 East Chadic: *ĉ/čir- 'cut with a knife' Low East Cushitic: *sar- 'cut' with Sum. sur 'to cut cloth; canal, ditch', zir (written zi-ir, ze2-er) 'to tear out; to break, destroy; to be troubled; to erase', zurzur 'to break', PIE *swir/swar/sur 'to cut, prick, pierce'. Looks common ancestry .

    16. ( Didn't find in Bomhard) Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *c̣ur-
    Meaning: press together
    Semitic: *ṣVr- 'press together, wrap' Central Chadic: *nc̣ar- 'press' 1, 'crush' 2 , 'squeeze'3 East Chadic: *sur- 'press, pack' 1, 'be heavy , load' 2 with of course Sum. sur 'to press, squeeze; to drip; to rain; to milk', PIE *su-(l/r)- 'to press out, distill, milk'. I think looks related and ancestral .*c%CC%A3ur-&method_any=substring&sort=proto&ic_any=on

  23. 17. (Not in Bomhard) . PAA : *ta/ik-
    Meaning: string, plaited clothes Semitic: *tikk- 'kind of string' Western Chadic: *tak- 'leather loin-cloth'
    Notes: Scarce data. Semanically unreliable.

    With Sum. tug 'textile, garment', PIE *(s)tag- 'to cover', Latin toga, tegimen/tegumen/tegmen 'cover; dress', OCS o-stegъ 'garment', Old Irish etach 'garment'. Looks unreliable but interesting at least .

    18 . PAA (Didn't find In Bomhard) Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *palay- (?)
    Meaning: cloth
    Egyptian: pꜣy 'cloth' (BD) Western Chadic: *pal-
    Notes: Scarce data. Phonetics in Eg unclear. May be connected with Rift *pal- 'twist fibers into cord': Kwz pal-. Now connect this with Sum. pala 'a garment', of kings according to the Akkadian translation and two Sumerian passages mentioned by the PSD (mentioning EN 'lord' and LUGAL 'king'), in a text the 'pala robe' is 'fit for a queen', in another text it is connected with the goddess Inanna and 'ladyship'. In Latin, palla is the mantle of women and tragic actors or a curtain, pallium the mantle of Greeks and philosophers, but also a bed cover and curtains, and paludatus is someone with the mantle of a general. The PIE root is probably *pal- 'to wrap, cover; cloth; fell, pelt', found also in Latin pellis 'skin, hide', Greek pellas 'skins (Acc. plur.)', apelos 'wound not skinned over', Old Norse fela 'to hide', Old English fell 'hide', Irish peall 'couch, covering', Old Prussian pelkis 'cloak', Sinhalese paḷa, pala 'cloth, garment', Kashmiri palav 'clothes, garment, coat', Lahndā pallā ʻcloth, scarfʼ, Marāṭhī pāl 'large cloth to form a tent', Nepali pāl 'tent', Gujarati pāl 'cloth curtain for side of tent'. The Sumerian term is of the Old Babylonia period, when kings wore a typical dress leaving the right arm free, arrived in Mesopotamia some centuries earlier .

  24. 19 . (Not in Bomhard) and it looks bit funny ;) . Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *gaway-
    Meaning: buffalo; elephant Berber: *gi(w)- 'elephant' Egyptian: *gVw 'bull' (ME)
    Western Chadic: *giw- 'elephant' Central Chadic: *(nV-)guwVy- 'elephant' 1, 'buffalo' 2, 'bush-cow' 3 East Chadic: *gVwVy- 'he-goat' (?) Omotic: *gah- 'buffalo' (?) compare with Sumerian gud/gu ‘bull, ox, cattle’ PIE *gu/gwau- ‘cow, ox’. It is perhaps PAA one is very archaic .

    20. PAA k’at’- ,k’adl- 'To cut' k’utl’- 'to cut up' / Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ḳud-
    Meaning: cut, tear
    Semitic: *ḳud- 'cut' 1, 'tear' 2 Central Chadic: *kuḍi- 'tear, pluck'
    East Chadic: *kaḍ- 'separate vegetables from their root with a hand'
    Central Cushitic (Agaw): *ḳidid- 'tear' Low East Cushitic: *ḳod- 'divide' also Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ḳaṭ-/*ḳuṭ-
    Meaning: cut, break Semitic: *ḳʷVṭ- 'cut' 1, 'cut grass' 2 Low East Cushitic: *ḳat- < *ḳaṭ- 'circumcise'
    South Cushitic: *ḳat- 'circumcise' Dahalo (Sanye): ḳaaṭ-aad- 'divide'
    Omotic: *ḳuṭ- 'cut' now compare this with Sum. kud 'to break off; to cut; to incise', Proto-Germ. *kut- 'to cut', Lithuanian kauti 'to beat, strike, cut, kill', Latin cudere 'to beat (grains, metals)', Middle Irish cuad 'to beat'. Maybe also Greek koura 'act of cutting', Hittite kwer- 'to cut', can be connected, also considering that the evolution from d to r is not unusual. Interestingly Bomhard lists PAA kar- and *kur 'To cut up " With this add this suggestion Sum. gur 'to reap', gur(u) 'to grind, cut up, chop, (to be) trimmed', guruš 'to cut, fell, trim, peel off; a cutting; stubble', Greek koura (<*korsa) 'cropping, lopping, shearing', kouros (<*korsos) 'loppings, twigs stripped from a tree', Kurmanji kur kirin 'to cut (the hair)', kurt 'short', Latin curtus 'shortened, mutilated, broken, short', OHG scurz 'short'. oh Yes Bomhard lists also k’eer- and k'oor- 'To cut into' .

  25. 21 . (Didn't find in Bomhard) Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *sur-
    Meaning: tendon; rope Semitic: *šurr- 'navel, navel string' Egyptian: wsr.t (20) 'rope, cord' East Chadic: *siʔVr- 'rope' 1, thread' 2 Beḍauye (Beja): sar 'tendon'
    Warazi (Dullay): *sur- 'rope'
    Notes: All the forms, except the Sem ones, may alternatively relate to *ʔacir- 'bind, tie' connect with Sumerian sir 'to bind', šergu 'string (of fruit)', šeršer 'chain', PIE *sar- 'to bind, put together', Latin sero 'to join or bind together', serta 'wreath, garland', Greek eiro 'to fasten together in rows, string', herma 'band, noose, earring', seira 'cord, rope', Old English serc 'shirt, coat of mail', Lith. seris, Skt. sarat, sarit 'thread'.

  26. 22. ( Not in Bomhard ) Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *hulub-
    Meaning: soak
    Semitic: *hVlVb- 'soak, be wet' Western Chadic: *rub- < *HVlVb- (?)
    Central Chadic: *lVb- 'wash' (tr.) East Chadic: *lub- 'soak'
    Notes: The alternative reconstruction reflected by all Chadic branches is *luhub-. Compare this with Sumerian luh 'to clean, wash', šu-luh 'ritual cleansing', PIE *lu/lau(H)- 'to lave, wash' . A genetic relation is perhaps suggestive .

  27. 23. Proposing a genetic relationship ( The root is not in Bomhards list ) Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *wur-
    Meaning: pit, hole Semitic: *warr- 'pit' Western Chadic: *wur- 'pit, furrow'
    Central Chadic: *wur- 'gut' 1, 'dig' compare this with Sumerian uru 'to sow, cultivate, plow', Latin urvare 'to plow round, mark out with a plough', urvum 'the plough-tail', verv-agere 'to plow land', Skt. urvarā 'fertile soil , field yielding crop'.

    1. I remembered also a word "buru" which means "pit, hole" in Sumerian.

  28. 24. On this connection : Sum. dub 'tablet', dubsar 'scribe' ('tablet-writer'), dub 'to push away, down; to smash, abolish' (Akkadian translation), 'to hammer' (Civil's Glossary), dubdab-za 'to make noise' (PSD), 'thud, batter' (CG), PIE *(s)tup/tub/tubh 'to hit, beat', Greek typtein 'to beat, strike', typos 'blow, impression of a seal, mould, engraving, engraved letters', OCS tupati 'heartbeat', tuputu 'noise'; *tap- 'to press down', Old Icelandic þefja 'to stamp', þóf 'thronging, pressing', Russian tópat' 'to stamp (one's foot); *daph- 'to push, stamp, thrust', Arm. top'el 'to beat (clothes)', depiti 'to beat, hit', Polish deptać 'to tread, trample', *stab/stamb/stambh/stap- 'to hit, press, stamp', Greek steibein 'to tread or stamp on', Old Norse stappa 'to stamp with the foot, beat, pound', OHG stapho 'step, footprint', OCS stopa 'step, pace', stopiti 'to tread', Punjabi thappṇā ʻto beat, hammer, fixʼ, ṭhappṇā ʻto strike, close a book, stamp, printʼ, Kumaunī ṭhāp ʻthumb impression, sealʼ, Hindi ṭhappā m. ʻstamp, mouldʼ. Old Persian dipi- 'writing' is considered as coming from Elamite tippi, more ancient tuppi, supposed to be an evolution of Sum. dub itself. But in this context we can propose that the Elamite form is connected with a common root dub/tup- 'to stamp, impress'. add this one : Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ṭibaʕ-
    Meaning: push
    Semitic: *ṭVbaʕ- 'put a seal'
    Central Chadic: *tibaʔ- 'press flat hand against smth.'
    Low East Cushitic: *ḍib- < *ḍiHab- 'push' .

    1. add : Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *dab-
      Meaning: trample
      Semitic: *dVbdVb- 'trample'
      Western Chadic: *dabVH- 'trample (floor)'
      Central Chadic: *n-dVḅ- 'beat, thresh' (?).

    2. This is not about a new root; but I remembered this word at Hesychius: διψάρα "dipsara" meaning a tablet for writing, apparently a loan from "dub-sar".

  29. 25. Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ḳVrad/d_-
    Meaning: rat
    Semitic: *g/ḳVrād_/d- 'kind of rodent' Berber: *-ḳǝrda 'rat' .
    Proto-Semitic: *gVrVd_-
    Meaning: kind of rodent
    Syrian Aramaic: gǝrādā 'castor' [Brock. 132] (corrected to gārǝdā [ibid. 841]), [PS 777].
    Arabic: ǯurad_- 'espèce de gros rat des champs' [BK 1 278], [Fr. I 265], [Lane 408], [LA III 480], ǯird_awn- 'rat' [BK 1 278], [TA IX 385] (ḍarbun mina l-faʔri). Cf. further [Hommel 337].
    Mehri: gǝrd_īn 'rat' [JM 124].
    Harsusi: gerd_īn 'rat, mouse' [JH 41].
    Notes: The PS status of the term is not fully reliable since inter-Semitic borrowings are possible. // Cf. Akk. garīdu 'Biber' SB [AHw. 282] ('a mammal' according to [CAD g 50], with the following remark: "Identified with the beaver for etymological reasons"), a hapax in AMT 41.1 r. IV 29 (S̆IR ša garīdi 'testicle of g.'). The Akk. term is likely an Arm. loan, see [Salonen Jagd 199] and [Landsberger 85] ("dieser Name dürfte allerdings im Akk. kaum heimisch sein, sondern mit der Droge aus Syrien eingewandert"). // Of some interest may be Gez. ḳǝrādin, ḳǝrdān 'field mouse' [LGz. 440] (a borrowing from an Arb. dialect?). // Cf. Arb. ǯuld_- 'taupe' [BK 1 314], ǯalid_- [LA old V 13] (a variant root?). // [DRS 182]: Akk., Syr.; [ibid. 183]: Arb. (also ǯard_am-), MSA (also Soq. gerd_īn, quoted withot source; no such term is quoted in the the available sources and -d_- is quite unexpected).

    There some questions but it looks quite related with Sumerian gilim, gir 'rodent', PIE *g(w)ǝli- 'small rodent', Skt. giri- 'mouse', Ormuri (Eastern Iranian) gilak, Bakhtiari (Western Iranian) girza 'rat', Latin glis, gen. gliris 'dormouse'.

    1. Interestingly indeed Bomhard lists some PAA roots like gwii/gwaa ,gwa¬b- 'To swallow' and Kwir/Kwar to take a bite or swallow . That goes with the suggestion already given for the etymology that its possibly from the root *gwal/gwǝl 'to swallow, devour', that gave Skt. gilati/girati 'to swallow, devour'

    2. The Proto-Semitic root reminds me also the root of English greed:
      It has to do with hunger and voracity. In India it has given the word for the vulture, gṛdhra. According to Pokorny the root is gheldh-, for Mayrhofer is gweldh-.

  30. Sum. lahama wr. la-ha-ma "a mythical [hairy?] being”, probably from Akk. lahmu "hairy"; I couldn't find though the AA root.

    Compare to Pokorny’s root / lemma: u̯el-4, u̯elǝ- (see mostly at material B)

    English meaning: hair, wool; grass, forest
    German meaning: in Worten for `Haar, Wolle', also `Gras, Ähre, Wald'
    Note: relationship to *u̯el- `turn' (' curly hair' under likewise) or *u̯el- `rend, pluck' is possible

    Material: A. Old Indian ū́rṇā f. (compare Old Indian ū́rṇā-vábhi- `spider', above S. 1114) `wool', av. varǝnā ds., gr. λῆνος, lēnos dor. λᾶνος lānos n. `wool', lat. lāna ds., lānūgō `Flaum of Bartes, Milchhaare', got. wulla, ahd. wolla etc. `Wolle = wool', lit. vìlna `Wollfaser', Pl. `wool', lett. vilna `wool', Old Prussian wilna `Rock', r.-Church Slavic vlъna, serb. vù́na `wool'; schwöchere Ablautform *u̯lǝnā in cymr. gwlan, corn. gluan, bret. gloan (brit. Lw. is mir. olann) `wool';
    other vowel gradation in lat. vellus, -eris `Vlies' (villus `das zottige, wollige Haar the animal') = ags. wil-mod `colus' (i.e. `Wollstange', as wul-mod), probably also arm. geɫmn `wool, Vlies'; relationship to lat. vellere (u̯el-8) from *u̯elḫsḫō lies nahe; *u̯lō- in gr. λῶμα lōma n. `hem, Gespint', germ. *wlōha- (under B) and idg. *u̯lō-ro- (u̯el-7) S. 1143.

    B. guttural extensions:
    Old Indian valká- m. `bast, splint', valkala- `Bastgewand', vr̥kala- n. `Bastgewand; ein bestimmtes intestines, entrails'; isl. lō f., dön. lu `Tuchflocke, das Rauhe an Kleidern', ags. as. wlōh `fibre, filament, fringe, Flocke' (germ. *wlōha-); aisl. lagðr `tuft of Wolle or Нааг' (*wlagaÞa-); Old Church Slavic vlakno, russ.voloknó `fibre, filament'; with idg. k̂: Old Indian válśa- m. `sprout, twig, branch' (these point at auf `biegsame rod') and av. varǝsa-, npers. gurs = Old Church Slavic vlasъ, russ. volos `hair'; to a from beiden root form belongs gr. λάχνη lakhnē f. `krauses hair' (*u̯l̥ksnā), λάχνος lakhnos m. `wool';
    compare under *u̯el- `turn' die likewise auf *u̯olk- indicating ags. wielgan `roll', ahd. wal(a)gōn.

    C. Dental extensions:
    Gr. λάσιος lasios (*Fλατιος, idg. *u̯l̥t-ii̯os) `dense with Wolle or Haaren, also brushwood bewachsen'; air. folt `hair', cymr. gwallt, acorn. gols, abret. guolt ds., therefrom abret. guiltiat, guiliat, guoliat, mbret. guilchat `Schur, Tonsur' and cymr. gwellaif, acorn. guillihim `scissors', perhaps also cymr. gwellt, corn. gwels `grass', abret. gueltiocion `fenosa' (or to mir. geltboth `pābulum', gelid `grast' S. 365, with gw after gwalltö);
    ahd. as. wald `wood, forest', ags. weald ds., aisl. vǫllr `meadow'; after E. Lewy (KZ. 40, 422) and Holthausen (KZ. 46, 178) wörde Wald as *(s)u̯altus to lat. saltus `Engpaß, Bergwald', belong, das then from saltus `Sprung' to separate wöre (above S. 899), during Ernout-Meillet 2889 both unite (compare Pas de Calais etc.); other stellen Wald to got. wilÞeis `wild', aisl. villr `wild, verröckt', ags. wilde, as. ahd. wildi `wild, unbebaut' (*u̯eltii̯o-), nhd. Wild (*u̯eltos), wherefore further cymr. gwyllt `wild, phrenetical, quick, fast' (*ueltī-), corn. guyls `wild, unbebaut', abret. gueld-enes `insula indomita' (mir. geilt `Wahnsinniger' is probably brit. Lw.);
    lit. váltis `Haferrispe, Haferspelte' (also `Garn'), Old Prussian wolti `Ähre', ukr. volótь `Rispe', serb. etc. vlât `Ähre';
    with voiced-aspirated Old Church Slavic vladь, aruss. volodь `hair'.
    D. Old Indian vāla-, vāra- m. `tail (haar), Haarsieb', ablaut. lit. valaĩ `Schweifhaar of Pferdes'.
    References: WP. I 296 ff., WH. I 756, II 745, Trautmann 341, 359, Vasmer 1, 220 f.
    Page(s): 1139-1140

  31. In Bomhards list there is PAA lVr- ''Hair'' Which matches and of course from starling we get :
    Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ʔaliw- (?)
    Meaning: hair
    Egyptian: iꜣyw (pyr) 'plait'
    Western Chadic: Hausa lī́lī́ 'feathers on the neck and back of the cock'
    Central Chadic: Bachama la 'hair' [Sk]
    East Chadic: *laʔaw-/*ʔaliy- 'hair' 1, 'feathers' 2, 'body hair'3,'down' 4
    Notes: Scarce data. Eg phonetics is not clear.

    So I think a relation is suggestive :) , the Chadic examples are quite nice . But it seems its long range , see here-

  32. 26. Proto-Afro-Asiatic *gwar- 'To turn' compare with Sumerian Gur ‘circle, loop, hoop, ring; to turn’, gurum 'to bend, curve, wrap around', PIE *gur- 'round', *ghurdh- 'to enclose, gird', Gr. gyros ‘rounded; ring, circle’, Hittite gurta- 'citadel, fortress' (enclosed settlement), Old High German gurten, Old Saxon gurdian 'to gird'; PIE *kur- 'to curve, bend', Greek kyrtos, Lat. curvus 'curved', Welsh crwnn 'round'. There is also PAA *Kar 'To turn/go round' (Bomhard) and *ḳur- 'To go round, follow (Starling).

    27 . Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *kʷakʷal-
    Meaning: go
    Central Chadic: *ka-kVlVh- 'return' Saho-Afar: *kalah- 'travel' this is very interesting as we can compare with Sumerian gigir 'chariot', PIE *kukwla/kwakwla- 'wheel', Skt. cakra-, Greek kyklos, Old English hweogol 'wheel', Toch. A kukäl 'cart, chariot'. In starling website Proto-CChadic: *kVlVh-
    Meaning: 'return'
    Mofu-Gudur: -kákǝ́lh- [BMof] (partial redupl.). This reduplication is key, its there in Sumerian and IE . Bomhard also notes a root *kwaal 'To go away' and Starling also has *gʷalVl- 'be round or go round'. I am proposing that, this is the root with the original meaning which was applied to the Chariot. Like it happened in case of *Ratha in Indic , which didn't mean Chariot originally .

    28 . PAA *Wel/*wal 'To go round' (Bomhard) connect with of course Sumerian bal(a) 'to rotate, turn over, cross; to hoist, draw (water); rotation, turn, term of office; to boil (meat)', PIE *(H)wal/val- 'to turn, wind; round, voluble', Skt. valate 'to turn , turn round , turn to'. Initial b and v are often interchangeable in Indo-Aryan, so there is also a form bal- found in the Intensive balbalīti 'to whirl round in a circle' which interestingly recalls Sumerian reduplicated forms with balbal-. Old High German wallan 'to well, bubble, boil', walzan 'to turn, roll', Old Norse valr 'round', Latin volvere 'to roll, turn around', Old Church Slav. valiti 'to roll', Arm. glem 'I roll', Greek eileo (from *wel-yeo) 'to turn, wind, roll'.

    1. Very good comparisons, but why should kwakwal be the original name of the chariot? It meant wheel.

      Curiously, also in Sino-Tibetan we have a similar root, see here:

      In Tibetan it is skor, apparently derived from *khor:

    2. Sorry I wrote wrong :). I meant it ( the root) originally meant 'To go ' that was applied to the wheel when its was invented and also to chariot like in case of the Sumerian loan. Similarly the root *rath didn't originally mean chariot as in Indic but 'wheel' , although more originally it meant 'to turn,roll 'in sense of motion again.

    3. About 27, I remember a Sum. word kaskal = "road, journey" etc (kas + kal?)

  33. Here in ch.2 there is an interesting analysis of the origins of the first inhabitants of Sumer, including farmers from Northern Mesopotamia and Zagros:

  34. We have these Sumerian words: im = “clay, mud; tablet" (Akk. ţīdu; ţuppu). im =“rain“, wr. im; me-er "rain, rain storm" Akk. zunnu; šāru, ima = storm (?), imhur = “foam” (on water, on beer, on milk, imdu = “due”, imdua = “mud wall”, IMUD = cloud (?) etc (all from the ePSD).

    I wonder if there is a connection with the AA root *yam = “sea, water” (as “water”, assuming some connotations of ‘moisture’ etc.)

    Old Egyptian: ỉm “sea”(probably a semitic loanword), protosemitic *yamm-: 'sea' > Ugaritic: ym, Hebrew: yām, Arabic: yamm- Central Chadic: *yam = water.

    The chadic type (“water”) seems especially close to “im”:
    (with several dialectic types like ʔyim, yèma, yème, yimi, yìmi, yìmì, yim etc)

    Also look here about Yam = "sea (and river) god"

    1. A researcher has connected here these words (im etc) with this Gr. word:

      εἱαμενή (heiamenē) or εἰαμενή (eiamenē) (fem.) meaning “river-side pasture, meadow”, ἐν εἱαμενῇ ἕλεος in a marshy meadow, It's written also as hiamenē or iamenē and it is mostly in plural ἰαμεναί / ἱαμεναί (iamenai / hiamenai).

    2. I think it makes total sense . There is also Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ʔin- (?)
      Meaning: flow, be wet
      Semitic: *ʔin- 'spread (of water)'
      Western Chadic: *ʔVn- 'be wet', Bomhard lists m- (ma- ?) ' To be wet' in PAA. And for of course *Yam - 'Body of Water,To Submerge and To go under water'. So we can propose an obvious relationship with Sumerian imdu 'dew', Skt. indu 'drop', Baltic river names Indus, Indura and Sumerian Sum. amaru 'flood', aĝar 'rainshower, downpour', im, meer (Emesal) 'rain, rainstorm', muru 'rainstorm; mist', Akk. imbaru 'fog, mist, drizzle', murū 'rainstorm'; Sum. ambar 'marsh', PIE *ambh-, ṃbh-, nabh- 'wet, cloud, rain, fog' .

    3. About PIE *ambh-, ṃbh-, nabh-, we can take a look at Pokorny:

      Apart from the root nebh- (nabh-) : (> ai. nábhas- … gr. νέφος [nephos] n. `Wolke, Nebel' (cloud) etc we have:

      m̥bh-(ro-): ai. abhrá- m. `trübes Wetter, Gewölk', n. `Wolke, Luftraum' (*m̥bhros), av. awra- n. `Wolke'; also “in die i-declination lat. imber, imbris `Regenguß', but also “fern bleibt wegen der Bedeutung” gr. ἀφρός [aphros] `Schaum' [foam].
      Here, we can compare Sum. imhur meaning “foam”: the “im” part could correspond to the m̥ (basic stem am-, im- ) while the rest “-hur” could correspond to -bh-ro- (maybe as -gh-ro-?). About this Greek word for foam (aphros) though, some linguists think that “the semantic mismatch does not justify this derivation [ from this root]”.

      From emb(h) / amb(h)- : omb(h)- Pokorny gives ai. ámbhas- n. `Regenwasser'; ambu n. `Wasser', gr. ὄμβρος m. `Regen' (zum b vgl. oben arm. amp und Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 333); hierher auch lak. ὀμφά [ompha] `Geruch, Hauch', arkad. εὔομφος `wohlriechend', usw. (Greek ompha / omphē means here “aura, wind”, which is close to the meaning of im as “storm, wind” (= Akk. šaru).

      Greek ombros = rain presents some problems, according to some linguists (the biggest is this b instead of “ph”, that’s why some regard it as a loanword.

      but I think they are exaggerating (as in case of aphros too), this “-b-” could be, after all, a prosthetic consonant for euphonic reasons (like om- < -em / -am + b + ro (im =“rain“, is written as im, but also as me-er ). I think we have discussed about me-er at a previous post.

    4. Concernig these words ( im, me-er, amaru etc), perhaps it is useful to remember here that in Linear B (Mycenean) the word "ombrios" ( = of the rain) apparently is spelled "o-mi-ri-jo-i" (plural)

    5. Is Jo-i a suffix?. It looks cool yes.

    6. Yes, it is dative plural (omri-yois, the s is not written). In classical era it is "ombriois ("ombri-ois").

  35. 29. Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *midr-/*ramad-
    Meaning: dust, dirt, ashes
    Semitic: *midr-/*ramad- 'dust, dirt, ashes' ( No examples given and not in Bomhards list) but if correct then its connectable with Sumerian mudur 'dirt', mudra 'dirty', PIE *mūtra- 'excrement', (s)mud- 'dirt, mud'.

  36. I think sanskrit mutra is not even correct. You have mrttikA sanskrit, miTTI (hindi), mATI (bengali, marathi), moDDe (old dutch) with gemination and of course mud(english). man made earthen works like moat, mound may also correlate to hindi mERh (embankment). Now here the indic versions have a more fronted vowel than the germanic forms. I again suspect that the original form was a retroflex and the medial r and backed vowels are reflexes of it.

    1. Welcome back, Raj. What do you mean with 'not correct'? Actually, it is mūtra with long u, and it gives mutta in pāli, nuristani, dardic. mṛttikā is another word, from mṛd 'earth, soil, clay, loam'.
      Mayrhofer cites modder 'mud' in old Dutch, why do you write moDDe? Another parallel cited by Mayrhofer is mydlo 'soap' in Czech, he gives the PIE root *muH- 'to urinate' but also 'to wash'.

  37. 30. Proposing a genetic relation , Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *mud-
    Meaning: stretch Semitic: *mdd 'stretch, spread, measure'
    Western Chadic: *muḍ- 'lie down' . I think the Semitic one is quite comparable :
    Number: 872
    Proto-Semitic: *mdd
    Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
    Meaning: 'stretch, spread, measure'
    Akkadian: madād- 'measure'
    Ugaritic: mdd 'measure'
    Hebrew: mādad 'measure', mdd hitpo 'stretch out upon'
    Arabic: mdd u 'spread', mudd- 'measure'
    Epigraphic South Arabian: Sab md-t 'period of time'
    Geʕez (Ethiopian): madada 'spread, level'
    Tigre: mädda 'spread, stretch'
    Tigrai (Tigriñña): mädmädä 'level, flatten'
    Amharic: mädämmädä 'level, flatten, etc.' Connect with Sumerian mana 'weight measure', manatur 'unit of area, of volume, of weight', PIE *mā- 'to measure', Skt. māna- 'measure, dimension, size, weight; a particular measure of weight', mātra- 'measure of any kind', Greek metron, Latin mensura 'measure'.

    31. Proto-Afro-Asiatic *dlap/*dlip 'To go down,to descend/ to go down ' (Bomhard) connect Sumerian dul 'to lower, to be deep', dula 'depth, depression', PIE *dhal- 'valley, hollow', English dell, dale, German Thal 'valley', Delle 'light depression', Old Church Slavonic dolu 'down, below'. Bomhard also lists a possible PAA root *dla 'To decline,to become low' .

  38. 32 . Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *dam-
    Meaning: live, last, sit
    Semitic: *dVm-/*dVwVm- 'dwell' 1, 'last' (v.) 2, 'stay a long time in one place' 3
    Egyptian: dmꜣ 'lie' Western Chadic: *dim- , *dam- 'live' 1, 'sit' 2, 'place' 3 ,'remain' 4 East Chadic: *dwam- 'sit' 1, 'dwell' 2, rest' 3 , 'last, spend time' 4
    South Cushitic: *dam- 'wait' connect with Sumerian temen, Akk. temmenu, temennu 'foundation (deposit)', PIE *dhā-man/dha-mn̥- 'what is placed or set'.

    1. As far I understood, the Proto-Semitic: *dVm-/*dVwVm- is described by StalLing as a “Secondary derivative from *dVm- morphologically identical with HS *dVwVm- 'drip, flow' formed on the basis of *dam- 'cloud'. Maybe it has more to do with a meaning of “wet place” again? (obviously most desirable by people of the deserts).

    2. Yes :). Perhaps it will mean ultimately related to places ideal for pastoral and agricultural activities imo .

  39. Sorry G, my response time is very slow nowadays.

    modde is from here

    Mutra has a vert specific meaning. Its also very specifically connected to the verb to urinate. In all my personal experience the word has never been connected to mud or moisture. Its completely unconvincing and seems like an academic fabrication without any antrhopological context.

    So its connection to cognates is a coincidence. The lexical density in most languages of a syllable with labial nasal stop ending with a dental/retroflex/alveolar stop both with or without compounds is extremely dense. Its just a single syllable after all. All kinds of false positives are possible.

    Applying regular sound shift is useless in such a situation and seems idealistic. One has to trust the meaning and usage more.

    just from sanskrit mEdha, matta, mrdu, mAtrA, mrtyU, madhya, mUtra, mrttikA, mUrtI all with completely different meanings. Without even getting into NIA. Of course we have counter parts. murder, mortal, middle, mode, mate, meet, mat, mud, mart, moat, molt, must, mold Some of these can be mapped some may be unrelated.

    1. of course moist, mire, mirth, metre..... etc

      Any way Giacomo. I have set of questions: I will just ask the first one.

      In NIA and english the conjugated auxillary verbs are often verb roots that denote transfer of posession. e.g. "I had run", "I have run" vs "he ran" ...etc". similarly in NIA you will have "bOl diyA, bOl liyA" vs bolA or literally "talk gave" or "tallk took" vs talked

      Is this a universal feature in all world languages / pidgins, creoles ? Whats the situation in Italian, Latin ?

      Sanskrit does not have this form at all, I think verbs are mostly cleanly conjugated.

    2. What you remark about mūtra is right, it has a specific meaning, but this can be a specialization of Skt. of an IE root mū/muH- for 'wet, damp; to wash; dirt, mud, mire' ( A similar specialization is in Middle Irish mūn 'urine'. -tra in Skt. should be the suffix, as Mayrhofer interprets too.

      About your question on the auxiliary 'have', we have the same system as in English present perfect in German, Italian and the other Romance languages, but not in Classical Latin. This use developed in late Latin, and I have learned that the Romance use was the model for the German and English evolution of the present perfect, although I don't know the sources of this theory.

    3. Thanks,

      In english the aux verb "have" also works in a stand alone non auxillary form in other sentences and denotes possession or ownership.

      e.g. consider the use of have in "I have it"(non auxillary) and "i have run"(auxillary).

      In fact most auxillaries in english double as true verbs that relate to posession or transfer of posession. E.g "he got up" <-> "he arose" vs "I got it" (non auxillary).

      Does this pattern carry over to Italian as well? I suspect not, based on my very limited spanish.

    4. In Spanish and Portuguese the verb of possession is tener, but in Italian is avere, from Latin habere, so it is like in English, we use it both as auxiliary and non auxiliary.
      In Classical Latin, however, normally possession was indicated by the dative or genitive of the possessor and the verb of being, similarly to Sanskrit.

    5. The verb of possession in Portuguese is "ter". But it is very irregular:

    6. But, in any case, it is similar to the spanish conjugation. In Portuguese, the auxliary verb is absorbed in all instances. In Brazil, it is not.

    7. Here's the Spanish conjugation:

    8. Sorry, I had a doubt about the exact Portuguese form, but I remembered that is related (both the Spanish and Portuguese verbs come from Latin tinere, that has given also an Italian verb tenere). On the other hand, can you give examples of the non-absorbed auxiliary in Brazil?

    9. You can do pretty much like Spanish (the official dialect is Castilian). But formally, it's all absorbed in the conjugation tables.

      There are some that you don't fully conjugate. Those are verbs without a subject. like chover - to rain. Things like this are explained within generative grammar, though.

  40. 33. Proposing a genetic relationship , Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ʔa-dVr-
    Meaning: chest; heart; gut
    Semitic: *da/ir(r)-at- 'breast, udder' Egyptian: ỉdr 'heart' (late Lit.)
    Western Chadic: *dur- 'heart' East Chadic: *(ʔa-)da/ur- 'center of a calebase' 1, 'middle' 2 Dahalo (Sanye): d_uura 'gut' connect Sumerian ubur 'breast', PIE *ūdhar-, Latin ūber 'udder, breast', Danish yver, Skt. ūdhar- 'udder' .

  41. 34 . Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *kicw- ~ *kucy-
    Meaning: clothes; to cover
    Semitic: *kusī-t- ~ *kisū-t 'kind of clothes', *ksw 'wear' Egyptian: kꜣs 'kind of clothes' (late) Western Chadic: *kic-/*kwac- 'finish the plaiting of a grass roof, mat' 1 , 'mat floor' 2 Central Chadic: *kVc- 'clothes'
    East Chadic: *kwaS- 'spin' High East Cushitic: *kacc- `dress' connect with Sumerian kuš 'skin; leather', PIE *(s)kau/kū- 'to hide, wrap, cover', Lat. cutis 'skin, leather', OHG hūt 'skin', Gothic skoh 'shoe', Skt. chavī 'skin' (<*sk'av-).

    In Bomhard there is PAA ka- 'To cover up, to enclose' . And many related roots like kuuf,kaaf,kaar, kuur ,kwilf,kwalf .

  42. Another comparison about “dew” etc:

    tilhar [CLOUD] wr. tilhar "cloud" Akk. upû

    with Proto-Semitic: *ṭal(l)- ~ *tll/ʔ. Meaning: 'dew' 1, 'drizzle' 2 (n.), 'sprinkle' 3, 'moisten' 4 Hebrew: ṭāl 1, ṭlʔ 3 Judaic Aramaic: ṭall- 1
    Syrian Aramaic: ṭall- 1 Arabic: ṭall- 1, 2, ṭll [-u-] 4
    Geʕez (Ethiopian): ṭal 1, ṭll 4 Mehri: ṭel Harsusi: ṭel

    Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ṭVl-
    Meaning: drip, drizzle
    Semitic: *ṭal(l)- ~ *tll/ʔ 'dew' 1, 'drizzle' 2 (n.), 'sprinkle' 3, 'moisten' 4 Western Chadic: *ṭal- 'flow' Central Chadic: *tVl(tVl)- 'pour (in drops)' 1, ' drop' 2 East Chadic: *til- drip Low East Cushitic: *ḍol- 'big white cloud'

    1. Excellent . There is alsoProto-Afro-Asiatic: *taH/*tih-

    2. And of course Bomhard lists PAA t'ay,t'iy 'To be moist'. But this one from Starling seems brilliant :
      Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *daʔ-/*daw-
      Meaning: be wet
      Semitic: *nVdaw-/*naday- 'be wet'
      Berber: *dVw- 'soak'
      Egyptian: dꜣ 'ejaculate'
      Western Chadic: *daʔ- 'be wet'
      Beḍauye (Beja): ddaʔ- 'urinate'
      Central Cushitic (Agaw): *du- 'pour'
      Low East Cushitic: *daʔ- 'rain' (v.)
      Notes: Cf. also reduplication in SA *dad- 'rainy season (Saho dada). Consonantal alternation *-ʔ- ~ *-w-

      According to Starling there is the PAA root *daʔ-/*daw-'flow, be wet'.

      So I am a bit surprised why people didn't thought of this before! . IE one is here

    3. There is also this (dubious) IE root:
      (s)tel-1 “to let flow; to urinate”, according to Pokorny (I’ve already mentioned it at the first post about a year before, when we’re talking about the various meanings of Sum. “zal”.)

    4. Another root of Pokorny:

      Root: del-4
      English meaning: to rain
      German meaning: `tröpfeln'
      Material: Arm. teɫ `starker Regen', teɫam, -em, -um `pluō, irrigō', tiɫm (*teɫim?), Gen. tɫmoi; mir. delt m. `Tau'; auch FlN; bret. delt `feucht';
      germ. *dol-kó- oder *dol-gho- in dan. schwed. norw. talg `Talg', ags. *tealg, mengl. talgh, engl. tallow, nnl. talk, nhd. Talg (aus dem Ndd.); ablaut. anord. tolgr (*tl̥-kó-) ds.
      References: Petersson Heterokl. 198 f., anders Kluge11 unter `Talg'.

    5. of course duh means milking in Indic

    6. Well, I was trying mostly to find roots/stems with an "l" (like t-V-l, assuming a root "til-" in tilhar = cloud. We discussed about "dew" etc at the end of the previous post (about Sum. duru etc). We have also this word tul, wr. tul2; |LAGAB×TIL| "public fountain; fish pond, pit; ditch, channel; excavation, trench", but I don't know if it is connected with "tilhar".

    7. I find the *del quite comparable yes :) .

  43. 35.Its almost Diwali so why not start today with an etymology related to light ? :) .

    PAA t’ogw 'To burn' (Bomhard) compare with Sumerian dag, dadag '(to be) bright; to clean; (ritually) pure', PIE *dhagwh- 'to burn, shine', Old Saxon, Middle Dutch, Dutch dag, Gothic dags 'day', Tocharian A tsāk- 'to shine, give light', AB cok 'lamp', Old Irish daig 'fire', Old Prussian dagis 'summer', Lith. degti 'to burn', Skt. dahati 'to burn', dagdha 'burnt', Sindhi daho 'strong light of fire, sun'.

  44. about tocharian tsāk, remember chak-chak in bengali means shining. chiknA in other NIA.

    1. No its from a different source :

  45. 36. PAA gañ /giñ 'To mature,To Grow ,To Grow Up' I am comparing this with Sumerian gan ‘to bear young, child-bearing’, PIE *g’an- ‘to bear (a child), produce, generate’, Skt. jan-, Toch. B kän-, Latin, Greek gen- .


    1. Interesting, the PAA meaning is especially comparable with the intransitive meaning in Greek gignomai 'to be born, become', but where have you find this root and are there some examples in attested languages?

    2. I will send you. Actually I forgot . Its Bomhards approved .

    3. I am trying to find the examples yes . BTW I got a close one from his book A Comprehensive
      Introduction to Nostratic
      Comparative Linguistics

      Which he updates every two months :

      465. Proto-Nostratic root *k’an- (~ *k’ǝn-):
      (vb.) *k’an- ‘to get, to acquire, to create, to produce, to beget’;
      (n.) *k’an-a ‘birth, offspring, child, young, produce’; (adj.) ‘born, begotten,
      A. Proto-Afrasian *k’an- ‘to get, to acquire, to possess, to create, to produce’:
      Proto-Semitic *k’an-aw/y- ‘to get, to acquire, to possess, to create, to
      produce’ > Hebrew ḳānāh [hn*q*] ‘to get, to acquire, to create, to produce’;
      Phoenician ḳny ‘to acquire’; Biblical Aramaic ḳǝnā ‘to acquire, to buy’;
      Ugaritic ḳny ‘to create’; Akkadian ḳanū ‘to gain, to acquire’; Amorite ḳny
      ‘to create, to acquire’ (basic stem, Qal yaḳnī); Arabic ḳanā ‘to get, to
      acquire, to create’; Sabaean ḳny ‘to possess, to acquire’; Geez / Ethiopic
      ḳanaya [ቀነየ] ‘to acquire, to buy, to subjugate, to dominate, to rule, to
      subdue, to tame, to train, to make serve, to make toil, to reduce to
      servitude, to bring into bondage, to force to work, to create’. Murtonen
      1989:380; Klein 1987:584; Leslau 1987:437; Zammit 2002:347. Egyptian
      qn, qnÕ ‘to be strong, to make strong, to have power over, to possess, to
      overcome’. Hannig 1995:858; Faulkner 1962:279; Gardiner 1957:596;
      Erman—Grapow 1921:190 and 1926—1963.5:41—43. Berber: Tuareg
      ǝ¦nu ‘to be created, to be started; to originate (from)’. Diakonoff
      1992:23—24 *ḳn̥ (*ḳny/w) ‘begetting, giving birth’.
      B. Dravidian: Tamil kanru ‘calf, colt, young of various animals, sapling,
      young tree’; Malayalam kannu ‘young of cattle (esp. buffalo calf), young
      plantain trees around the mother plant’; Kannaḍa kanda ‘young child’,
      kandu ‘calf, young plantain trees around the mother plant’; Telugu kandu
      ‘infant’, kanduvu ‘child’, kanu ‘to bear or bring forth, to beget’, kanubadi
      ‘produce’, kāncu ‘to bear, to produce, to bring forth’, kānupu ‘bringing
      forth a child’; Konḍa kās- ‘to bring forth young (of human beings), to bear
      children’; Kuṛux xadd ‘child, young animal or plant’; Malto qade ‘son’;
      Brahui xaning ‘to give birth to’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:131—132, no.

    4. C. Proto-Indo-European *k’en-/*k’on-/*k’n̥- ‘to beget, to produce, to create,
      to bring forth’: Sanskrit jánati ‘to beget, to produce, to create; to assign, to
      procure’, jánas- ‘race’; Avestan zan- ‘to beget, to bear; to be born’, zana-
      ‘people’; Greek γίγνομαι ‘to be born’, γεννάω ‘to beget, to bring forth, to
      bear’, γένος ‘race, stock, kin’, γέννα ‘descent, birth’; Armenian cnanim ‘to
      beget’, cin ‘birth’; Latin genō, gignō ‘to beget, to bear, to bring forth’,
      genus ‘class, kind; birth, descent, origin’, gēns, -tis ‘clan; offspring,
      descendant; people, tribe, nation’; Old Irish ·gainethar ‘to be born’, gein
      ‘birth’; Welsh geni ‘to give birth’; Gothic kuni ‘race, generation’; Old
      Icelandic kyn ‘kin, kindred; kind, sort, species; gender’, kind ‘race, kind’;
      Old English cynn ‘kind, species, variety; race, progeny; sex, (grammatical)
      gender’, ge-cynd, cynd ‘kind, species; nature, quality, manner; gender;
      origin, generation; offspring; genitals’, cennan ‘to bear (child), to
      produce’; Old Frisian kinn, kenn ‘race, generation; class, kind’; Old Saxon
      kunni ‘race, generation; class, kind’; Dutch kunne ‘race, generation’; Old
      High German chunni ‘race, generation’, kind ‘child; (pl.) children,
      offspring’ (New High German Kind). Rix 1998a:144—146 *ĝenh÷- ‘to
      produce, to beget, to procreate (offspring)’; Pokorny 1959:373—375
      *ĝen-, *ĝenǝ-, *ĝnē-, *ĝnō- ‘to produce’; Walde 1927—1932.I:576—578
      *ĝen-, *ĝenē-, *ĝenō-; Mann 1984—1987:390—391 *ĝen- ‘to beget, to be
      born, to happen’, 391 *ĝenǝtēr- (-tǝr-, -tōr-) ‘parent, kinsman’, 391
      *ĝenǝtis (*ĝentis) ‘birth, race’, 391—392 *ĝenǝtos (*ĝentos) ‘born,
      produced, begotten’, 392 *ĝenis, 392 *ĝenitr- (*ĝenitēr, -ōr) ‘begetter,
      parent’, 392 *ĝenmn- (*ĝenimn-, *ĝenǝmn-) ‘birth, offspring, product,
      yield’, 392—393 *ĝenos, -ā, -is ‘creature, man, creation’, 393 *ĝenos, -es-
      ‘type, race, kind, tribe’, 401 *ĝnōtis ‘kinsman, acquaintance’, 401—402
      *ĝn-, 402 *ĝn̥ǝtos (*ĝn̥tos) ‘born’, 402—403 *ĝn̥̄mos, -ā ‘generation,
      mating’, 403 *ĝn̥̄tis ‘birth, race’, 405 *ĝonos, -ā ‘child, offspring, birth’;
      Mallory—Adams 1997:46 *ĝenh÷- ‘to beget a child, to be born’; Watkins
      1985:19 *genǝ- (also *gen-) and 2000:26 *genǝ- (also *gen-) ‘to give
      birth, to beget’; Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.II:748 *$’en- and 1995.I:652
      *$’en- ‘to give birth; kin’, I:674 *$’eno- ‘clan’, I:151 *$’enH- ‘to give
      birth’; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.I:415 and I:416; Boisacq 1950:144 and
      147—148 *“enē-, *“enō-; Frisk 1970—1973.I:296—297 and I:306—308;
      Chantraine 1968—1980.I:221—224; Hofmann 1966:43 and 44—45 “en-,
      “enē-; Ernout—Meillet 1979:270—273 *gʹenə-, *gʹn-; Walde—Hofmann
      1965—1972.I:592 *“n̥tís, *“enətis (*“n̥̄tis) and I:597—600 *“en(ē)-,
      *“enō-; De Vaan 2008:358 and 260—261; Orël 2003:210 Proto-Germanic
      *kannjanan I, 212 *kenđiz, 212—213 *kenþan, 224 *kunđjan, 224
      *kunjan; Kroonen 2013:279 Proto-Germanic *kanjan- ‘to bring forth’, 288
      *kindi- ‘kind’, 288 *kinþa- ~ *kinda- ‘child’, and 310 *kunda- ‘born’;
      Feist 1939:516 *“en-; Lehmann 1986:222 *ĝen- ‘to beget’; De Vries
      1977:309 and 340; Onions 1966:505 *gen-, *gon-, *gn̥- and 506; Klein
      1971:402 *ĝen-; Skeat 1898:315; Vercoullie 1898:158; Boutkan—
      Siebinga 2005:211; Kluge—Mitzka 1967:369 *“en-; Kluge—Seebold
      1989:370 *ǵenə-.
      Sumerian gan ‘to bear, to bring forth, to give birth to’.
      Buck 1949:4.71 beget (of father); 4.72 bear (of mother). Bomhard—Kerns
      1994:431—432, no. 275; Illič-Svityč 1971—1984.I:335—336, no. 211, *Ḳanʌ
      ‘to give birth to, to be born’.

      I don't find the Dravidian ones convincing however.

    5. To me, Dravidian, IE and Sumerian here are more convincing as related because they all concern birth, while the Afrasian part concerns possession, acquisition, which is quite different and absent in IE meanings. Afrasian terms mean also creation apparently, but not procreation. It would be interesting to see if there are other cases of an areal convergence of Sumerian, IE and Dravidian.

  46. Hello, and happy Diwali!

    I give this proposal today:
    Sum. imria [CLAN] (17x: Ur III, Old Babylonian, unknown) wr. im-ri-a; im-ru-a; im-ru "clan" Akk. kimtu "family" and (central) semitic root ʿmr

    Central Semitic, to live, dwell, build; noun *ʿumr , life.
    1. OMRI, (king of Israel), from Hebrew ʿomrî, probably short for *ʿomrîyāh, my life (is) Yahweh, from ʿomrî, my life, from *ʿōmer (< *ʿumr ), life.
    a. OMAR, from Arabic ʿumar, probably akin to ʿumr, life;
    b. IMARET, from Arabic ʿimāra, building. Both a and b from Arabic ʿamara, to live, dwell, build.

    imrua is described here as “a grouping of people inside a city”:

    1. I don't know if there is one ... But what I find fascinating is the idea that it's maybe connected with this one:

      epecially since he is said to be rather a group of people than one person.
      Of course it is most probably just a phantasy of mine :)

  47. 1; we have: rainstorm (21x/100%) ~ LEX/Old Babylonian/unknown [[muru9]] = = [IM.DUGUD] = im#-ba-rum#
    Indo-European: *nĕbhV

    Proto-IE: *nebh-
    Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
    Meaning: mist, cloud; sky
    Hittite: nepis- n. 'Himmel' (Friedrich 150)
    Old Indian: nábhas- n. `mist, clouds, vapour', nábha- m. `sky, atmosphere'
    Avestan: nabah- n.: pl. 'Luftraum, Himmel'
    Old Greek: néphos n.; nephélǟ `Wolke, Gewölk'
    Slavic: *nebo, gen. -ese
    Baltic: *deb-es-i- (*-es-es), *deb-es-ia- c.
    Germanic: *nib-ul-ō f., -a- m.
    Latin: nebula f. `Dunst, Nebel; Dampf, Rauch; Wolke'
    Celtic: OIr nem n. (es-St.) `Himmel', nēl, gen. niuil m. `Wolke, Nebel', Ir neamh `Himmel'; Cymr nef `Himmel', niwl, nifwl `Wolke, Nebel', NCorn nef `Himmel', niul `Wolke, Nebel', Bret nef `Himmel'
    Russ. meaning: туман, облако; (облачное) небо

    Proto-Inupik: *nụvǝ̣ja
    Meaning: cloud 1, to be cloudy 2
    Russian meaning: облако 1, облачный, пасмурный 2
    SPI Dialects: W nuija* 1
    North Alaskan Inupik: nuvija, nuvuja 1
    NAI Dialects: B nuvija* 1
    Western Canadian Inupik: nuvuja 1, nuvuja- 2
    WCI Dialects: Cor nuvuja* 1
    Eastern Canadian Inupik: nuvuja(q) 1, nuvija 1 [Ras.], nuvuja- 2
    Greenlandic Inupik: nuia (nuia*) 1, nuia- 2
    GRI Dialects: NG nuiɣaq 1, WG nuiššat pl. 1 (with secondary -šš-)

    1. It missed the AA:

      Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *(ʔa-)na/if-
      Meaning: breath, blowing
      Borean etymology: Borean etymology
      Semitic: *ʔanp- (<*ʔa-nVp-) 'nose'
      Berber: *-naf- 'fresh humid wind'
      Egyptian: nf.t (OK) 'fan', nf (NK) 'breath; wind'
      Central Chadic: *nip/f- 'breathe' 1, 'life' 2
      Beḍauye (Beja): nifi 'to blow (wind)'
      Saho-Afar: *naf- 'breath, soul' 1, 'face' 2
      Low East Cushitic: *na/ēf- 'breath' 1, soul' 2, 'life' 3
      Omotic: *nap- 'blow, swell'
      Notes: Cf. EDE 126-7. Cf. HSED, 1828 *naf- 'breath' (Eg.; Saho 'breath' and Afar 'face', which is semantically doubtful; Som. 'breath, soul' and Oromo and Arbore 'body' which is very philosophical to relate with 'soul', though wrong, as 'soul' comes from 'breath' and it is hard to imagine the reconstructed term giving rise to 'breath' in some daughter languages and 'body', in others) and 1865 *nif- 'smell, breathe' (Sem. *nVpaḥ- supposedly "secondary formation based on *nap-", which is impossible to prove or disprove; Eg. nfy; CCh. *nif-, with *-f -prompted only by Eg. as both examples quoted have -p). Considering CCh. *-i-, Saho -a-, and Som. -a-/-ē (the other examples in both entries are irrelevant for semantical, and Eg., for phonetical reasons), there is not a least ground to reconstruct two roots.

    2. About this root *(ʔa-)na/if-, there is also Utnapishtim, or Utanapishtim, a character in the Epic of Gilgamesh

      The (ʔa-)na/ part of this AA root reminds of IE root h₂enh₁- "to breathe". Maybe all these roots h₂enh₁ (ʔa-)na/if-, nebh- are connected somehow...

    3. also to *psu and *(s)pis we were talking before at this post..

  48. 37 . PAA: *may-
    Meaning: mouth
    Berber: *-mi, pl. -maw- 'mouth' Western Chadic: *miy- 'mouth' Central Chadic: *may- 'mouth' connect with Sumerian *mū- 'lips, mouth, muzzle', Skt. mukha 'mouth, face', Dardic mū 'face', Old Norse mūli 'lips of an animal, muzzle', Old English mūþ 'mouth', Vulgar Latin mūsum 'muzzle'.

  49. 38 . Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *qʷar- or *qVwar-
    Meaning: voice, call, cry
    Semitic: *ḫVwVr- 'bellow (v.)' Berber: *kur- 'call' Egyptian: ḫrw 'voice, noise' (pyr) ~ ḫr (OK) 'say' Western Chadic: *qwar- 'scream, cry' (n.) 1, 'groan' 2, 'shout, call' 3 Central Chadic: *k/ḥwar- 'voice'
    East Chadic: *kur- 'cry to call a dog' South Cushitic: *ḫur- 'rumble, roar' compare with Sumerian gala 'lamentation singer', gala-mah 'chief lament singer', PIE *gal(g'h)- 'to call, scream, cry, bewail', Latin gallus 'cock', OCS glasu 'voice', Welsh galw 'call', Middle Irish glām 'shout', Old Norse kalla 'to cry loudly', OHG kallon 'to call', klaga 'complaint', Skt. garh 'to lodge a complaint', Avestan gǝrǝzā- 'complaint', gar- 'song' .

  50. 39.Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *sVḳ-
    Meaning: cut, chop
    Semitic: *ḫVšiḳ- 'pierce' Egyptian: sḳk 'cut' (NK) Western Chadic: *saḳ- 'cut' 1, 'cut down' 2, 'carpenter' 3 East Chadic: *sikk- 'cut, chop'
    South Cushitic: *siḳ- 'cut' compare with Sumerian saga 'to reap', PIE *sak- 'to cut, dissect', OHG, OE saga 'saw', OHG segansa, Middle High German segede, Latin secula 'sickle', Latin secare 'to cut' .

  51. 40 . Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *gir-
    Meaning: fire
    Semitic: *gir- 'fire, deity of fire' Egyptian: d_r (gr)
    Western Chadic: *gir-gir- 'hot' Central Chadic: *gVr-gVr- 'hot'
    Saho-Afar: *gir- High East Cushitic: *gir- South Cushitic: *giʔir- 'embers' . So if Starling is correct then Egyptian shows the Similar changes as in Sumerian duruna 'oven' . Lat. furnus 'oven', Old Irish gorn 'fire', Russian gorn 'hearth', Skt. ghṛṇa 'heat', Greek thermos 'hot, heat', Arm. ǰeṙnum 'to get warm, to burn'.

    1. There is also Sum. gir (Akk. kīru) meaning "oven, kiln". The egyptian form seems interesting, yes. ;)

  52. About the meanings of “clay” (im) connected with “dew” I was thinking also about a possible relation to the word “sand”, which is not exactly “clay” but it’s close.

    most probably a suffixed form of root*bhes- "to rub and -amadho- *bhs-amadho-
    another etymology here:

    Anyway, άμαθος amathos or άμμος ammos means “sand” in Greek, especially “sand near the sea” (or a river) in Greek is also ψάμμος “psammos”; “amathos” can be also psammathos (ψάμμαθος). Also αμαθόεις amathoeis or ημαθόεις ēmathoeis means “sandy” in Greek.

    Btw, do you think that the name “Sindh” ("river") may have something to do with sand?

    1. The most common etymology for Sindhu is from sidh- 'to drive off, repel', thus meaning 'border', like bhindu 'breaker' from bhid 'to break'. It is possible that Sindhu was perceived as the natural border against the western barbarians. There is also the Avestan us.hǝndava-, name of a mythical mountain in the middle of the ocean Vourukaša, interpreted by Thieme 'beyond the natural frontiers (of the world)', but interpreted by Bartholomae's dictionary 'beyond India'.

      On the other hand, a verb sidh- means also 'to reach the purpose, succeed' (from which siddhi and siddha).

      And there is also Burushaski sinda 'river', that has suggested a foreign origin.

  53. 41. This seems nice to start the month :)

    Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *gwar- or gu/ar-
    Meaning: to collect, harvest
    Semitic: *gʷar (?) 'season of agricultural activities, harvest'
    Berber: *grw 1, *a/i-mgir 2, *mgr 3 'to crop' 1, 'sickle' 2, 'to harvest' 3
    Egyptian: d_rʕ 'gather' (XX) Western Chadic: *gur(gur)- 'cut short grass' 1, 'gather' 2 High East Cushitic: *gūr- 'pick up, collect'
    Notes: related to *(HV)g(w)Vr- cultivated field; tilling, hoeing? Cf. also *g(ʷ)i/ar- ~ *garga/ir- 'grain; bean' compare with Sumerian gar 'to heap up', gargar 'accumulation', PIE *gar- 'to collect, heap', Greek ageiro (from *a-ger-yo) 'to gather, collect', agorà 'assembly, place of assembly, market-place', gargara 'heaps, lots, plenty', Latin grex 'flock, herd', Welsh gre 'herd', Sanskrit grāma- 'village, community, troop', Middle Persian grāmag 'riches', Baluchi grām 'burden'.


  54. Sum. liblib [PLUNDERER] (11x: Old Babylonian) wr. lib4-lib4 "plunderer". It seems to be a duplicated root lib > lib-lib.

    To Gr. ἀλαπάζω alāpazō meaning “to empty, to plunder, to destroy” etc. The stem is -lāp- (a–lāp–azō)

    But the position of this word in *alp- root is rather doubtful, I think.

    1. I think that an "a" vocalic quality in lib-lib is possible; for example the word libir "(to be) old, long-lasting" is in Akkadian "labāru".

    2. Of course root *labh is also possible.

    3. An alternation a/i is possible, maybe from a schwa, like in Lat./Greek pater/Skt. pitar. Also in Latin itself, a became often i, for instance 'cadere' becomes '-cidere' in compounds, 'cecidi' in perfect tense.

    4. Very Interesting :) . Giacomo, Sanskrit also has lupta - and of course lopa

      So my question is what is the root of those and can they be connected?.

    5. The Skt. root is lup- 'to break , violate , hurt , injure , spoil; to seize , fall or pounce upon ( acc. ); to rob , plunder , steal; to cheat ( said of a merchant ); to take away , suppress , waste , cause to disappear; to elide , erase , omit ( a letter , word &c. )'

      In Pokorny there is a root *leup-:
      But for that word is given *reu-:

      Mayrhofer cites *rup/reup-, found in Latin rumpere 'to break', English 'to rip':
      And 'to rob':

      Here is another list:

    6. There is also the root *rap that can be connected:
      For instance, in Latin and Italian rapina means robbery:

  55. This is a proposition about a number again (like the one I have made before about peš etc).

    We have this Sumerian word:

    ĝešu (or ĝešdu) = six thousand (600), assumed from ĝeš (or ĝešd)"sixty" (wr. geš2; mu-uš) and “u” = ten

    I assume that number 600 in a senary / sexagesimal system (like Sumerian) corresponds to number 1000 in a decimal system (like the IE).

    The comparison is to this IE root:

    Root: ĝhéslo-
    English meaning: thousand
    German meaning: `tausend'

    Material: Ai. sa-hásram n. `Tausend' (sm̥ -ĝhéslom, zu sem- `eins'), sa-hasriya- `tausendfach', av. hazanrǝm n. `Tausend', npers. hāzar, woraus arm. hazar entlehnt; sogd. z'r (= *zār), afgh. zạr;
    gr. ion. χείλιοι [kheilioi], äol. χέλλιοι [khellioi] (χελληστυς `Tausendschaft'), att. χί̄λιοι [khilioi] (*χέσλιοι) [*kheslioi].
    Das Grundwort *χεσλο- [kheslo-] findet sich in sakisch ysāra und in Lehnwörtern finnisch-ugrischer Sprachen (Jacobsohn Arier und Ugrofinnen 105 ff.).
    Vielleicht auch lat. mīlle `tausend; ein Tausend', falls aus *smī ĝzhlī (ĝhslī) `eine Tausendbeit'; *smī : gr. μία.

    Note: ĝeš = “60” is a homophone of ĝeš = penis, male and ĝeš = tree, wood. Maybe there is a meaning of “swollen”, “big” here. Also, I think there could be a connection with peš, we have talking about before. The “ĝ” in “ĝeš is a nasalized labiovelar [(n)kweš].

    1. Another crazy idea: If ĝeš is connected with peš, the other writing / pronunciation of ĝešu / ĝeš (as “mu-uš”) is leading us to the IE word for mouse “mūs”.

      because peš (wr. peš2) means also "large mouse" (Akk. humşīru).

    2. This IE root "ĝheslo" = 1000 is probably connected to an archaic root ĝhes- = "hand" giving ĝhesor-1, ĝhesr- = "hand" and ĝhesto-2 = "hand" ; especially the latter ("ĝhesto", giving hástaḥ etc) seems like Sum. "ĝešdu" = 600.

    3. The relation between “hand” and “mouse” is strengthened by the similarity between Sum. kišib = “hand, fist” and kišib, kiši = “mouse, rat” (Halloran says it means “grasp it”). The question is if we could assume a (sometimes nasalized, as in Sumerian) primary or archaic (pre-proto IE) labiovelar root, something like *(n)kw(h)e(u?)-s [the “u” assumed by writings like mu-uš in Sumerian) or *(n)gw(h)e(u?)-s (g intead of k) or maybe with a vowel “a” like *(n)kw(h)a(u?)-s etc; also with extensions other than –s etc. > nevertheless, giving (without nasalization) in PIE roots with an initial pe-, ke- or even te- (or pa-, ka- ta-) , like it is attested in Greek (from kw a / kwe etc). On the other hand, the possibility of an archaic nasalization of the same roots may have given some other roots (in proto IE) with an initial m-. For example “hand” in Greek is χείρ [kheir] which is from *ghesr. But there is also a word μάρη [marē] meaning also “hand”, connected to Albanian marr “take, hold, catch' or the Latin word manus = “hand” by Pokorny (heteroclit r/n stem, root mǝ-r, mǝ-n- etc. Maybe both roots share a common archaic root, in such a way as explained above. (In Sumerian we have ĝar = to place” etc which is given also as mar).

    4. Information about the number "ĝeš(d)u" 600 in Sumerian is at Edzard's Grammar, page 65. Edzard wonders that if ĝeš(d)u is 600 (from 60x10), then how "70" was ronounced (it should be again ĝeš(d)u (from 60+10, agglutinated)
      "ĝeš(d)u" seems very similar to IE ĝhesto, as I already said. And this structure ĝeš-d-u- reminds me the IE d'km-t-om = 100 (meaning "ten decades" = 100). So I wonder if we could assume some (vanished) root ĝhes- meaning "100" (< ĝhes = hand); then ĝhes-t-om could be ten hundreds (I guess). It's a bit strange that there is an IE root for "1000"(ĝheslo-) and not for "100" (saying just "ten decades"). Maybe they replaced it afterwards "with ten decades", avoiding thus the confusion with ĝhesto "hand". Maybe they used ĝheslo- (1000) instead for ĝhesto- for the same reason.

    5. It remindes me also the root gest- of Latin "gero" = to carry, to bear etc.

  56. 42. From Bomhards Book :
    {698. Proto-Nostratic root *ħak’- (~ *ħək’-):
    (vb.) *ħak’- ‘to direct, to guide, to command’;
    (n.) *ħak’-a ‘direction, guidance, command, decree; leader, chief, chieftain,
    ruler, headman’}
    A. Proto-Afrasian *ħak’- ‘to direct, to guide, to command’: Proto-Semitic
    *ħak’-ak’- ‘to direct, to guide, to command, to decree; to establish what is
    correct, proper, true, legitimate’ > Arabic ḥaḳḳa ‘to be true, to turn out to
    be true, to be confirmed; to be right, correct; to be necessary, obligatory,
    requisite, imperative; to be adequate, suitable, fitting, appropriate; to be
    due; to make something come true, to realize (something, e.g., hope), to
    carry out, to carry into effect, to fulfill, to put into action, to consummate,
    to effect, to actualize, to implement; to produce, to bring on, to yield; to
    determine, to ascertain, to find out, to pinpoint, to identify; to prove something to be true, to verify, to establish, to substantiate; to confirm, to
    assert, to aver, to avouch, to affirm (something); to be exact, painstaking,
    meticulous, careful’, ḥaḳḳ ‘truth, correctness, rightness’, ḥaḳḳānī ‘correct,
    right, proper, sound, valid, legitimate, legal’; Hebrew ḥāḳaḳ [qq^j*] ‘to
    decree, to ordain laws; to cut into, to engrave, to inscribe’; Aramaic ḥəḳaḳ
    ‘to inscribe; to decree’; Syriac ḥuḳḳā ‘rule’; Phoenician ḥḳḳ ‘to engrave; to
    prescribe, to order’; Nabatean ḥḳḳ ‘to engrave; to prescribe, to order’;
    Sabaean ḥḳḳ ‘contract’; Ḥarsūsi ḥeḳ ‘right, truth’; Śḥeri / Jibbāli ḥaḳ
    ‘right’; Mehri ḥaḳ ‘right’, ḥəḳ ‘to adjust, to level, to file smooth’; Soqoṭri
    ḥaḳ ‘judgment’; Geez / Ethiopic ḥaḳaḳa [ሐቀቀ] ‘to level off, to fasten, to
    fix, to make exact by increasing what is little or by diminishing what is
    much’; Tigre ḥaḳḳ ‘right’; Tigrinya ḥaḳḳi ‘truth’. Murtonen 1989:194;
    Klein 1987:230; Leslau 1987:240. Egyptian ḥq, ḥq& ‘to rule, to govern, to
    guide, to direct, to reign’, ḥq& ‘ruler, chieftain’ (f. ḥq&t), ḥq&-ḥwt ‘village
    headman’. Hannig 1995:563—564; Faulkner 1962:178; Erman—Grapow
    1921:117 and 1926—1963.3:170—173; Gardiner 1957:583.
    B. Proto-Indo-European *¸ek’- [*¸ak’-] ‘to direct, to guide, to command’
    (> ‘to drive’): Greek ἄγω ‘to lead, to conduct, to guide, to direct, to
    command, to rule, to instruct’, ἀγός ‘leader, chief’; Sanskrit ájati ‘to drive,
    to propel, to throw, to cast’, ajá-ḥ ‘driver, mover, instigator, leader’;
    Avestan azaiti ‘to drive’; Latin agō ‘to drive’; Old Irish agid ‘to drive, to
    lead’ (cf. Lewis—Pedersen 1937:334—337, §491; Thurneysen 1946:461);
    Old Welsh agit ‘to go’; Old Icelandic aka ‘to drive (a vehicle or an animal
    drawing a vehicle); to carry or convey (in a vehicle), to cart’; Armenian
    acem ‘to bring, to lead’; Tocharian A āk- ‘to lead, to drive, to guide’. Rix
    1998a:227—228 *høeĝ- ‘to drive’; Pokorny 1959:4—6 *aĝ- ‘to drive’; Walde 1927—1932.I:35—37 *aĝ-; Mann 1984—1987:4 *aĝō ‘to drive, to
    lead, to go, to do, to act’, 4 *aĝos ‘drive, lead; driver, leader’; Watkins
    1985:1 *ag- and 2000:1 *ag- ‘to drive, to draw, to move’ (oldest form
    *™aĝ-); Mallory—Adams 1997:170 *haeĝ- ‘to drive’; Mayrhofer 1956—
    1980.I:23; Boisacq 1950:11 *ág̑ ō; Frisk 1970—1973.I:18; Chantraine
    1968—1980.I:17—18 *šeg-; Hofmann 1966:3 *ag̑ ō; Ernout—Meillet
    1979:15—18 *agʹ-; Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.I:23—24 *ag̑ -; De
    Vaan 2008:30—31; De Vries 1977:3 *aĝ-; Orël 2003:11 Proto-Germanic
    *akanan, 11 *akaz; Kroonen 2013:18 Proto-Germanic *akan- ‘to drive’;
    Adams 1999:36—37 *haeĝ-; Van Windekens 1976—1982.I:158.
    Buck 1949:10.64 lead (vb.). Bomhard—Kerns 1994:540, no. 397.

    Connect this with Sumerian ak 'to do; to make; to act, perform; to proceed, proceeding (math.)', akuš 'toil, labor' . To which we proposed PIE *ag'- 'to drive, draw out or forth, move', Latin agere 'to lead, drive, do, act, labor, perform', actus 'act, performance', actio 'action'.

  57. 43. Bomhards Book :
    {715. Proto-Nostratic root *ħar- (~ *ħər-):
    (vb.) *ħar- ‘to scratch, to scrape’ (> ‘to plow’ in the daughter languages);
    (n.) *ħar-a ‘scraping, scratching’}
    A. Proto-Afrasian *ħar- ‘to scratch, to scrape’ (> ‘to plow’): Proto-Semitic
    *ħar-at¨- ‘to plow’ > Hebrew ḥāraš [vr^j*] ‘to cut in, to engrave, to plow’;
    Aramaic ḥəraθ ‘to plow’; Phoenician ḥrš ‘to plow’; Ugaritic ḥrt ‘to plow’;
    Akkadian erēšu ‘to plow, to till’; Arabic ḥarata ‘to plow, to till’; Sabaean
    ḥrt ‘plowed lands’; Śḥeri / Jibbāli ḥárɔ́t ‘to grow plants with fertilizer’;
    Geez / Ethiopic ḥarasa [ሐረሰ] ‘to plow, to cultivate land’, māḥras
    [ማሕረስ] ‘a plow, a plowshare’; Tigrinya ḥaräsä ‘to plow’, maḥräša ‘a
    plow’; Tigre ḥarsa ‘to plow’, maḥräša ‘a plow’; Harari ḥaräsa ‘to plow’;
    Amharic arräsä ‘to plow, to till, to cultivate’, maräša ‘a plow’; Gafat
    arräsä ‘to plow’; Gurage aräsä ‘to plow, to cultivate’, maräša ‘a plow’;
    Argobba ḥarräsa ‘to plow’. Murtonen 1989:198—199; Klein 1987:234;
    Leslau 1963:87, 1979:91, and 1987:243; Zammit 2002:136—137. Proto-
    East Cushitic *ħa(a)r- ‘to scratch, to scrape’ > Afar ħaar-is- ‘to clean out
    the contents of viscera’; Hadiyya haar- ‘to scratch’; Burji har"- ‘to plow,
    to cultivate’; Konso har- ‘to scoop soil from a hole’; Gidole haar-awwa
    ‘razor, blade for shaving’. Sasse 1982:92; Hudson 1989:196 and 280.
    Proto-Southern Cushitic *ħer- ‘to shave’ > Asa hera ‘razor’; Ma’a -ha ‘to
    shave’, -haré ‘to sharpen’, iharíme ‘whetstone’. Ehret 1980:301. [Ehret
    1995:375, no. 757, *ḥer- ‘to scrape off’.] Takács 2011:173 *ḥ-r (perhaps
    *ḥar-) ‘to scratch, to scrape’.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil araka ‘a plow with bullocks’; Malto are ‘a plow’.
    Burrow—Emeneau 1984:19, no. 198.

    C. Proto-Indo-European *¸er(H)- [*¸ar(H)-] ‘to plow’: Hittite (3rd sg.
    pres.) ḫar-aš-zi ‘to plow’; Greek ἀρόω ‘to plow’; Latin arō ‘to plow’; Old
    Irish airim ‘to plow’; Gothic arjan ‘to plow’; Old Icelandic erja ‘to plow’;
    Old English erian ‘to plow’, ierþ ‘plowing’; Old High German erran ‘to
    plow’; Lithuanian ariù, árti ‘to plow, to till’; Old Church Slavic ralu ‘a
    plow’, orjǫ, orati ‘to plow’; Tocharian A āre ‘a plow’. Rix 1998a:243
    *høerhø- ‘to plow or break up (land)’; Pokorny 1959:62—63 *ar(ə)- ‘to plow’; Walde 1927—1932.I:78—79 *arā-; Mann 1984—1987:35 *arō,
    -i̯ō (*arā-) ‘to plow’; Watkins 1985:3 *arə- and 2000:5 *arə- ‘to plow’
    (oldest form *šer›-, colored to *šar›-); Mallory—Adams 1997:434
    *haérhùi̯e/o- ‘to plow’; Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.II:687—688 *Har- and
    1995.I:593—594 *Har- ‘to work land, to plow’; Sturtevant 1942:40—41,
    §37f; Puhvel 1984— .3:184—185 (Puhvel considers Hittite ḫar(a)š- to be
    a loan from Akkadian or West Semitic); Tischler 1977— .1:182—183;
    Kloekhorst 2008b:312—314; Frisk 1970—1973.I:147—148; Chantraine
    1968—1980.I:112—113; Boisacq 1950:80; Hofmann 1966:24; De Vaan
    2008:55 *høerhù-i̯e/o- ‘to plough’; Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.I:69;
    Ernout—Meillet 1979:48 *arə-; Orël 2003:23 Proto-Germanic *arjanan;
    Kroonen 2013:28 Proto-Germanic *arjan- ‘to plow’; Feist 1939:56—57
    *arə-; Lehmann 1986:42 *ar(ə)-; De Vries 1977:104; Adams 1999:49
    *høerhù-; Van Windekens 1976—1982.I:167; Fraenkel 1962—1965.I:17;
    Smoczyński 2007.1:23—24; Derksen 2008:372—373 *høerhù- and 373—
    Sumerian har(-har) ‘to scratch, to scrape’.

    Epsd : hur [SCRATCH] (44x: Old Akkadian, Ur III, Old Babylonian) wr. hur "to scratch, draw"

    1. I wanted to connect with of course Sumerian alal 'cultivation; field; district, land'. Which was connected with PIE *ar- 'to plow', Greek aroura 'tilled or arable land'. The use of l instead of r can be due to a distinction from arar 'miller', with a curious inversion compared to the IE forms that in that case have mostly al-. Cf. ulul 'cultivation' and ul = Akk. qerbetu 'meadowland'.

      So I think perhaps Sumerian already has the cognate with hur/har and also the one with 'l' .

      Now I think perhaps Sanskrit hala a plough L. ; a `" scraper "'

      Can be connected?. In that case the original root was *hal .

    2. However , for hala I now remember this etymo of Starling :
      Proto-IE: *g'hel-
      Meaning: to plough
      Old Indian: hala- m., n. `plough'
      Armenian: ʒlem `furche, pflüge'
      Russ. meaning: пахать
      References: WP I 629

      Well perhaps original root was *ghal :) .

    3. Armenian also has ararur '' plow''. with Old Armenian harawunk-

      So I think *ghal is suggestive.

    4. This is very interesting Pokorny already lists g̑hel- 'to cut?' -

      And as you will see there Sanskrit hala and Armenian jlem also listed .

      So there was a popular change from *ghal-> * har/*hal -> *ar/*al . And some languages have preserved the changes of different layers with intermediate forms as for example in Armenian as well .

    5. Interesting comparisons ;) there is a word in Hesychius (of the chypriote dialect) γάλας galas, meaning "earth"; maybe it is connected with *ghal.*g%3Aentry+group%3D3%3Aentry%3Dga%2Flas

    6. The connection ghal/har/ar is intriguing, although of course it risks to be too free.
      Now, in Skt. the verb 'to plow' is kṛṣ-, meaning also 'to draw'. I have already been tempted to see a connection with Semitic ḥrš, although we should find other correspondences of Semitic ḥ- Skt. k-, and the possible IE root is *kwals-, giving also Greek telson 'land where the plough turned' and Hittite guls- 'to incise'. Possibly it is an extension of *kwal- 'to move (around)', giving also Lat. colere 'to till, cultivate'.

      On the other hand, the Hittite verb 'to plow' is har(a)s-, very close to the Semitic forms. See here a discussion:

      I have searched Starostin, and he does not give the PAA root in connection with IE ar-, but Kartvelian ɣar- 'gutter, furrow':

      So, if we follow this connection ghar/ghal/har/ar/al could belong to the same group,
      although we need some other parallels where AA ḥ- and Kartvelian ɣ- (fricative gh) is lost in IE.

    7. About ɣar Bomhard speaks this :

      557. Proto-Nostratic root *ɢar- (~ *ɢər-):
      (vb.) *ɢar- ‘to dig, to dig up, to dig out’;
      (n.) *ɢar-a ‘that which is used to dig: spade; that which is dug (out): furrow,
      ditch, gutter, canal’
      A. Afrasian: Semitic: Geez / Ethiopic garha [ገርሀ] ‘to plow’, garāht [ገራህት],
      garh [ገርህ] ‘field, arable land, farm, estate’; Tigre gärhat ‘field’; Tigrinya
      gərat ‘field’. Leslau 1987:202; D. Cohen 1970— :184.
      B. Dravidian: Tamil karuvi ‘instrument, tool’; Malayalam kari, karivi, karuvi,
      karu ‘tool, plow, weapon’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:119, no. 1290. Tamil
      kāru ‘plowshare’; Gondi nāngel kareng ‘plow’s point’, kara ‘plow’; Kuwi
      karu ‘plowshare’, kārru ‘plow’; Kannaḍa kāru ‘plowshare’; Telugu karru,
      kāru ‘plowshare’. Krishnamurti 2003:9 *kāt- ‘plowshare’; Burrow—
      Emeneau 1984:139, no. 1505. Gondi kār- (also kāṛ-, kāt-, kāc-) ‘to dig’;
      Konḍa kār- ‘to dig, to make a pit, to dig out (weeds, etc.)’; Pengo kār- ‘to
      dig’; Manḍa kār- ‘to dig’; Kui kārpa (kārt-) ‘(vb.) to dig up; (n.) the act of
      digging up’; Kuwi kār-, kārhali, karh’nai ‘to dig’, kārh’nai ‘to sculpt, to
      spade’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:137, no. 1467. Konḍa karna ‘canal’;
      Kuwi karna ‘irrigation channel’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:130, no. 1398.
      C. Proto-Kartvelian *ɢare- ‘gutter, furrow’: Georgian ¦ar- ‘gutter, furrow’;
      Mingrelian ¦ore- ‘gutter of mill; wooden dam’. Klimov 1998:221 *ɣare-
      ‘gutter, furrow’; Fähnrich 2007:478 *¦ar-; Fähnrich—Sardshweladse
      1995:385 *¦ar-. Fähnrich—Sardshweladse also include Svan ¦är ‘ravine,
      valley; wooden open duct for mountain spring-water’, but Klimov rejects
      this comparison.
      D. Yukaghir (Southern / Kolyma) qartədʹa:- ‘to dig (intr.)’, qartə- ‘to shovel
      up, to sweep off’. Nikolaeva 2006:380.
      Buck 1949:8.21 plow; 8.212 furrow; 8.22 dig.

    8. So, Bomhard connects Kartv. ɣar- with Semitic gar-. Dravidian kar- seems related, and the root apparently is more spread in Dravidian than araka 'plow'.
      So, maybe also IE *g'hal- is rather from this root, while *ar- is from har-. But we need some parallels, evidently Bomhard and Starostin have different ideas.

  58. 44 . Bomhards book :

    {104. Proto-Nostratic root *pºar- (~ *pºǝr-):
    (vb.) *pºar- ‘to go or pass; to go or pass over or across; to go forth or out’;
    (n.) *pºar-a ‘going, passage, journey, crossing’}
    A. Proto-Afrasian *par- ‘to go out’: Egyptian prÕ ‘to go, to come out, to go
    forth; to go up, to ascend’, prw (prÕw) ‘motion, procession, outcome,
    result’, prt ‘(ritual) procession’; Coptic pire [peire] ‘to come forth’.
    Hannig 1995:283—284 and 285; Faulkner 1962:90—91; Gardiner
    1957:565; Erman—Grapow 1921:54 and 1926—1963.1:518, 1:525, 1:526;
    Černý 1976:127; Vycichl 1983:162. Cushitic: Beja / Beḍawye farā"- ‘to
    go out’. Reinisch 1895:82. Saho-Afar *far- ‘to go out’ > Saho far- ‘to go
    out’. Orël—Stolbova 1995:419, no. 1955, *par-/*pir- ‘to go out’. Orël—
    Stolbova also include Hadiyya fir- ‘to go out, to exit’ (< Highland East
    Cushitic *fir- ‘to go out’). However, Hudson (1989:71 and 409) derives
    Hadiyya fir- from Proto-Highland East Cushitic *ful- ‘to go out, to exit’.
    B. Elamo-Dravidian: Middle Elamite pa-ri- ‘to come, to reach; to go, to start,
    to set out’.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *pºer-/*pºor-/*pºr̥ - ‘to go or pass; to go or pass over
    or across; to go forth or out’: Sanskrit píparti ‘to bring over or to, to bring
    out of, to deliver from, to rescue, to save, to protect, to escort, to further, to
    promote; to surpass, to excel’, (causative) pāráyati ‘to bring over or out’,
    pārá-ḥ ‘bringing across’; Avestan (causative) -pārayeite ‘to convey
    across’; Greek περάω ‘to pass across or through, to pass over, to pass, to
    cross’, πορίζω ‘to carry, to bring about, to provide, to furnish, to supply, to
    procure, to cause’, πόρος ‘a means of crossing a river, ford, ferry’; Latin
    portō ‘to bear or carry along, to convey’, portus ‘harbor, haven, port’;
    Gothic *faran ‘to wander, to travel’, *farjan ‘to travel’, *at-farjan ‘to put
    into port, to land’, *us-farþō ‘shipwreck’; Old Icelandic ferja ‘to ferry over
    a river or strait’, far ‘a means of passage, ship’, fara ‘to move, to pass
    along, to go’, farmr ‘freight, cargo, load’, foera ‘to bring, to convey’, för
    ‘journey’; Old English faran ‘to go, to march, to travel’, fKr ‘going,
    passage, journey’, ferian ‘to carry, to convey, to lead’, fōr ‘movement,
    motion, course’, ford ‘ford’; Old Frisian fara ‘to travel’; Old Saxon fara
    ‘to travel’, fōrian ‘to lead, to convey’, ferian ‘to lead, to ferry across’;
    Dutch varen ‘to travel’; Old High German faran ‘to travel’ (New High
    German fahren), ferien, ferren ‘to lead, to ferry across’, fuoren ‘to lead, to
    convey’ (New High German führen), fuora ‘journey, way’ (New High
    German Fuhre), furt ‘ford’ (New High German Furt). Rix 1998a:425
    *per- ‘to pass over or across, to traverse’; Pokorny 1959:816—817 *per-,
    *perǝ-; Walde 1927—1932.II:39—40 *per-; Mann 1984—1987:924
    *peri̯ō, 926 *perō (‘to pass through’), 977 *porei̯ō ‘to convey’, 978
    *pormos ‘going, gait, progress, ferry, freight’, 978 *poros ‘passage,
    crossing, track, space, period’, 979 *port- (*portos, -ā, -us, -is) ‘way,
    passage, gate’, 1003—1004 *pr̥ t- (*pr̥ tos, -ā, -is, -us) ‘passage, crossing,
    way, fort, shallow’; Watkins 1985:50 *per- and 2000:66 *per- ‘to lead, to
    cross over’;

  59. Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.II:883 *p[º]orH- and 1995.I:779
    *pºorH- ‘passageway’; Mallory—Adams 1997:228—229 *per- ‘to pass
    through’; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.II:258 and II:284; Frisk 1970—1973.II:
    491—492; Boisacq 1950:757—758 *per-; Chantraine 1968—1980. II:929;
    Hofmann 1966:257—258 *per-; De Vaan 2008:482—483; Orël 2003:93
    Proto-Germanic *faran, 93 *faranan, 93 *farđiz, 93 *farjanan. 93 *farjōn,
    94 *farō; Kroonen 2013:128 Proto-Germanic *faran- ‘to go’, 128 fardi-
    ‘journey’, 129 *farjōn- ‘ferry’, 129 *farma- ‘moving’ (?), and 160 *furdu-
    ‘ford’; Feist 1939:142—143 *per-; Lehmann 1986:108—109 *per-; De
    Vries 1977:112, 118, 150, and 151; Onions 1966:345, 352, and 369; Klein
    1971:273 *per-, 278, and 290; Boutkan—Siebinga 2005:101; Kluge—
    Mitzka 1967:180 *per-, *por-, 223, and 225—226 *pr̥ tú-; Kluge—
    Seebold 1989:199 *per-, 236, and 237—238 *pr̥ tu-.
    Sumerian pàr ‘to go or pass by, to go past’.
    Buck 1949:10.47 go; 10.62 bring; 10.63 send; 10.64 lead. Bomhard—Kerns
    1994:260, no. 69; Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 1768, *PóRó ‘to cross, to pass

    The suggested 'Elamo-Dravidian' is good . Though I suspect if the clade ever existed . Compare with Sumerian bar 'outside, (other) side; behind; outer; ousider, strange; because of', to which we connected PIE *par- 'to go over; over', Hittite parā 'forth, towards outside', Greek para 'beside; beyond', perā 'beyond', Skt. para 'far, beyond, on the other side of; foreign; another, enemy, foreigner', Latin per 'through, for, by means of'.

  60. 45 . Bomhards book . It also has a good Dravidian parallel .
    {869. Proto-Nostratic root *mar- (~ *mər-):
    (vb.) *mar- ‘to smear, to anoint, to rub (with grease, oil, fat, ointment)’;
    (n.) *mar-a ‘grease, oil, fat, ointment, unguent’}
    A. Proto-Afrasian *mar- ‘to smear, to anoint, to rub (with grease, fat,
    ointment)’: Proto-Semitic *mar-ax- ‘to oil, to anoint, to rub’ > Hebrew
    māraḥ [jr^m*] ‘to rub, to smear’, meraḥ [jr^m#] ‘ointment, plaster, paste,
    daub’; Aramaic məraḥ ‘to rub’; Akkadian marāḫu ‘to rub in’; Arabic
    maraḫa ‘to oil, to anoint, to rub’; Śḥeri / Jibbāli mírəx ‘to smear’.
    Murtonen 1989:265; Klein 1987:384. Proto-Semitic *mar-ak’- ‘to rub
    clean, to scour, to polish’ > Hebrew māraḳ [qr^m*] ‘to scour, to polish, to
    cleanse’, mārāḳ [qr*m*] ‘a scraping, rubbing’; Aramaic məraḳ ‘to scour, to polish’; Śḥeri / Jibbāli ẽrḳaḥ (base mrḳḥ) ‘to clean up, to tidy, to wipe up’;
    Ḥarsūsi amárḳeḥ ‘to tidy up’; Mehri amárḳəḥ ‘to clear, to wipe, to tidy up’.
    Klein 1987:386—387; Murtonen 1989:266. Proto-Semitic *mar-at’- ‘to
    rub, to scour’ > Hebrew māraṭ [fr^m*] ‘to make smooth, to scour, to polish’;
    Akkadian marāṭu ‘to rub, to scratch’. Murtonen 1989:265; Klein 1987:384.
    Arabic mara«a ‘to rub over, to anoint’. Egyptian mrḥ ‘to anoint, to rub
    with fat or oil’, mrḥt ‘oil, grease’. Hannig 1995:349; Faulkner 1962:112;
    Erman—Grapow 1921:68 and 1926—1963.2:111; Gardiner 1957:569.
    Berber: Tuareg əmri ‘to be rubbed with something hard; to rub with
    something hard’, səmri ‘to make rub’; Ghadames əmrəy ‘to be painful, to
    suffer’; Tamazight mrəy ‘’to rub, to be rubbed, to grate’, amray ‘rubbing,
    friction, grating’; Kabyle əmri ‘to rub, to scrape (vegetables)’. Proto-
    Chadic *mar ‘oil’ > Hausa mâi ‘oil, fat, grease’; Zaar mīr ‘oil’; Tera mor
    ‘oil’; Mofu mal ‘oil’. Newman 1977:30. [Orël—Stolbova 1995:386, no.
    1784, *moriʔ-/*moriḥ- ‘fat, oil’.]
    B. Elamo-Dravidian: Middle Elamite mi-ir-ri- ‘to rub or smear onself with fat
    or oil’. Dravidian: Parji mer- ‘to rub oneself’, merpip- (merpit-), mercip-,
    (mercit-) ‘to rub another with the hand’; Gadba mar- ‘to rub (oil, etc.) on
    oneself’, marup- (marut-) ‘to rub (oil, etc.) on another’; Gondi marehtānā
    ‘to rub’, marahtānā, marehtānā ‘to smear’, marehtàlle ‘to apply’.
    Burrow—Emeneau 1984:416, no. 4709.

  61. C. Proto-Indo-European *(s)mer-/*(s)mor-/*(s)mr̥ - ‘to smear, to anoint, to rub
    (with grease, fat, ointment)’: Gothic smairþr ‘richness, fatness’; Old
    Icelandic smyrja, smyrva ‘to anoint, to rub with ointment’, smjör ‘butter,
    fat’, smyrsl ‘ointment, unguent’; Swedish smörja ‘to rub with ointment, to
    anoint, to smear’, smör ‘butter, fat’; Old English smierwan, smierian ‘to
    anoint’, smeoru ‘grease, fat, suet, tallow’; Old Frisian smere ‘tallow’;
    Middle Low German smeren ‘to smear’; Dutch smeer ‘fat, grease, suet’,
    smeren ‘to smear’; Old High German smirwen ‘to smear’ (New High
    German schmieren), smero ‘fat, grease, suet’ (New High German Schmer);
    Old Irish smiur ‘marrow’; Welsh mer ‘marrow’; Tocharian B ṣmare ‘oily,
    smooth’. Perhaps also Greek μύρον ‘sweet juice extracted from plants,
    sweet-oil, unguent, balsam’, σμύρνα (Ionic σμύρνη, Aeolian μύρρα)
    ‘myrrh (the resinous gum of an Arabian tree, used for embalming the dead;
    also used for anointing and as a salve)’. Pokorny 1959:970—971 *smeru-
    ‘grease, fat’; Walde 1927—1932.II:690—691 *smeru-; Mann 1984—
    1987:1223 *smeru̯os, *smerus, *smeru̯ā ‘grease, drip, marrow’; Watkins
    1985:52 *(s)mer- and 2000:80—81 *(s)mer- ‘grease, fat’; Szemerényi
    1964b:50—53; Mallory—Adams 1997:194 *sméru- ‘oil, grease’; Boisacq
    1950:652 Greek μύρρᾱ < Semitic and 886 *smer-; Hofmann 1966:208—
    209 Greek μύρρᾱ < Semitic and 323; Chantraine 1968—1980.II:723—724,
    II:724 Greek μύρρα < Semitic, and II:1029; Frisk 1970—1973.II:273,
    II:274 Greek μύρρα < Semitic, and II:751—752; Kroonen 2013:458 Proto-
    Germanic *smerwa- ‘butter, grease’; Orël 2003:353—354 Proto-Germanic
    *smerwan ~ *smerwōn, 354 *smerwislan, 354 *smerwjanan; Feist 1939:438 *smer-; Lehmann 1986:315 *smer(u)- ‘fat, grease’; De Vries
    1977:520 and 521; Onions 1966:838 Common Germanic *smerwjan; Klein
    1971:692 *smeru- ‘grease’; Kluge—Mitzka 1967:663 *smeru- and 665;
    Kluge—Seebold 1989:643 and 643—644; Vercoullie 1898:265; Adams
    1999:668 *smer(w)os; Van Windekens 1976—1982.I:456 *smero-s.
    Sumerian mar ‘to daub, to anoint’.
    Buck 1949:6.94 ointment. Illič-Svityč 1971—1984.II:61—62, no. 296, (?)
    *meŕA ‘fat; to smear with grease or fat’; Brunner 1969:19, no. 3 and 4;
    Bomhard—Kerns 1994:660, no. 538; Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 1469a,
    *maRiʔó (or *maŕiʔó) ‘animal fat’ and, no. 1485, *meŕûqó ‘to smear’.

  62. 46 . Bomhards book .
    {283. Proto-Nostratic root *s¨ol-:
    (vb.) *s¨ol- ‘to be safe, well, sound’;
    (n.) *s¨ol-a ‘safety; health, welfare’; (adj.) ‘safe, well, sound’}
    A. Proto-Afrasian *s¨[o]l- ‘to be safe, well, sound’: Proto-Semitic *s¨al-am-
    ‘to be safe, well, sound’ > Hebrew šālēm [<l@v*] ‘to be complete, sound’,
    šālōm [<olv*] ‘peace’; Syriac šəlēm ‘to be complete, to be safe’;
    Phoenician šlm ‘to be complete’; Ugaritic šlm ‘(vb.) to be complete; (n.)
    peace’; Arabic salima ‘to be safe and sound, unharmed, unimpaired, intact,
    safe, secure’, salām ‘soundness, unimpairedness, intactness, well-being;
    peace, peacefulness; safety, security’, salim ‘peace’, salīm ‘safe, secure;
    free (from); unimpaired, undamaged, unhurt, sound, intact, complete,
    perfect, whole, integral, faultless, flawless; well; safe and sound; healthy;
    sane’, sālim ‘safe, secure; free (from); unimpaired, unblemished, faultless,
    flawless, undamaged, unhurt, safe and sound, safe; sound, healthy; whole,
    perfect, complete, integral’; Akkadian šalāmu ‘to be well’, šulmu ‘health,
    welfare’; Sabaean slm ‘peace, soundness, health’; Ḥarsūsi sēlem ‘to be
    safe’, selōm, selām ‘peace’, selōmet ‘peace, safety’; Śḥeri / JibbXli sélm ‘to
    be safe’, sélúm ‘peace, safety’; Mehri sīlǝm ‘to be safe, saved’, sǝlōm
    ‘peace’, sēlom, sōlǝm ‘safe’; Geez / Ethiopic salām [ሰላም] ‘peace,
    salutation, safety’; Tigrinya sälam ‘peace’; Tigre sälma ‘to greet’;
    Amharic sälam ‘peace, tranquility’, sälläma ‘to pacify’. Arabic loan in
    Gurage (Soddo) sälam ‘peace’. Murtonen 1989:425—426; Klein
    1987:662—663; Leslau 1979:643 and 1987:499—500; Zammit 2002:227.Egyptian snb (< *šnb /šlm/) ‘to be sound, healthy’. Hannig 1995:717—
    718; Erman—Grapow 1921:164 and 1926—1963.4:158—159; Faulkner

  63. B. Proto-Dravidian *cōl- (‘whole, healthy, sound’ >) ‘excellent, beautiful,
    fine’: Pengo hōl- ‘to be beautiful, fine, good, excellent’; Manḍa hūlpa- ‘to
    be fine, beautiful’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:250, no. 2890.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *sol- ‘whole, sound, well, safe’: Sanskrit sárva-ḥ
    ‘all, whole, entire; altogether, wholly, completely’, sarvátāti ‘totality;
    completeness, perfect happiness or prosperity; soundness’; Pāḷi sabba-
    ‘all’; Avestan haurva- ‘whole, entire’; Old Persian haruva- ‘all’; Greek
    ὅλος ‘whole, entire, complete’; Armenian olǰ (< *solyo-) ‘whole, healthy’;
    Latin salvus ‘safe, unhurt, well, sound’, salus ‘health, soundness’;
    Tocharian A salu ‘completely, entirely’, B solme ‘completely, altogether’.
    Pokorny 1959:979—980 *solo-, *sol(e)u̯o- ‘well-kept, whole’; Walde
    1927—1932.II:510—511 *sōlo-, *sol(e)u̯o-; Mann 1984—1987:1220
    *sl̥̄u̯os ‘complete, total, full, whole’, 1243—1244 *solu̯os, -i̯os ‘whole, all,
    entire, sound, hale’; Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.II:812, fn. 1, *sol-(u̯-) and
    1995.I:711, fn. 1, *sol-(w-) ‘health’; Watkins 1985:62—63 *sol- (also
    *solǝ-) and 2000:81—82 *sol- (also *solǝ-) ‘whole’; Mallory—Adams
    1997:262 *sólu̯os ‘whole’; Boisacq 1950:699 *sol-u̯o-s; Hofmann
    1966:230—231 *sol-u̯os; Frisk 1970—1973.II:381 *sólu̯o-s; Chantraine
    1968—1980.II:794—795 *sol-wos; Ernout—Meillet 1979:591—592;
    Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.II:471 and II:472—473 *səl-u̯o-, *solo-s;
    De Vaan 2008:537 *slH-u- ‘whole’; Van Windekens 1976—1982.I:412
    *sol-; Adams 1999:705 *solwo-; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.III:446—447.
    Buck 1949:4.83 well; health; 11.26 safe; 16.81 beautiful (also pretty). Brunner
    1969:105, no. 574; Bomhard—Kerns 1994:338—339, no. 162; Dolgopolsky to
    appear, no. 2046, *s̄alû ‘intact’ (→ ‘entire’), ‘in good condition, healthy’.

    Connect with Sumerian 'totality' to which connected PIE *sala-/sal-va- 'whole', Skt. sarva 'all, every', Greek holos 'whole', Latin salvus 'safe, sound', salus 'health, safety', Avestan haurva, Old Persian haruva 'whole; sound', Middle Persian har 'every'.

  64. 47 . Bomhards book .
    {179. Proto-Nostratic root *dun¨- (~ *don¨-):
    (vb.) *dun¨- ‘to cut off, to cleave, to split’;
    (n.) *dun¨-a ‘part, share; piece cut off, bit, fragment’}
    A. Proto-Afrasian *d[u]n- ‘to cut, to cut off, to cleave’: Semitic: Tigre dänna
    ‘to cut off’. D. Cohen 1970— :283—284. Egyptian dn ‘to cut, to cut off,
    to cleave, to split, to wound’, dndn ‘to attack, to do violence’, dnÕ ‘to cut,
    to divide, to distribute’, dnd ‘to slaughter, to kill’, dnn ‘to cut, to split’,
    dnnw ‘share, part, division’. Faulkner 1962:313 and 314; Hannig 1995:981
    and 983; Erman—Grapow 1921:214, 215 and 1926—1963.5:463, 5:466,
    5:472; Gardiner 1957:602. Orël—Stolbova 1995:173, no. 762, *dVn- ‘to
    cut off’.
    B. Dravidian: Tamil tuṇi ‘to be sundered, cut, severed; to be removed; to be
    torn; to become clear; to resolve; to determine, to ascertain, to conclude; to commence; to cut, to sever, to chop off’; Malayalam tuṇi ‘piece’; Kannaḍa
    tuṇaka, tuṇaku, tuṇuku, tuḷaku ‘fragment, piece, bit’; Telugu tuniya ‘piece,
    bit, fragment’, tuniyu, tunũgu ‘to be cut or broken to pieces’, tun(u)mu ‘to
    cut’; Naikṛi tunke ‘half portion (of bread)’; Gondi tunkī ‘a piece’.
    Burrow—Emeneau 1984:289, no. 3305. Tamil tuṇṭam ‘piece, fragment,
    bit’, tuṇṭi ‘to cut, to sever, to tear up, to divide, to separate’, tuṇṭu ‘piece,
    bit, fragment, slice, section, division’; Malayalam tuṇṭam ‘piece, bit, slice’,
    tuṇṭikka ‘to cut to pieces, to cut off (as the throat)’; Kota tuṇḍ ‘piece’;
    Kannaḍa tuṇḍisu ‘to cut or break into pieces, to make piecemeal’, tuṇḍu
    ‘fragment, piece, bit’; Koḍagu tuṇḍ- (tuṇḍi-) ‘to break’; Tuḷu tuṇḍu ‘piece,
    slice’; Telugu tuṇḍa, tuṇḍamu ‘piece, fragment’, tuṇḍincu ‘to cut, to
    sever’. Burrow—Emeneau 1984:289, no. 3310.
    C. Proto-Indo-European *dºn̥- (secondary full-grade forms: *dºen-/*dºon-)
    ‘to cut, to cut off, to cleave’: Old Icelandic dengja ‘to hammer, to whet a
    scythe’, dyntr, dyttr ‘stroke, blow, dint’; Old English dynt ‘stroke, blow,
    bruise’, dengan ‘to beat, to strike’; Albanian (Gheg) dhend, dhên ‘to lop
    off, to cut down’. Pokorny 1959:249—250 *dhen- ‘to hit, to thrust’; Walde
    1927—1932.I:853—854 *dhen- ‘to hit, to thrust’; Mann 1984—1987:184
    *dhengu̯hō ‘to bang, to beat, to force, to thrust’ (variant *dhengh-); Orël
    2003:79 Proto-Germanic *đuntiz; De Vries 1977:75 and 90; Onions
    1966:269; Klein 1971:214.
    Sumerian dun ‘to dig (with a hoe)’.

    I think the IE root is connected with the one of Tooth .

  65. 48 . Bomhards book . I doubt the Chukchi-Kamchatkan , looks vague .

    {155. Proto-Nostratic root (?) *daw- (~ *dǝw-):
    (vb.) *daw- ‘to sound, to resound, to make a noise’;
    (n.) *daw-a ‘sound, noise’}
    A. Proto-Afrasian *dVw- ‘to sound, to resound, to make a noise’: Proto-
    Semitic *daw-al- ‘to ring a bell’ > Geez / Ethiopic dawwala [ደወለ] ‘to ring
    a bell’, dawal [ደወል] ‘bell’; Tigre däwwäla ‘to ring a bell’, däwäl ‘bell’;
    Tigrinya däwwälä ‘to ring a bell’; Harari däwäl ‘bell’; Gurage däwwälä ‘to
    ring a bell’, däwäl ‘church bell’; Amharic däwäl ‘bell’. Leslau 1979:224
    and 1987:145; D. Cohen 1970— :235—236. Proto-Semitic *daw-an- ‘to
    ring a bell’ > Tigre däwwäna ‘to ring a bell’; Gurage donä ‘bell attached to
    the neck of a small child or cow’. Leslau 1979:211. Proto-Semitic *daway-
    ‘to sound, to resound’ > Arabic dawā ‘to sound, to drone, to echo, to
    resound’, dawīy ‘sound, noise, drone, roar, echo, thunder’; Arabic (Datina)
    dawā ‘to make a dull noise’. D. Cohen 1970— :234. Egyptian dÕwt (?),
    dw-t (?) ‘shriek, cry’, dw&-wt ‘outcry, roar’, dwÕ, dwy ‘to call, to cry out’,
    dwy, dwÕ ‘to call (someone)’. Erman—Grapow 1921:212, 219 and 1926—
    1963.5:428, 5:550—551; Faulkner 1962:309 and 321; Gardiner 1957:602
    and 603; Hannig 1995:970, 972, and 1001. Berber: Tamazight dəwnən ‘to
    talk to oneself, to speak in a monologue’; Tuareg səddwənnət ‘to converse with someone, to have a quiet conversation’, ədəwənnə ‘conversation’;
    Kabyle dəwnnən, sdəwnnən ‘to talk to oneself, to be delirious’.
    B. Proto-Indo-European *dºwen-/*dºwon-/*dºun- ‘to sound, to resound, to
    make a noise’: Sanskrit dhvánati ‘to sound, to resound, to make a noise, to
    echo, to reverberate’, dhúni-ḥ ‘roaring, boisterous’; Old Icelandic duna ‘to
    boom, to roar’, dynja ‘to boom, to resound’, dynr ‘din, noise, clattering of
    hoofs’; Old English dyne ‘noise, loud sound’, dynian ‘to resound’; Old
    Saxon dunian ‘to make a loud noise’, done ‘loud noise’; Old High German
    tuni ‘loud noise’; Middle High German tünen ‘to roar, to rumble’;
    Lithuanian dundjti ‘to rumble, to roar, to thunder’. Rix 1998a:139 *dºu̯en-
    ‘to sound’; Pokorny 1959:277 *dhu̯en-, *dhun- ‘to sound, to drone’; Walde
    1927—1932.I:869 *dhu̯en-, *dhun-; Mann 1984—1987:221 *dhundhur-
    (*dhundhro-) ‘rumble, roar, hum, din’, 222 *dhū̆nō, -i̯ō ‘to rush, to roar, to
    resound’, 226 *dhu̯en-, *dhu̯on- ‘to resound’; Watkins 1985:15 *dhwenand
    2000:20 *dhwen- ‘to make a noise’; Mallory—Adams 1997:533—534
    *dhu̯en- ‘to sound’; Mayrhofer 1956—1980.II:106—107 and II:118; Orël
    2003:79 Proto-Germanic *đuniz, 79 *đunjanan; De Vries 1977:87 and 90;
    Onions 1966:269 *dhun-; Klein 1971:214; Fraenkel 1962—1965.I:110—
    C. Chukchi-Kamchatkan: Proto-Chukotian (reduplicated) *tawtawat- ‘to
    bark’ > Chukchi tawtawat- ‘to bark’, tawtaw ‘barking’; Koryak tavtawat-
    ‘to bark’, tavtaw ‘barking’ (for tawtaw ?); Alyutor totawat- (Palana
    tavtawat-) ‘to bark’, toto ‘barking’. Fortescue 2005:277. Note: Fortescue
    considers Kamchadal / Itelmen (Sedanka) tawto-kes ‘to bark’ to be a
    possible loan from Chukotian.
    Sumerian du12 ‘to play (an instrument), to sing’.
    Buck 1949:18.12 sing. Bomhard—Kerns 1994:265—266, no. 75.

  66. Let me try something from Sanskrit:

    Sum. banda, wr. ban3-da; banda5; banda4 "stanchion, support" Akk. takšīru

    and Skt. bandha = "fastening, tie, fixing, joining" etc. I suppose it's the same root with "bind".

    1. Very nice . In Bomhard its 25. Proto-Nostratic root *ban- (~ *bǝn-): . But its widely distributed :P .

    2. I searched a bit ... it seems that the act of "binding" and "repair" etc was similar in the minds of the people of the past.

      The Akkadian equivalent of Sum. banda takšīru is from the verb kašaru meaning 1) to restore , to have success 2) repair / restore (building ...) ,etc

      which looks almost identical to "kaṣāru" : to tie ; to gather ; to strengthen ; to organize D = G Dt. to gather together Š. to make organize Št. to gather N. to be gathered ; to be organized

    3. Unfortunately I cannot see the book, but I was also impressed by the similar takṣīru 'attachment', which has to do with the idea of binding and comes from the root of kaṣāru. And the symbol banda4 used to write banda can suggest a binding or rope.

      Because of the meaning, we can consider also bandu(du) 'seeding basket of a plow' and bandul 'reed mat', also possibly connected with the idea of binding (reeds).

    4. The book is "Puzzling Out the Past - Studies in Northwest Semitic Languages and Literatures - in honor of Bruce Zuckerman - edited by Marilyn J. Lundberg, Steven Fine, Wayne T. Pitard, page 89.
      In some other book (Birth in Babylonia and the Bible: Its Mediterranean Setting - by Marten Stol,with a chapter by F. A. M. Wiggermann), takṣīru is described as "knot" (page 49).

    5. About the word for basket, there is also Greek φάτνη phatne `Krippe' < *bhn̥dh-nā; unter einer Gdbed. `geflochtener Korb' wie kelt. benna `Wagenkorb' according to Pokorny.

    6. After some time I could see the page, thanks! Also the Chicago Akkadian dict. gives this definition of kaṣāru: "to tie, bind together, to join, construct buildings, etc., to collect, to compose a text, to give relief, to strengthen, (with batqu) to repair"
      However, takšīru and takṣīru are different words and roots. kašāru has also the meaning 'to replace', but not 'to bind'.
      The Greek phatne can be a good comparison for the root of binding.

  67. 49 . Not very confident but both Starostin and Bomhard have similar views on this .
    Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *waʕ-
    Meaning: goat
    Egyptian: wʕ.ty (AE) 'goat' Western Chadic: *waH- 'goat' Central Chadic: *waH- 'goat' Beḍauye (Beja): *wVyu 'ibex'
    Notes: Cf. met. *ʕaw- 'sheep, goat'. Cf. HSED, 1077: CCh. (Gis. and Bld.); SCush. *ʔaw- 'bull' and Eg. ʕw.t 'sheep and goats.
    Now Bomhard :
    759. Proto-Nostratic (n.) *ʕuw-a (~ *ʕow-a) ‘herd of small animals, sheep and
    A. Afrasian: Egyptian (collective) «wt ‘sheep and goats, animals, flocks, herds
    (of small cattle)’. Hannig 1995:132; Faulkner 1962:39; Gardiner 1957:557;
    Erman—Grapow 1921:23 and 1926—1963.1:170—171.
    B. Proto-Indo-European *°owi-s ‘sheep’: Sanskrit ávi-ḥ ‘sheep’; Greek ὄɩ̈ς,
    οἶς ‘sheep’; Latin ovis ‘sheep’; Armenian hov-iw ‘shepherd’; Old Irish oí
    ‘sheep’; Gothic awēþi ‘herd of sheep’; Old English ēow, ēaw, ēw ‘sheep’,
    ēowu, ēowe ‘ewe’, ēowd, ēowde ‘herd of sheep’; Old Frisian ei ‘ewe’; Old
    Saxon ewwi ‘ewe’; Dutch ooi ‘ewe’; Old High German ouwi, ou ‘ewe’,
    ewit, owiti ‘herd of sheep’; Lithuanian avìs ‘sheep’; Latvian avs ‘sheep’;
    Old Church Slavic ovьca (< *owi-kā) ‘sheep’; Hittite (nom. sg. or pl. ?)
    ḫa-a-u-e-eš ‘sheep’; Hieroglyphic Luwian hawis ‘sheep’; Luwian (nom.
    sg.) ḫa-a-ú-i-iš ‘sheep’; Lycian χava- ‘sheep’; Tocharian B eye ‘sheep’,
    ā(u)w ‘ewe’, aiyye ‘ovine, pertaining to sheep’. Pokorny 1959:784 *óu̯i-s
    ‘sheep’; Walde 1927—1932.I:167 *ou̯i-s; Mann 1984—1987:897 *ou̯is
    ‘sheep’; Watkins 1985:45 *owi- and 2000:61 *owi- ‘sheep’ (oldest form
    *šowi-); Gamkrelidze—Ivanov 1984.II:577—578 *Hou̯i- and 1995.I:493
    *Howi- ‘sheep’; Mallory—Adams 1997:510 *høóu̯is ‘sheep’; Mayrhofer
    1956—1980.I:59; Orël 2003:31 Proto-Germanic *awiđjan, 31 *awistran,
    31 *awiz; Kroonen 2013:45 Proto-Germanic *awi- ‘ewe’, *awidja- ‘flock
    of sheep’, *awist(r)a- ‘sheepfold’; Feist 1939:70 *ou̯is; Lehmann 1986:52
    *owis; Onions 1966:332; Klein 1971:263; Puhvel 1984— .3:279—280
    *Aø¦éwi- or *H÷ówi-; Kloekhorst 2008b:337—338; Boisacq 1950:692—
    693 *ou̯i-s; Chantraine 1968—1980.II:786; Hofmann 1966:228 *ou̯is;
    Frisk 1970—1973.II:367—368 *óu̯i-s; Ernout—Meillet 1979:471—472;
    Walde—Hofmann 1965—1972.II:229 *ou̯is; De Vaan 2008:437—438;
    Winter 1965a:102; Adams 1999:35 *høówis, 92, and 104; Fraenkel 1962—
    1965.I:28; Smoczyński 2007.1:38—39 *høóu̯i-s.
    C. Uralic: Proto-Finno-Ugrian *uče ‘sheep’ (< *uwi-č(e) [*-č(e) is a
    hypocoristic suffix]) > Finnish uuhi, uutu ‘sheep’; Estonian uhe ‘sheep’;
    Mordvin (Moksha) uča ‘sheep’; Cheremis / Mari užga (-ga is a suffix) ‘fur
    coat of sheepskin’; Votyak / Udmurt yž ‘sheep’; Zyrian / Komi yž ‘sheep’;
    Vogul / Mansi oš, os ‘sheep’; Ostyak / Xanty ač ‘sheep’. Collinder
    1955:121 and 1977:134; Rédei 1986—1988:541 *uče; Sammallahti
    1988:552 *uuči ‘sheep’.
    D. Proto-Altaic *uykV (-kV is a suffix) ‘mountain ram, mountain goat’: Proto-
    Tungus *uyKam ‘mountain ram; a kind of horned animal’ > Evenki uyam
    ‘mountain ram’; Lamut / Even ụyama ‘mountain ram’; Negidal oyamka ‘a
    kind of horned animal’; Manchu weyχen ‘a kind of horned animal’. Proto-
    Mongolian *ugalǯa ‘male mountain goat’ > Written Mongolian u¦alǯa
    ‘male wild mountain sheep’ (Haltod—Hangin—Kassatkin—Lessing
    1960:864 list u¦ulǯa); Khalkha ugalʒ ‘male mountain sheep’ (cf. Hangin
    1986:539 угалз); Ordos ug¦alǯi ‘male mountain goat’. Proto-Turkic *ograk ‘mountain goat’ > Karakhanide Turkic o¦raq ‘mountain goat’.
    Starostin—Dybo—Mudrak 2003:1486 *ujkV ‘a kind of horned animal’.
    Buck 1949:3.25 sheep. Dolgopolsky to appear, no. 749, *Γ[o]wó ‘wild sheep/
    goats’; Bomhard—Kerns 1994:521—522, no. 370.

    I have no idea how conclusive are the Proto-Altaic and Uralic cognates. But lets confidently compare with Sumerian (Ebla) uwi ‘sheep’ to which we connected PIE *Hawi- ‘sheep’, Luwian hawi- 'sheep', Arm. hoviw 'shepherd', Lat. ovis, Old High German ouwi 'sheep'.

  68. 50. From Bomhard and this one comes with good Uralic parallels .
    784. Proto-Nostratic root *wak’- (~ *wək’-):
    (vb.) *wak’- ‘to rouse, to stir up, to excite’;
    (n.) *wak’-a ‘energy, vigor, strength, power, might’
    A. (?) Afrasian: Proto-Semitic *wak’-at’¨- (~ *yak’-at’¨-) ‘to be awake, to
    awaken, to arouse, to stir up’ > Hebrew yāḳaṣ [Jq^y`] ‘to be awake’, yāḳēṣ
    [Jq@y`] ‘awake’; Ugaritic yḳġ ‘to be alert’; Arabic yaḳiẓa ‘to be awake, to
    wake up, to awaken, to arouse, to stir up, to provoke’; Sabaean myḳẓ(m)
    ‘sleeplessness, insomnia’; Mehri awōḳə^ ‘to awaken’; Śḥeri / Jibbāli ōḳu^
    ‘to wake’; Ḥarsūsi awḳáw^ ‘to wake, to awaken’. Murtonen 1989:220; D.
    Cohen 1970— :604—605 *w/yqv; Klein 1987:263.B. Proto-Indo-European *wek’-/*wok’- ‘to rouse, to stir up, to excite, to
    awaken’: Sanskrit vājáyati ‘to incite’, vā́ja-ḥ ‘strength, vigor, energy;
    contest, conflict, battle’, vájra-ḥ ‘(Indra’s) weapon, thunderbolt’; Avestan
    vazrō ‘cudgel’, vāzišta- ‘greatly endowed with strength’; Latin vegeō ‘to
    stir up, to quicken, to excite’, vigilō ‘to be awake, to keep awake, to
    watch’, vegetus ‘lively, vigorous, fresh’, vigil ‘wakeful, watchful, alert’;
    Gothic wakan ‘to wake, to be awake’, þairh-wakan ‘to stay awake, to keep
    watch’, us-wakjan ‘to wake up’, wahtwō ‘watch’, wōkains ‘watch’; Old
    Icelandic vaka ‘to be awake, to keep awake’, vakna ‘to awake, to wake up’,
    vakr ‘watchful, alert, wakeful’, vekja ‘to awaken, to arouse from sleep’,
    vökull ‘wakeful, vigilant’; Swedish vaka ‘to be awake’, väcka ‘to awaken’;
    Danish vakker ‘vigorous, fine, brave’; Old English wacan ‘to awaken, to
    arise’, wacian ‘to be awake or active, to keep awake, to keep watch’,
    wacor, wKccer ‘watchful, vigilant’, wacol ‘awake, watchful, vigilant’,
    wKcce ‘keeping awake, vigil; watch’, wKcen, wacon ‘keeping awake,
    watching (over), guarding’; Old Frisian wakia ‘to be awake’; Old Saxon
    wakōn ‘to be awake’, wahta ‘watch, guard’; Dutch waken ‘to be awake’,
    wakker ‘awake’; Old High German wahhēn, wahhōn ‘to be awake’ (New